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Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

Katalin Gémes, Yvonne Forsell, Imre Janszky, Krisztina D László, Andreas Lundin, Antonio Ponce De Leon, Kenneth J Mukamal, Jette Möller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The inter-relationship between alcohol consumption and depression is complex and the direction of the association is unclear. We investigated whether alcohol consumption influences the risk of depression while accounting for this potential bi-directionality. METHODS: A total of 10,441 individuals participated in the PART study in 1998-2000; 8,622 in 2001-2003 and 5,228 in 2010. Participants answered questions on their alcohol consumption, symptoms of depression, childhood adversity, and sociodemographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial and lifestyle factors...
April 13, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Anees Bahji, Emily R Hawken, Casimiro Cabrera, Gustavo Vazquez
We welcome the recent publication of Dr. Munkholm's insightful letter to the editor outlining his concerns of our meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in unipolar major depression (MDD) and bipolar major depression (BD). Despite its established efficacy and safety profile, the use of ECT remains a highly controversial and stigmatized practice - even among psychiatrists. Thus, we expected that our publishing of this review and its results may be difficult to accept by many in the psychiatric community...
April 13, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Victoria Soto-Sanz, Pere Castellví, José Antonio Piqueras, Jesús Rodríguez-Marín, Tíscar Rodríguez-Jiménez, Andrea Miranda-Mendizábal, Oleguer Parés-Badell, José Almenara, Iciar Alonso, María Jesús Blasco, Annabel Cebrià, Andrea Gabilondo, Margalida Gili, Carolina Lagares, Miquel Roca, Jordi Alonso
OBJECTIVE: To assess internalizing and externalizing symptoms as risk factors for suicidal behavior and suicide among adolescents and young adults. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of articles published until January 2017. We identified 26883 potential papers; 1701 full text articles were assessed for eligibility, of which 1479 were excluded due to methodological reasons. Diverse meta-analyses were performed for each group of symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) or beta coefficients for categorical variables, and effect size (ES) were calculated for continuous variables...
April 13, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Manish Dama, Jai Shah, Ross Norman, Srividya Iyer, Ridha Joober, Norbert Schmitz, Amal Abdel-Baki, Ashok Malla
OBJECTIVE: To test whether duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) <3 months, recommended by the World Health Organization/International Early Psychosis Association, enhances the effects of an extended early intervention service (EEIS) on symptom remission. METHOD: We examined data from a randomized controlled trial in which patients who received two-years of treatment in EIS for psychosis were subsequently randomized to either three-years of EEIS or three-years of regular care (RC)...
April 9, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
T Velikonja, E Velthorst, M M McClure, S Rutter, W R Calabrese, D Rosell, H W Koenigsberg, M Goodman, A S New, E A Hazlett, M M Perez-Rodriguez
OBJECTIVE: Literature suggests that childhood trauma increases vulnerability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, including Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD). Yet, it remains unexplored whether childhood trauma predicts symptom load and the level of neurocognitive functioning in SPD. METHOD: We included 225 individuals with SPD and 127 healthy controls. Childhood trauma was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, schizotypal traits were assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire...
April 5, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Annemette Halvorsen, Benedikte Hesel, Søren D Østergaard, Andreas A Danielsen
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have investigated whether in utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is associated with increased risk of developing mental- or behavioral disorders. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis based on this literature. METHODS: A systematic search of eligible literature in PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO and subsequent meta-analysis was conducted in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline...
April 2, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Savannah N Gosnell, J Christopher Fowler, Ramiro Salas
OBJECTIVE: About 80% of patients who commit suicide do not report suicidal ideation the last time they speak to their mental health provider, highlighting the need to identify biomarkers of suicidal behavior. Our goal is to identify suicidal behavior neural biomarkers to classify suicidal psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: Eighty percent of our sample (suicidal (n=63) and non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients (n=65)) was used to determine significant differences in structural and resting state functional connectivity measures throughout the brain...
March 31, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Katherine L Musliner, Xiaoqin Liu, Christiane Gasse, Kaj S Christensen, Theresa Wimberley, Trine Munk-Olsen
OBJECTIVE: Examine the overall incidence of medically treated depression in Denmark among individuals 15-44 years old, and estimate the 5-year cumulative incidence of psychiatric hospital care among individuals treated first in non-hospital based care. METHODS: We followed all individuals born in Denmark between 1969 and 1998 from age 15 or 2006 (whichever came first) until first depression treatment; death; emigration; or December 31, 2013. Incidence rates were estimated using Poisson regression...
March 25, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Federica Piras, Fabrizio Piras, Nerisa Banaj, Valentina Ciullo, Daniela Vecchio, Richard A E Edden, Gianfranco Spalletta
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Defective cerebellar GABAergic inhibitory control may participate to the cognitive impairments seen in SZ. We tested the prediction of a model for the relationship between cerebellar GABA concentration and the associative/executive processes required by verbal fluency in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and matched healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of GABA was performed using a 3 Tesla scanner and verbal fluency assessed by the Controlled Word (WFT) and Semantic (SFT) Fluency tests...
March 18, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Ana Maia, José Oliveira, Mohamed Lajnef, Luc Mallet, Ryad Tamouza, Marion Leboyer, Albino J Oliveira-Maia
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, prevalent and highly impairing psychiatric illness. Although the pathophysiology of OCD remains unknown, pathways involved in oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) have been implicated. The present study aims to systematically review the literature for quantitative evidence that patients with OCD have altered measures of blood O&NS markers. METHODS: Independent random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean differences were conducted to assess each marker separately...
