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Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

Kelly A Smith, Paul D Hastings, Heather A Henderson, Kenneth H Rubin
Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament trait characterized by fear and wariness in novel situations, has been identified as a risk factor for later social reticence and avoidance of peer interactions. However, the ability to regulate fearful responses to novelty may disrupt the link between BI and socially reticent behavior. The present study examined how and whether both behaviorally-manifested and physiological indices of emotion regulation moderate the relation between BI and later social reticence. Participants in this study included 88 children followed longitudinally from ages 2 to 4...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Jelle J Sijtsema, Carlo Garofalo, Kim Jansen, Theo A Klimstra
Previous work has identified important correlational linkages between the dark triad of personality (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) and antisocial behavior in adolescence. However, little is known about the longitudinal associations between these personality characteristics and antisocial behavior, and the processes underlying these linkages. We hypothesized positive bidirectional associations between the dark triad and antisocial behavior, and that increases in moral disengagement would underlie these longitudinal associations...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Yolanda van Beek, Anne Berg
A Social Skills Deficit Model for depression in adolescence was tested, proposing that less optimal nonverbal behavior elicits negative reactions in peer partners, which in turn result in depressive symptoms. Adolescents (12-17 years of age) participated in videotaped same-sex interactions. Several positive and negative nonverbal behaviors were coded. Two analyses were conducted using longitudinal data collected in four waves. First, the predictive role of nonverbal communication for depressive symptoms was tested in a normative sample of 170 adolescent dyads without (mild) depression at wave 1 (48% girls)...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Molly A Miller, Monica A Marsee
This study examined whether emotional reactivity was associated with violent juvenile offending in a sample of detained boys (N = 198). It was predicted that Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) would reveal a "low reactivity" group, characterized by symptoms of emotional numbing and callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and a "high reactivity" group, characterized by symptoms of hyperarousal and emotional dysregulation. It was hypothesized that the low reactivity group would have higher rates of violent offending and proactive aggression than the high reactivity group...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Kristie L Poole, Diane L Santesso, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt
Although resting right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry has been linked to avoidance and withdrawal-related behaviors such as shyness in previous cross-sectional studies, relatively little research has examined the influence of frontal brain electrical activity on the development of shyness in children using a prospective, longitudinal study design. Here, we tested whether resting frontal EEG asymmetry predicted the trajectory of children's shyness across five assessments. Children were enrolled in the study during the summer prior to grade 1 (N = 37; Mage  = 6...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Julie C Bowker, Jonathan B Santo, Ryan E Adams
Although numerous studies have established linkages between shyness and later psychological difficulties, most extant research did not examine variation in shyness over time in relation to variation in psychological difficulties over time or possible environmental factors of influence outside of the school context. The current study used multi-level modelling to simultaneously examine time-invariant and time-variant associations between shyness, the psychological difficulties of depressive symptoms and loneliness, and stressful life events at four waves across 1 year in a community sample of 271 young adolescents (51% boys; Mage  = 11...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Nikita K Hayden, Richard P Hastings, Vasiliki Totsika, Emma Langley
This is the first study on the behavioral and emotional adjustment of siblings of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) to use a population-based sample, from the third wave of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS); a UK longitudinal birth cohort study. We examined differences between nearest-in-age older siblings (age 5-15) of MCS children (likely mainly with mild to moderate ID) identified with ID (n = 257 siblings) or not (n = 7246 siblings). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) measured all children's adjustment...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Shoou-Lian Hwang-Gu, Yu-Chi Chen, Sophie Hsin-Yi Liang, Hsing-Chang Ni, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Chiao-Fan Lin, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Reaction times (RTs) are typically slower and more variable in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Analysis of the ex-Gaussian RT distribution, which is described by mu, sigma (mean and standard deviation, respectively, of the normal distribution) and tau (that of exponential distribution), reveals that individuals with ADHD do not display overall slower RTs but have a high proportion of extremely slow RTs, represented by a high tau value. Although this is a vital component for describing ADHD-related RT variability in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults, it has not been thoroughly studied at the preschool age...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Ian C Carroll, Elizabeth M Planalp, Carol A Van Hulle, H Hill Goldsmith
Peer victimization impacts 13% of adolescents worldwide (Currie et al. 2012). Despite its prevalence and associated adverse outcomes, global cognitive processes that could be affected by peer victimization have not been thoroughly investigated. Using a monozygotic (MZ) twin difference design that rigorously controls for the influence of genetic and familial level confounders, we examined the relation between peer victimization exposure and selective attention processes during an affective go/no go task. Twins who experienced more severe peer victimization were biased towards detecting goal relevant stimuli during the task...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Laurence Lavoie, Véronique Dupéré, Eric Dion, Robert Crosnoe, Éric Lacourse, Isabelle Archambault
