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Advances in Marine Biology

Bing Chen, Zhiwen Joy Zhu, Baiyu Helen Zhang, Kenneth Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Arpana Rani Datta, Qiao Kang, Bing Chen, Xudong Ye
This chapter provides a review of the fate and transport modelling of emerging pollutants (EPs) and discusses the major research challenges. The overwhelming limitation of the past modelling studies has been the lack of data necessary for model validation, thus calling for large-scale field data sampling. The identification and understanding of fate and transport processes and their interactions of the target EPs and the corresponding selection of appropriate parameter values were also challenging. Such limitations and challenges were evidenced by the elaboration of the representative models in the field...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Gong Zhang, Chun Yang, Mariam Serhan, Graeme Koivu, Zeyu Yang, Bruce Hollebone, Patrick Lambert, Carl E Brown
A large amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their heterocyclic analogues (N, S, O) are released to the marine environment from natural oil seeps, oil spills, bilge discharges and input of land-based sources. Many of these compounds are toxic and have a deleterious effect on marine biota. Nitrogen-containing compounds in crude oils are typically present as cyclic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs) and are generally classified into the two categories of nonbasic (N-PANHs) and basic compounds (B-PANHs)...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Yunwen Tao, Bing Chen, Baiyu Helen Zhang, Zhiwen Joy Zhu, Qinhong Cai
This review discusses the occurrence, impact, analysis and treatment of metformin and guanylurea in coastal aquatic environments of Canada, USA and Europe. Metformin, a biguanide in chemical classification, is widely used as one of the most effective first-line oral drugs for type 2 diabetes. It is difficult to be metabolized by the human body and exists in both urine and faeces samples in these regions. Guanylurea is metformin's biotransformation product. Consequently, significant concentrations of metformin and guanylurea have been reported in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and coastal aquatic environments...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Xixi Li, Zhenhua Chu, Jiawen Yang, Minghao Li, Meijin Du, Xiaohui Zhao, Zhiwen Joy Zhu, Yu Li
Synthetic musks (SMs) are promising fragrance additives used in personal care products (PCPs). The widespread presence of SMs in environmental media remains a serious risk because of their harmful effects. Recently, the environmental hazards of SMs have been widely reported in various environmental samples including those from coastal and marine regions. This paper provides a systematic review of SMs, including their classification, synthetic routes, analysis and occurrence in environmental samples, fate and toxicity in the environment, as well as the associated risk assessment and pollution control...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Weiyun Lin, Xixi Li, Min Yang, Kenneth Lee, Bing Chen, Baiyu Helen Zhang
Emerging contaminants (ECs) may pose adverse effects on the marine ecosystem and human health. Based on the analysis of publications filed in recent years, this paper provides a comprehensive overview on three prominent groups of ECs, i.e., brominated flame retardants, microplastics, and biocides. It includes detailed discussions on: (1) the occurrence of ECs in seawater, sediment, and biota; (2) analytical detection and monitoring approaches for these target ECs; and (3) the biological impacts of the ECs on humans and other trophic levels...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Meijin Du, Wenwen Gu, Xixi Li, Fuqiang Fan, Yu Li
In this study, the hexachlorobenzene molecule was modified by three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models and a full factor experimental design to obtain new hexachlorobenzene molecules with low migration ability. The 3D-QSAR models (comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA)) were constructed by SYBLY-X 2.0 software, using experimental data of octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA ) for 12 chlorobenzenes (CBs) congeners as the dependent variable, and the structural parameters of CBs as independent variables, respectively...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Melissa C Cook, Adam May, Lucas Kohl, Geert Van Biesen, Christopher C Parrish, Penny L Morrill
Since 2012, the scallop fishery in Port au Port Bay, Newfoundland, Canada has experienced a drastic decline, while no decline was observed in adjacent St. George's Bay. Local fishermen have raised concerns about an abandoned oil exploration well in the Port au Port Bay. This study investigated the potential impact of petroleum hydrocarbons on sediments and blue mussels [Mytilus edulis] (a proxy organism for scallops) in the area. Sediments from both bays were characterized for their hydrocarbons and compared to potential petroleum hydrocarbon sources...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Sara González-Delgado, José Carlos Hernández
