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Progress in Neurobiology

Joshua I Glaser, Ari S Benjamin, Roozbeh Farhoodi, Konrad P Kording
Over the last several years, the use of machine learning (ML) in neuroscience has been rapidly increasing. Here, we review ML's contributions, both realized and potential, across several areas of systems neuroscience. We describe four primary roles of ML within neuroscience: 1) creating solutions to engineering problems, 2) identifying predictive variables, 3) setting benchmarks for simple models of the brain, and 4) serving itself as a model for the brain. The breadth and ease of its applicability suggests that machine learning should be in the toolbox of most systems neuroscientists...
February 7, 2019: Progress in Neurobiology
Rand S Eid, Aarthi R Gobinath, Liisa A M Galea
Depression represents a global mental health concern, and disproportionally affects women as they are twice more likely to be diagnosed than men. In this review, we provide a summary of evidence to support the notion that differences in depression between men and women span multiple facets of the disease, including epidemiology, symptomology, treatment, and pathophysiology. Through a lens of biological sex, we overview depression-related transcriptional patterns, changes in neuroanatomy and neuroplasticity, and immune signatures...
February 2, 2019: Progress in Neurobiology
Helen E Savaki, Vassilis Raos
Motor cognition is related to the planning and generation of actions as well as to the recognition and imagination of motor acts. Recently, there is evidence that the motor system participates not only in overt actions but also in mental processes supporting covert actions. Within this framework, we have investigated the cortical areas engaged in execution, observation, and imagination of the same action, by the use of the high resolution quantitative 14 C-deoxyglucose method in monkeys and by fMRI in humans, throughout the entire primate brain...
January 31, 2019: Progress in Neurobiology
Min Shi, Lifu Sheng, Tessandra Stewart, Cyrus P Zabetian, Jing Zhang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and (shedding) microvesicles, are released by nearly all cell types and carry a cargo of proteins and nucleic acids that varies by the cell of origin. They are thought to play critical roles in normal central nervous system (CNS) function and neurological disorders. A recently revealed key characteristic of EVs is that they may travel between the CNS and peripheral circulation. This property has led to intense interest in how EVs might serve as a vehicle for toxic protein clearance and as a readily accessible source of biomarkers for CNS disorders...
January 24, 2019: Progress in Neurobiology
Ryan J Kast, Pat Levitt
Of all brain regions, the 6-layered neocortex has undergone the most dramatic changes in size and complexity during mammalian brain evolution. These changes, occurring in the context of a conserved set of organizational features that emerge through stereotypical developmental processes, are considered responsible for the cognitive capacities and sensory specializations represented within the mammalian clade. The modern experimental era of developmental neurobiology, spanning 6 decades, has deciphered a number of mechanisms responsible for producing the diversity of cortical neuron types, their precise connectivity and the role of gene by environment interactions...
January 21, 2019: Progress in Neurobiology
Guido T Meijer, Paul E C Mertens, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Umberto Olcese, Carien S Lansink
Our perceptual systems continuously process sensory inputs from different modalities and organize these streams of information such that our subjective representation of the outside world is a unified experience. By doing so, they also enable further cognitive processing and behavioral action. While cortical multisensory processing has been extensively investigated in terms of psychophysics and mesoscale neural correlates, an in depth understanding of the underlying circuit-level mechanisms is lacking. Previous studies on circuit-level mechanisms of multisensory processing have predominantly focused on cue integration, i...
January 21, 2019: Progress in Neurobiology
Brahim Tighilet, Christian Chabbert
A phenomenon called vestibular compensation occurs after peripheral vestibular loss. This process involves a mosaic of profound structural rearrangements within the vestibular nuclei. Among them, adult reactive neurogenesis is perhaps the most unexpected, as it occurs in a brain area that was never reported as neurogenic before. Both the survival and functionality of this newly generated neuronal network depend on its integration into preexisting networks in the deafferented structure. Far from being aberrant, this organization allows the brain to use inputs from other sensory modalities to facilitate the restoration of posture and equilibrium...
January 15, 2019: Progress in Neurobiology
Karim Fifel, Aleksandar Videnovic
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second-most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although the clinical diagnosis of PD is still based on its cardinal motor dysfunctions, several non-motor symptoms (NMS) have been established as integral part of the disease. Unlike motor disorders, development of therapies against NMS are still challenging and remain a critical unmet clinical need. During the last decade, several studies have characterised the molecular, physiological and behavioural alterations of the circadian system in PD patients...
January 15, 2019: Progress in Neurobiology
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Fabian Cabezas-Opazo, Carol A Deaton, Erick H Vergara, Gail V W Johnson, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
Tau is a protein that is highly enriched in neurons and was originally defined by its ability to bind and stabilize microtubules. However, it is now becoming evident that the functions of tau extend beyond its ability to modulate microtubule dynamics. Tau plays a role in mediating axonal transport, synaptic structure and function, and neuronal signaling pathways. Although tau plays important physiological roles in neurons, its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases, and most prominently in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), has directed the majority of tau studies...