March 15, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Klaus Munkholm
On the basis of a meta-analysis that compared patients with unipolar depression against patients with bipolar depression who received electroconvulsive treatment (ECT), Bahji et al. (1) concluded that their findings supported increased utilization of ECT in patients with treatment-refractory bipolar depression and urged for more clinicians to use ECT in both unipolar and bipolar depression. However, due to several methodological limitations in their meta-analysis their recommendations do not seem supported by the evidence...
March 13, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Mads Frost, Ellen Margrethe Christensen, Jakob E Bardram, Maj Vinberg, Lars Vedel Kessing
OBJECTIVE: To 1) validate patient-evaluated mixed symptoms and irritability measured using smartphones against clinical evaluations; 2) investigate associations between mixed symptoms and irritability with stress, quality of life and functioning, respectively in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS: A total of 84 patients with bipolar disorder used a smartphone-based system for daily evaluation of mixed symptoms and irritability for nine months. Clinically evaluated symptoms, stress, quality of life and clinically rated functioning were collected multiple times during follow-up...
March 13, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Gin S Malhi, Pritha Das, Tim Outhred, Danielle Gessler, J John Mann, Richard Bryant
OBJECTIVE: Mood disorders are strongly associated with suicide, the prevention of which is predicated on timely detection of suicidal activity (ideation, behavior). Building on our previous work, we sought to determine the nature of neural responses to an emotional-cognitive task in patients with varying degrees of suicidal activity. METHOD: Seventy-nine patients with mood disorders were assessed clinically and scanned using fMRI. Neural responses to an Emotional Face-Word Stroop task were compared with 66 healthy controls...
March 13, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Maggie Wang, Sascha Swaraj, Daniel Chung, Clive Stanton, Navneet Kapur, Matthew Large
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the suicide rate among people discharged from non-psychiatric facilities after presentations with suicidal thoughts or behaviours. METHOD: Meta-analysis of studies reporting suicide deaths among people with suicidal thoughts or behaviours after discharge from non-psychiatric settings. RESULTS: 115 studies reported 167 cohorts including a total of 3 747 suicide deaths among 248 005 patients during 1 263 727 person-years...
March 13, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Reinhard Eher, Martin Rettenberger, Daniel Turner
OBJECTIVE: Mental disorders in sexual offenders are relevant in terms of risk assessment and psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was conducted between 2001 and 2017 and included 1,511 sexual offenders who were assessed at the Federal Evaluation Center for Sexual and Violent Offenders in the Austrian Prison System. All sexual offenders were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I (SCID-I) and Axis II disorders (SCID-II)...
March 13, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Sherif M Gohar, Ingrid Dieset, Nils Eiel Steen, Ragni H Mørch, Trude S J Vedal, Elina J Reponen, Vidar M Steen, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle
OBJECTIVE: Associations between suicidality and lipid dysregulation are documented in mental illness, but the potential role of leptin remains unclear. We examined the association between leptin and suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, together with the influence of other clinical and biological indices. METHOD: We recruited a sample of 270 participants with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses. Blood samples were analysed for leptin, while symptom severity was assessed by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C)...
March 8, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Hélène Verdoux, Elodie Pambrun, Marie Tournier, Sébastien Cortaredona, Pierre Verger
OBJECTIVE: To explore the temporal dynamic of antidepressant and antipsychotic co-prescribing in real-life conditions. METHODS: The study was performed using reimbursement data from the French Insurance Healthcare system in a cohort of 118,454 persons with at least one dispensing of antidepressants and/or antipsychotics over the period 2006-2016. Latent class analyses were used to identify homogeneous groups of persons following similar multi-trajectories of antidepressant and/or antipsychotic dispensing...
March 7, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Ina H Heiberg, Bjarne K Jacobsen, Lise Balteskard, Jørgen G Bramness, Øyvind Naess, Eivind Ystrom, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Christina M Hultman, Ragnar Nesvåg, Anne Høye
OBJECTIVE: To examine if individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) or bipolar disorder (BD) had equal likelihood of not being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) prior to cardiovascular death, compared to individuals without SCZ or BD. METHODS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis including nationwide data of 72,451 cardiovascular deaths in the years 2011-2016. Of these, 814 had a SCZ diagnosis and 673 a BD diagnosis in primary or specialist health care...
March 7, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Leo Sher, René S Kahn
Suicide is one of the leading causes of premature death among individuals with schizophrenia and psychotic spectrum disorders (1). Suicide and suicide attempts occur at a significantly greater rate in schizophrenia than in the general population. Common estimates are that 10% of people with schizophrenia will eventually have a completed suicide, and that attempts are made at two to five times that rate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 6, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
O Köhler-Forsberg, C N Lydholm, C Hjorthøj, M Nordentoft, O Mors, M E Benros
BACKGROUND: No study has gathered evidence from all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with anti-inflammatory drugs measuring antidepressant effects including a detailed assessment of side-effects and bias. METHODS: We performed a systematic review identifying RCTs published prior to January 1, 2018, studying antidepressant treatment effects and side-effects of pharmacological anti-inflammatory intervention in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) or depressive symptoms...
March 4, 2019: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
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