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Acta Psychologica

Francesca Guizzo, Angelica Moè, Mara Cadinu, Chiara Bertolli
Men outscore women in mental rotation. Among the possible explanations for this result are gender stereotypes. Research has shown that instructions confirming or disconfirming the gender stereotype that men are more talented than women may affect performance in some spatial tasks, such as mental rotation, but research so far has shown inconsistent or null results. However, no research to date has assessed whether participants' implicit associations linking men to spatial abilities may modulate these effects...
February 9, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Michele Vicovaro, Stefano Noventa, Luca Battaglini
In Experiment 1, we explored participants' perceptual knowledge of vertical fall by presenting them with virtually simulated polystyrene or wooden spheres falling to the ground from about two meters high. Participants rated the perceived naturalness of the motion. Besides the implied mass of the sphere, we manipulated the motion pattern (i.e., uniform acceleration vs. uniform velocity), and the magnitude of acceleration or velocity. Results show that relatively low values of acceleration or velocity were judged as natural for the polystyrene sphere, whereas relatively high values of acceleration or velocity were judged as natural for the wooden sphere...
February 8, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Francesco Ianì, Andrea Foiadelli, Monica Bucciarelli
Several theoretical approaches suggest that language comprehension and action observation rely on similar mental simulations. Granted that these two simulations partially overlap, we assumed that simulations stemming from action observations are more direct than those stemming from action phrases. The implied prediction was that simulation from action observation should prevail on simulation from action phrases when their effects are contrasted. The results of three experiments confirmed that, when at encoding the phrases were paired with pictures of actions whose kinematics was incongruent with the implied kinematics of the actions described in the phrases, memory for action phrases was impaired (Experiment 1)...
February 6, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Taylor Benedict, Jasmin Richter, Anne Gast
We tested the influence of misinformation on evaluative conditioning (EC) by giving false information about the contingencies between CS and US stimuli after a conditioning procedure. This was done by asking participants questions about the USs while inaccurately suggesting that some CSs had been paired with a US that had the opposite valence than the US it had actually been paired with. For CS-US pairs from other conditions, accurate suggestions or no suggestions at all were given to participants. This manipulation significantly moderated EC effects...
February 4, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Catherine J Stevens, Kim Vincs, Scott deLahunta, Elizabeth Old
Professional dancers appear to be the embodied records of works of choreography that have been created, rehearsed and performed. Their precision in recalling extended sequences of movement developed for these works defies the conventional methods used to investigate memory. A distributed cognition view holds that memory will not only be individualistic, but also extended across a dance ensemble. Working closely with the highly skilled dancers of Australian Dance Theatre (ADT), we set out to develop an ecologically valid method that elicited memory recall and lapsing...
January 29, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Sarah J Thompson, Tom Foulsham, Susan R Leekam, Catherine R G Jones
The eyes are preferentially attended over other facial features and recent evidence suggests this bias is difficult to suppress. To further examine the automatic and volitional nature of this bias for eye information, we used a novel prompting face recognition paradigm in 41 adults and measured the location of their first fixations, overall dwell time and behavioural responses. First, patterns of eye gaze were measured during a free-viewing forced choice face recognition paradigm. Second, the task was repeated but with prompts to look to either the eyes or the mouth...
January 25, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Gáspár Lukács, Ulrich Ansorge
The Association-Based Concealed Information Test (A-CIT) is a deception-detection method, in which participants categorize personally relevant items (e.g., their own surnames) as probes together with categorically similar but irrelevant items (e.g., others' surnames) by one key press A, while categorizing self-referring "inducer" items (e.g., "MINE" or "MY NAME") with an alternative key press B, thereby establishing an association between self-relatedness and B and an incongruence between the self-relatedness of probes and A (Lukács, Gula, Szegedi-Hallgató, & Csifcsák, 2017)...
January 25, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Priscilla B L Mukudi, Peter J Hills
Whether the own-group (own-ethnicity, own-gender, and own-age) biases in face recognition are based on the same mechanism and whether their effects are additive or not are as yet unanswered questions. Employing a standard old/new recognition paradigm, we investigated the combined crossover effects of the own-ethnicity, own-gender, and own-age biases in a group of 160 participants. Result showed that while face recognition accuracy decreased as the number of out-group features increased, the own-ethnicity bias appeared to have more of a unique influence on face recognition than the other biases...
January 24, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Bence Bago, Matthieu Raoelison, Wim De Neys
In the last decade conflict detection studies in the reasoning and decision-making field have suggested that biased reasoners who give an intuitive response that conflicts with logico-mathematical principles can often detect that their answer is questionable. In the present studies we introduced a second guess paradigm to test the nature and specificity of this error or conflict signal. Participants solved the bat-and-ball problem and were allowed to make a second guess after they had entered their answer. Three studies in which we used a range of second guess elicitation methods show that biased reasoners predominantly give second guesses that are smaller than the intuitively cued heuristic response ("10 cents")...
January 18, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Inga María Ólafsdóttir, Steinunn Gestsdóttir, Árni Kristjánsson
Visual foraging tasks, where participants search for multiple targets at a time, may provide a richer picture of visual attention than traditional single-target visual search tasks. To contribute to the mapping of foraging abilities throughout childhood and to assess whether foraging ability is dependent upon EF abilities, we compared the foraging of 66 children aged 4-7 years (mean age = 5.68 years, SD = 0.97 years, 33 girls), 67 children aged 11-12 years (mean age = 11.80 years, SD = 0...