December 31, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Piyoosh Sharma, Pavan Srivastava, Ankit Seth, Prabhash Nath Tripathi, Anupam G Banerjee, Sushant K Shrivastava
AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of dementia in an aging population worldwide. The enormous challenge which AD possesses to global healthcare makes it as urgent as ever for the researchers to develop innovative treatment strategies to fight this disease. An in-depth analysis of the extensive available data associated with the AD is needed for a more comprehensive understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological pathways associated with the onset and progression of the AD...
December 30, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Maria Angeliki S Pavlou, Luc Grandbarbe, Noel J Buckley, Simone P Niclou, Alessandro Michelucci
Astrocytes play a significant role in coordinating neural development and provide critical support for the function of the CNS. They possess important adaptation capacities that range from their transition towards reactive astrocytes to their ability to undergo reprogramming, thereby revealing their potential to retain latent features of neural progenitor cells. We propose that the mechanisms underlying reactive astrogliosis or astrocyte reprogramming provide an opportunity for initiating neuronal regeneration, a process that is notably reduced in the mammalian nervous system throughout evolution...
December 29, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Giuseppe Caruso, Filippo Caraci, Renaud B Jolivet
Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine), a dipeptide, is an endogenous antioxidant widely distributed in excitable tissues like muscles and the brain. Although discovered more than a hundred years ago and having been extensively studied in the periphery, the role of carnosine in the brain remains mysterious. Carnosinemia, a rare metabolic disorder with increased levels of carnosine in urine and low levels or absence of carnosinase in the blood, is associated with severe neurological symptoms in humans. This review deals with the role of carnosine in the brain in both physiological and pathological conditions, with a focus on preclinical evidence suggesting a high therapeutic potential of carnosine in neurodegenerative disorders...
December 26, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
S Tumati, S Martens, B M de Jong, A Aleman
A reduction in goal-directed behavior, or apathy, occurs in neurological and psychiatric disorders, while its neural substrates remain unclear. Deficits in circuits connecting the prefrontal cortex to subcortical regions are considered to underlie apathy. Although apathy is empirically associated with widespread changes in these regions, studies across disorders also link apathy with the lateral parietal cortex. Such variety in regional involvement is consistent with the established role of prefrontal and subcortical regions in models of goal-directed behavior, and with the suggestion of subtypes of apathy...
December 24, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Lara Bergdolt, Anna Dunaevsky
The developing brain is sensitive to a variety of insults. Epidemiological studies have identified prenatal exposure to infection as a risk factor for a range of neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Animal models corroborate this association and have been used to probe the contribution of gene-environment interactions to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we review the behavior and brain phenotypes that have been characterized in MIA offspring, including the studies that have looked at the interaction between maternal immune activation and genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia...
December 24, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Richard E Zigmond, Franklin D Echevarria
Neuroinflammation has positive and negative effects. This review focuses on the roles of macrophage in the PNS. Transection of PNS axons leads to degeneration and clearance of the distal nerve and to changes in the region of the axotomized cell bodies. In both locations, resident and infiltrating macrophages are found. Macrophages enter these areas in response to expression of the chemokine CCL2 acting on the macrophage receptor CCR2. In the distal nerve, macrophages and other phagocytes are involved in clearance of axonal debris, which removes molecules that inhibit nerve regeneration...
December 20, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Brent Neumann, Casey Linton, Rosina Giordano-Santini, Massimo A Hilliard
Injuries to the nervous system can cause lifelong morbidity due to the disconnect that occurs between nerve cells and their cellular targets. Re-establishing these lost connections is the ultimate goal of endogenous regenerative mechanisms, as well as those induced by exogenous manipulations in a laboratory or clinical setting. Reconnection between severed neuronal fibers occurs spontaneously in some invertebrate species and can be induced in mammalian systems. This process, known as axonal fusion, represents a highly efficient means of repair after injury...
November 27, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Crowley E K, Nolan Y M, Sullivan A M
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, which leads to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease - tremor, rigidity and postural instability. A number of non-motor symptoms are also associated with PD, including cognitive impairment, mood disturbances and dysfunction of gastrointestinal and autonomic systems. Current therapies provide symptomatic relief but do not halt the disease process, so there is an urgent need for preventative strategies...
November 24, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Sabine Kastner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Yu-Ting Lin, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Beyond its well-known role in reproduction, the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in a broad spectrum of social and nonsocial behaviors. The biological actions of OXT are exerted through specific OXT receptors (OXTR) that belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. OXTR is abundantly expressed in the hippocampus, and the past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding of the physiological significance of hippocampal OXTR signaling. In this review, we mainly focus on recent progress made in identifying the role of hippocampal OXTR signaling in regulating neuronal excitability, network oscillatory activity, synaptic plasticity and social recognition memory...
December 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Pascale Gisquet-Verrier, David C Riccio
The original concept of consolidation considers that memory requires time to be fixed. Since 2000, a comparable protein-dependent re-stabilization phase, called reconsolidation, has been assumed to take place after memory retrieval. This consolidation/reconsolidation hypothesis, has dominated the literature for more than 50 years, despite compelling evidence that is inconsistent with it. In this review, we present an historical overview and explain how, despite serious criticisms, this hypothesis has persisted for decades and become accepted as a dogma...
December 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
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