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American Journal of Botany

Ricardo Kriebel, Bryan T Drew, Chloe P Drummond, Jesús G González-Gallegos, Ferhat Celep, Mohamed M Mahdjoub, Jeffrey P Rose, Chun-Lei Xiang, Guo-Xiong Hu, Jay B Walker, Emily M Lemmon, Alan R Lemmon, Kenneth J Sytsma
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A key question in evolutionary biology is why some clades are more successful by being widespread geographically, biome diverse, or species-rich. To extend understanding of how shifts in area, biomes, and pollinators impact diversification in plants, we examined the relationships of these shifts to diversification across the mega-genus Salvia. METHODS: A chronogram was developed from a supermatrix of anchored hybrid enrichment genomic data and targeted sequence data for over 500 of the nearly 1000 Salvia species...
April 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Harshita Dogra, K G Srikanta Dani
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A trade-off between fertility and offspring viability underpins plant reproductive response to sub-optimal environmental conditions. Senescence involves internal resource limitation, and it is a sub-optimal body condition. We tested if senescence affects age-specific fertility and seed viability (quality) in indeterminate annuals. METHODS: Fertility in individual pods on the monopodial indeterminate inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana and its big-seeded relative Brassica nigra was quantified...
April 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Sandra Hervías-Parejo, Ruben Heleno, Manuel Nogales, Jens M Olesen, Anna Traveset
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The characteristic scarcity of insects on remote oceanic islands has driven nonflower-specialized vertebrates to broaden their trophic niches and explore floral resources. From our previous studies in the Galápagos, we know that native insectivorous and frugivorous birds visit a wide range of entomophilous flowers and can also act as effective pollinators. Here, we tested whether opportunistic Galápagos birds show any preference for specific floral traits, and if so, this preference differs from that of insects...
April 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Amy McPherson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Nanci J Ross, M Henry H Stevens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Meredith A Zettlemoyer, Duane D McKenna, Jennifer A Lau
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Human activities threaten thousands of species with extinction. However, it remains difficult to predict extinction risk for many vulnerable species. Species traits, species characteristics such as rarity or habitat use, and phylogenetic patterns are associated with responses to anthropogenic environmental change and may help predict likelihood of extinction. METHODS: We used historical botanical data from Kalamazoo County, Michigan, USA, to examine whether species traits (growth form, life history, nitrogen-fixation, photosynthetic pathway), species characteristics (community association, species origin, range edge, habitat specialization, rarity), or phylogenetic relatedness explain local species loss at the county level...
April 8, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Anastasiia Onyshchenko, Elizabeth C Ruck, Teofil Nakov, Andrew J Alverson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Loss of photosynthesis is a common and often repeated trajectory in nearly all major groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes. One small subset of "apochloritic" diatoms in the genus Nitzschia have lost their ability to photosynthesize and require extracellular carbon for growth. Similar to other secondarily nonphotosynthetic taxa, apochloritic diatoms maintain colorless plastids with highly reduced plastid genomes. Although the narrow taxonomic breadth of apochloritic Nitzschia suggests a single loss of photosynthesis in their common ancestor, previous phylogenetic analyses suggested that photosynthesis was lost multiple times...
April 8, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Jan Salick, Zhendong Fang, Robbie Hart
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: With biodiversity and rates of climate change among the highest, the eastern Himalaya are critical for understanding the interaction of these two variables. However, there is a dearth of longitudinal data sets that address the effects of climate change on the exceptional alpine biodiversity of the Himalaya. METHODS: We established permanent alpine vegetation monitoring plots in three mountain chains of the Hengduan Mountains, the easternmost Himalaya, which have warmed 0...
April 1, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Ricky S Kong, Hugh A L Henry
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Freezing and drought both result in cellular dehydration, and similar physiological responses to these stressors may result in cross acclimation, whereby prior freezing exposure increases subsequent drought tolerance. We examined how spring freezing influences summer drought tolerance for a range of herbaceous old field species: 6 graminoids (Agrostis stolonifera, Arrhenatherum elatius, Bromus inermis, Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, Poa compressa) and 2 forbs (Plantago lanceolata, Securigera varia), with the goal of examining the generality of cross acclimation responses...