January 17, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Ferdinand Kosak, Christof Kuhbandner, Sven Hilbert
Memory-based approaches suggest that retrospective judgments concerning the passage of lifetime are based on available meaningful experiences. However, an open question is whether passage of time judgments reflect the objective amount of important experiences or rather the amount of memories that are currently activated in the moment of judging. To examine this issue, we asked 473 participants to judge the passage of the last five years either before or after recalling as many important autobiographical events as possible from the last five years...
January 17, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Flavia L Esposito, Hans Supèr
Eye vergence is the slow movement of both eyes in opposite directions enabling binocular vision. Recently, it was suggested that vergence could be involved in orienting visual attention and memory having a role in cognitive processing of sensory information. In the present study, we assessed whether such vergence responses are observed in early childhood. We measured eye vergence responses in 43 children (12-37 months of age) while looking at novel and repeated object images. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that visual attention and Visual Short-Term Memory (VSMT) would be evidenced by differential vergence responses for both experimental conditions, i...
January 14, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Sylvie Droit-Volet, Fanny Lorandi, Jennifer T Coull
Explicit and implicit measures of timing were compared between young and older participants. In both tasks, participants were initially familiarized with a reference interval by responding to the second of two beeps separated by a fixed interval. During the subsequent testing phase, this inter-stimulus interval was variable. In the explicit task, participants were instructed to judge interval duration, whereas in the implicit task they were told to respond as quickly as possible to the second beep. Cognitive abilities were assessed with neuropsychological tests...
January 14, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Juan Botella, Jesús Privado, Manuel Suero, Roberto Colom, James F Juola
In experimental psychology, a unique model of general processing is often sought to represent the behaviors of all individuals. We address the question of whether seeking this objective - a unique model - is the most fruitful scientific strategy by studying a specific case example. In order to approach an answer to such a question, we compared the conventional approach in experimental psychology with analyses at the individual level by applying a specific mathematical modeling approach. A sample of 1159 individuals completed an experimental task based on managing conflict (a type of Simon task)...
January 11, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Michela Bonfieni, Holly P Branigan, Martin J Pickering, Antonella Sorace
The ability to selectively access two languages characterises the bilingual everyday experience. Previous studies showed the role of second language (L2) proficiency, as a proxy for dominance, on language control. However, the role of other aspects of the bilingual experience - such as age of acquisition and daily exposure - are relatively unexplored. In this study, we used a cued language switching task to examine language switching and mixing in two groups of highly proficient bilinguals with different linguistic backgrounds, to understand how the ability to control languages is shaped by linguistic experience...
January 10, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Phil Reed, Ian Steed
Two independent experiments (N = 30 and N = 24) investigated the effects of concurrent task loads on the recognition of faces displaying emotions. The study aimed to explore a possible resolution for an apparently discrepant finding in the literature regarding the impact of such loads on recognition of facial emotions. Faces displaying different emotions were presented, with or without a concurrent load, until the facial stimuli were correctly labelled to criterion in terms of the displayed emotion...
January 9, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Moritz Durst, Markus Janczyk
In multitasking, the backward crosstalk effect (BCE) means that Task 1 performance is influenced by characteristics of Task 2. For example, (1) RT1 is shorter when the two responses are given on the same (compatible trial) compared with opposite sides (incompatible conflict-trial; compatibility-based BCE), and (2) RT1 is longer when Task 2 is a no-go relative to a go task (no-go BCE). We investigated the impact of recently experienced trial and conflict history on the size of such BCEs. Similar to the Gratton effect in standard conflict tasks, clear sequential modulations were observed for the two kinds of BCEs, which were present following (1) compatible trials and (2) go-trials and inverted following (1) incompatible and (2) no-go trials...
January 8, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Jie Zhang, Wenfeng Feng, Zhijie Zhang
Whether negative numbers are represented componentially as two separate components (a digit and a sign) or represented holistically as a whole is still under debate. The present study investigated the representation of negative numbers via duration comparison tasks that might eliminate the possible influences of the strategies participants usually use when processing numbers. In the duration comparison task, participants are required to compare the durations of two numbers that were presented sequentially, thus the numerical value is irrelevant to the task...
January 7, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Heiko Hecht, Robin Welsch, Jana Viehoff, Matthew R Longo
The notion of a personal space surrounding one's ego-center is time-honored. However, few attempts have been made to measure the shape of this space. With increasing use of virtual environments, the question has arisen if real-world aspects, such as gender-effects or the shape of personal space, translate to virtual setups. We conducted two experiments, one with real people matched according to body height and level of acquaintance in a large laboratory setting, and one where subjects faced a virtual character, likewise matched to their body height...
January 7, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Julie Gregg, Sri Siddhi N Upadhyay, Karl Kuntzelman, Elizabeth Sacchi, Deanne L Westerman
The present study explored the role of task difficulty in judgments about the past and the future. Participants recalled events from childhood and imagined future events. The difficulty of the task was manipulated by asking participants to generate either four or twelve events. Participants then rated how well they could generally remember events from their childhood or how well planned their futures were. Consistent with past research (e.g., Winkielman, Schwarz, & Belli, 1998), participants in the difficult recall group rated their childhood memories as less complete than participants in the easy recall group...
December 30, 2018: Acta Psychologica
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