Human activity is generating an excess of atmospheric CO2 , resulting in what we know as ocean acidification, which produces changes in marine ecosystems. Until recently, most of the research in this area had been done under small-scale, laboratory conditions, using few variables, few species and few life cycle stages. These limitations raise questions about the reproducibility of the environment and about the importance of indirect effects and synergies in the final results of these experiments. One way to address these experimental problems is by conducting studies in situ, in natural areas where expected future pH conditions already occur, such as CO2 vent systems...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Michael H Schleyer, Sean N Porter
The role of abiotic parameters in determining the distribution of coral communities was assessed on the relatively pristine Maputaland reefs of South Africa from comprehensive reef survey data. The reefs, on which 42 communities could be defined, occur within three geographically separate complexes. Patterns in benthic distribution could be partially explained by latitude and depth, in particular, with slope, turbulence and reef aspect playing far less role in that order. A few species were associated exclusively or in high abundance with some of the communities; in most, it was the ratio of otherwise cosmopolitan species within all of the reef complexes that distinguished them...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Gianmarco Ingrosso, Marco Abbiati, Fabio Badalamenti, Giorgio Bavestrello, Genuario Belmonte, Rita Cannas, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi, Marco Bertolino, Stanislao Bevilacqua, Carlo Nike Bianchi, Marzia Bo, Elisa Boscari, Frine Cardone, Riccardo Cattaneo-Vietti, Alessandro Cau, Carlo Cerrano, Renato Chemello, Giovanni Chimienti, Leonardo Congiu, Giuseppe Corriero, Federica Costantini, Francesco De Leo, Luigia Donnarumma, Annalisa Falace, Simonetta Fraschetti, Adriana Giangrande, Maria Flavia Gravina, Giuseppe Guarnieri, Francesco Mastrototaro, Marco Milazzo, Carla Morri, Luigi Musco, Laura Pezzolesi, Stefano Piraino, Fiorella Prada, Massimo Ponti, Fabio Rindi, Giovanni Fulvio Russo, Roberto Sandulli, Adriana Villamor, Lorenzo Zane, Ferdinando Boero
Marine bioconstructions are biodiversity-rich, three-dimensional biogenic structures, regulating key ecological functions of benthic ecosystems worldwide. Tropical coral reefs are outstanding for their beauty, diversity and complexity, but analogous types of bioconstructions are also present in temperate seas. The main bioconstructions in the Mediterranean Sea are represented by coralligenous formations, vermetid reefs, deep-sea cold-water corals, Lithophyllum byssoides trottoirs, coral banks formed by the shallow-water corals Cladocora caespitosa or Astroides calycularis, and sabellariid or serpulid worm reefs...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Johanne Vad, Georgios Kazanidis, Lea-Anne Henry, Daniel O B Jones, Ole S Tendal, Sabine Christiansen, Theodore B Henry, J Murray Roberts
Sponges form an important component of benthic ecosystems from shallow littoral to hadal depths. In the deep ocean, beyond the continental shelf, sponges can form high-density fields, constituting important habitats supporting rich benthic communities. Yet these habitats remain relatively unexplored. The oil and gas industry has played an important role in advancing our knowledge of deep-sea environments. Since its inception in the 1960s, offshore oil and gas industry has moved into deeper waters. However, the impacts of these activities on deep-sea sponges and other ecosystems are only starting to become the subject of active research...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Alex D Rogers
Seamounts are one of the major biomes of the global ocean. The last 25 years of research has seen considerable advances in the understanding of these ecosystems. The interactions between seamounts and steady and variable flows have now been characterised providing a better mechanistic understanding of processes influencing biology. Processes leading to upwelling, including Taylor column formation and tidal rectification, have now been defined as well as those leading to draw down of organic matter from the ocean surface to seamount summit and flanks...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Patricia L M Lee, Gail Schofield, Rebecca I Haughey, Antonios D Mazaris, Graeme C Hays