April 1, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Laura D Porturas, Thomas J Anneberg, Anne E Curé, Shengpei Wang, David M Althoff, Kari A Segraves
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Polyploidy, or whole genome duplication (WGD), is common in plants despite theory suggesting that polyploid establishment is challenging and polyploids should be evolutionarily transitory. There is renewed interest in understanding the mechanisms that could facilitate polyploid establishment and explain their pervasiveness in nature. In particular, premating isolation from their diploid progenitors is suggested to be a crucial factor. To evaluate how changes in assortative mating occur, we need to understand the phenotypic effects of WGD on reproductive traits...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Katharine J Zlonis, Julie R Etterson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Polyploids possess unique attributes that influence their environmental tolerance and geographic distribution. It is often unknown, however, whether cytotypes within mixed-ploidy populations are also uniquely adapted and differ in their responses to environmental change. Here, we examine whether diploids and hexaploids from a single mixed-ploidy population of Solidago altissima differ in plasticity and potential response to natural selection under conditions simulating climate change...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Kristen Peach, Susan J Mazer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Wild plant species that require the services of pollen-feeding insects for reliable pollination may evolve features that attract and reward their mutualistic partners. Heterantherous species have been proposed to exhibit a "division of labor" whereby "feeding anthers" (which produce pollen that may be consumed by an insect) are distinguished from "reproductive anthers" (which produce pollen more likely to contribute to reproduction)...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Ryan S Fuller, Mitchell E McGlaughlin
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Climate cycles of the Quaternary have impacted plants at a global scale, leaving behind a complex genetic legacy. Species of the northern Rocky Mountains of North America were exposed to more uniform glacial patterns than the central and southern ranges, where synergistic relationships between temperature and precipitation caused differences in the timing and extent of glacier onset. We examined the genetic impacts of climate oscillations on Calochortus gunnisonii (Liliaceae) in the central and southern Rocky Mountains...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Rupesh R Kariyat, Andrew G Stephenson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2019: American Journal of Botany
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Edward J Primka, William K Smith
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Deciduous tree species remove some nutrients from their leaves during fall leaf senescence through retranslocation. Retranslocation impacts the timeline of leaf fall, amount of active chlorophyll, and overall leaf nitrogen content as fall color change occurs. Our objective was to identify interspecific differences in the timing of abscission layer formation, leaf color change, and the level of chlorophyll degradation of young trees during fall senescence. METHODS: Leaf relative chlorophyll content for three tree species was measured during fall 2015 by a greenness meter...
March 18, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Diego F Morales-Briones, David C Tank
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Polyploidy has been long recognized as an important force in plant evolution. Previous studies had suggested widespread occurrence of polyploidy and the allopolyploid origin of several species in the diverse neotropical genus Lachemilla (Rosaceae). Nonetheless, this evidence has relied mostly on patterns of cytonuclear discordance, and direct evidence from nuclear allelic markers is still needed. METHODS: Here we used PCR target enrichment in combination with high throughput sequencing to obtain multiple copies of the nuclear ribosomal (nr) DNA cistron and 45 regions of the plastid genome (cpDNA) from 219 accessions representing 48 species of Lachemilla and to explore the allopolyploid origin of species in this group...
March 18, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Michael J Donoghue, Erika J Edwards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Giseli D Pedersoli, Flávia M Leme, Viviane G Leite, Simone P Teixeira
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: This study details the unusual synorganization of the staminate flower in wind-pollinated urticalean rosids to add the missing pieces that complete the puzzle of the explosive mechanism of pollen release in this group. METHODS: Flower buds and flowers were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy. KEY RESULTS: The pistillode, stamens, and sepals form a floral apparatus that explosively releases pollen to be carried by the wind...
March 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
La-Mei Wu, Si-Chong Chen, Bo Wang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Numerous studies have treated the mass of a whole seed as an integrated unit, although the components seed kernel and seed coat play different roles and are subject to different evolutionary selection pressures. In this study, we provided the first global-scale quantification of the relative biomass investments in seed coats and seed kernels. We tested the following hypotheses: there is a negative allometry between seed kernel mass and seed coat mass, and therefore, seed coat ratio (SCR) is negatively correlated with seed mass...
March 13, 2019: American Journal of Botany
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