Gender differences in exposure and reactivity to specific stressful life events (SLE) contribute to explaining adolescent boys' and girls' differential susceptibility to common adjustment difficulties like depression and behavioral problems. However, it is unclear whether these gender differences are also relevant to understanding another key marker of adolescent maladjustment: high school dropout. A state-of-the-art interview protocol was used to assess recent SLE in a sample of academically vulnerable Canadian adolescents (N = 545, 52% boys)...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Erika Lunkenheimer, Carlomagno Panlilio, Frances M Lobo, Sheryl L Olson, Catherine M Hamby
Task persistence is related to attentional regulation and is needed for the successful transition to school. Understanding preschoolers' task persistence with caregivers could better inform the development and prevention of attention problems across this transition. Preschoolers' real-time task persistence profiles during problem-solving tasks with mothers (N=214) and fathers (N=117) were examined as antecedents of teacher-rated attention problems in kindergarten, accounting for child temperament, parenting, and preschool attention problems...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Xinyin Chen, Rui Fu, Dan Li, Junsheng Liu
This study examined trajectories of shyness-sensitivity and the contributions of peer relationships to these trajectories in Chinese children. Participants were 1061 school-age children (537 boys), initially in fifth grade (Mage  = 11 years), in China. Longitudinal data on shyness-sensitivity were collected from peer assessments once a year for four years. In addition, peer nomination data on peer acceptance-rejection and mutual friendship were collected in the initial study. Four distinct shyness-sensitivity trajectories were identified: Low-Stable, Low-Increasing, Moderate-Decreasing, and High-Stable...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Alexandria Meyer, Corinne Carlton, Lyndsey Juliane Chong, Karl Wissemann
Anxiety disorders often begin early in life and there is substantial interest in identifying neural markers that characterize developmental trajectories that result in anxiety. The error-related negativity (ERN) is elicited when people make errors on lab-based reaction-time tasks, is increased in anxious children, and can predict the onset of anxiety across development. In light of this, there is an increasing interest in identifying environmental factors that may shape the ERN in children. Previous work suggests that controlling parenting styles may relate to the ERN in offspring...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Isaiah Sypher, Luke W Hyde, Melissa K Peckins, Rebecca Waller, Kelly Klump, S Alexandra Burt
Community violence exposure and harsh parenting have been linked to maladaptive outcomes, possibly via their effects on social cognition. The Social Information Processing (SIP) model has been used to study distinct socio-cognitive processes, demonstrating links between community violence exposure, harsh parenting, and maladaptive SIP. Though much of this research assumes these associations are causal, genetic confounds have made this assumption difficult to rigorously test. Comparisons of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins provide one empirical test of possible causality, as differences between MZ twins must be environmental in origin...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Jennifer L Hudson, Kou Murayama, Lotte Meteyard, Talia Morris, Helen F Dodd
This longitudinal study examined a multitude of early childhood predictors of anxiety symptoms and disorders over an 8-year period. The purpose of the study was to identify early life predictors of anxiety across childhood and early adolescence in a sample of at-risk children. The sample included 202 preschool children initially identified as behaviorally inhibited or uninhibited between the ages of 3 years 2 months and 4 years 5 months. Temperament and familial environment variables were assessed using observation and parent report at baseline...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Kimberly L H Carpenter, Grace T Baranek, William E Copeland, Scott Compton, Nancy Zucker, Geraldine Dawson, Helen L Egger
Anxiety disorders are prevalent and significantly impact young children and their families. One hypothesized risk factor for anxiety is heightened responses to sensory input. Few studies have explored this hypothesis prospectively. This study had two goals: (1) examine whether sensory over-responsivity is predictive of the development of anxiety in a large prospective sample of children, and (2) identify whether anxiety mediates the relationship between sensory over-responsivity and behavioral challenges. Children's sensory and anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 917 at 2-5 and again in 191 of these children at 6 years old...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Michael Mason, Jeremy Mennis, Michael Russell, Mathew Moore, Aaron Brown
Adolescents with depression disorders have higher rates of substance use. In order to advance contextually relevant mental health interventions, basic research is needed to test social ecological mechanisms hypothesized to influence adolescent depression and substance use. Accordingly, we conducted growth curve modeling with a sample of 248 urban adolescents to determine if depression's effect on substance use was dependent upon peer network health (sum of peer risk and protective behaviors) and activity space risk (likelihood of high-risk behaviors at routine locations)...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Darcey M Allan, Christopher J Lonigan
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder consisting of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors. Although, the multidimensionality of ADHD is widely accepted, questions remain regarding the extent to which the components of this disorder are overlapping or distinct. Further, although the same measures are generally used to assess inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive behaviors across childhood, it has been argued that the structure and measurement of inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive behaviors may be susceptible to developmental influences...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Whitney D Fosco, Michael J Kofler, R Matt Alderson, Stephanie J Tarle, Joseph S Raiker, Dustin E Sarver
Inhibition is a key neurocognitive domain in ADHD that is commonly assessed with the stop-signal task. The stop-signal involves both "go" and "stop" trials; previous research indicates that response times are reliably slower to "go" trials during tasks with vs. without intermittent "stop" trials. However, it is unclear whether this pattern reflects deliberate slowing to maximize inhibitory success (performance adjustment hypothesis) and/or disrupted bottom-up information processing due to increased cognitive demands (dual-task hypothesis)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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