Why females would mate with multiple partners and have multiple fathers for clutches or litters is a long-standing enigma. There is a broad dichotomy in hypotheses ranging from polyandry having benefits to simply being an unavoidable consequence of a high incidence of male-female encounters. If females simply give in to mating when it is too costly to avoid being harassed by males (convenience polyandry), then there should be a higher rate of mating as density increases. However, if females actively seek males because they benefit from multiple mating, then mating frequency, and consequently the incidence of multiple paternity of clutches, should be high throughout...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Jackie King, Gordon A McFarlane, Vladlena Gertseva, Jason Gasper, Sean Matson, Cindy A Tribuzio
For over 100 years, sharks have been encountered, as either directed catch or incidental catch, in commercial fisheries throughout the Northeast Pacific Ocean. A long-standing directed fishery for North Pacific Spiny Dogfish (Squalus suckleyi) has occurred and dominated shark landings and discards. Other fisheries, mainly for shark livers, have historically targeted species including Bluntnose Sixgill Shark (Hexanchus griseus) and Tope Shark (Galeorhinus galeus). While incidental catches of numerous species have occurred historically, only recently have these encounters been reliably enumerated in commercial and recreational fisheries...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Michael Grassmann, Bryan McNeil, Jim Wharton
The role of public aquariums in promoting conservation has changed substantially over the decades, evolving from entertainment attractions to educational and research centres. In many facilities, larger sharks are an essential part of the collection and represent one of the biggest draws for the public. Displaying healthy elasmobranchs comes with many challenges, but improvements in husbandry techniques have enabled aquariums to have success with a variety of species. The establishment of organisations such as the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, and the completion of texts like the Elasmobranch Husbandry Manual, has helped set high standards of care for sharks in captivity and promoted international conservation efforts...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Dovi Kacev, Timothy J Sippel, Michael J Kinney, Sebastián A Pardo, Christopher G Mull
Elasmobranchs play critically important ecological roles throughout the world's oceans, yet in many cases, their slow life histories and interactions with fisheries makes them particularly susceptible to exploitation. Management for these species requires robust scientific input, and mathematical models are the backbone of science-based management. In this chapter, we provide an introductory overview of the use of mathematical models to estimate shark abundance. First, we discuss life history models that are used to understand the basic biology of elasmobranchs...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Dayv Lowry
Human interactions with sharks in the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) have occurred for millennia but were largely limited to nearshore encounters as target and nontarget catch in fisheries. The arrival of Spanish explorers in the mid-1500s, followed by subsequent waves of explorers and colonizers from Europe and Russia, did little to change this relationship, until the mid-1800s. As technological advances conferred the ability to exploit marine fish further offshore and in deeper water, substantial fisheries developed and many of these encountered, and sometimes directly targeted, sharks...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Peter A Mieras, Chris Harvey-Clark, Michael Bear, Gina Hodgin, Boone Hodgin
Historically sharks have been seen either as a source of income through harvesting, or as a nuisance and danger. The economic value of sharks has traditionally been measured as the total value of sharks caught for liver oil, fins, or meat for consumption. Sharks have also been killed to near extinction in cases where they were seen as a threat to fisheries on other species. This is illustrated by the mass extermination of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in British Columbia. They were seen as a nuisance to fishermen as they got entangled in gill nets during the salmon fishing season...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Shawn E Larson, Dayv Lowry
Sharks are iconic, sometimes apex, predators found in every ocean. Because of their ecological role as predators and concern over the stability of their populations, there has been an increasing amount of work focused on shark conservation around the world in recent decades. The populations of sharks that reside in the Northeast Pacific (NEP) Ocean bordering the west coast of the United States reside in one of the most economically and ecologically important oceanic regions in the world. Volume 78 of Advances in Marine Biology (AMB) is a companion to Volume 77, which focused primarily on NEP shark biodiversity, organismal biology, and ecology...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
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