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José M Rey Benayas, Adison Altamirano, Alejandro Miranda, Germán Catalán, Marco Prado, Fulgencio Lisón, James M Bullock
Guidance for large-scale restoration of natural or semi-natural linear vegetation elements that takes into account the need to maintain human livelihoods such as farming is often lacking. Focusing on a Chilean biodiversity hotspot, we assessed the landscape in terms of existing woody vegetation elements and proposed a buffer strip and hedgerow network. We used spatial analysis based on Google Earth imagery and QGIS, field surveys, seven guidelines linked to prioritization criteria and seedling availability in the region's nurseries, and estimated the budget for implementing the proposed network...
February 15, 2019: Ambio
Sara Borgström
Transformation towards sustainable development is about findings new ways of thinking, organising and doing to navigate wicked challenges such as climate change and urbanisation. Such challenges call for new governance modes that match the complexity of the systems to be handled, where multi-level governance and collaborative approaches have been suggested to contribute to such transformative capacity building. This in-depth, trans-disciplinary study investigates how the multi-level governance context in Stockholm, Sweden, influences the transformative capacity from the perspective of local sustainability initiatives...
February 15, 2019: Ambio
Andrea K Gerlak, Marcelo Saguier, Megan Mills-Novoa, Philip M Fearnside, Tamee R Albrecht
The political economy of dam development in South America is changing as a result of a resurgence in water infrastructure investments. The arrival of Chinese-funded projects in the region has altered a context traditionally dominated by multilateral development banks. Tensions are escalating around new dam projects and the environmental impact assessment process is increasingly the site of politicization around water in the region. In this perspective, we examine the most recent surge in dam development in South America, the resulting environmental and social impacts, and the mobilization of civil society and environmental groups that have developed in response to these projects...
February 15, 2019: Ambio
Niels Kanstrup, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg Balsby
Denmark implemented a total ban on the use of lead shot for hunting and clay target shooting in 1996. Compliance was not studied systematically until recently. However, sporadic police checks and individual studies indicated that compliance was far from complete in the early years after regulation. To assess current levels of compliance with Danish regulations, we purchased 730 carcasses of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and a further 690 mallard gizzards were obtained from > 14 shooting events distributed across > 10 local authority districts throughout East and West Denmark in the 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 hunting seasons...
February 15, 2019: Ambio
Barnabas Harrison, Thomas Edward Martin, Abdul Haris Mustari
Volunteer-led surveys are increasingly used to collect ecological information and may represent a means for obtaining the tree measurement datasets necessary to calculate carbon stocks in tropical forests in order to justify funding like REDD+. However, the accuracy of tree measurements collected by volunteers remains unassessed. Here, we examine how tree measurements collected by student volunteers vary compared to measurements collected by trained ecologists using identical methods. Measurements by both teams were collected at 11 habitat plots on Buton Island, Indonesia...
February 15, 2019: Ambio
Maria Nordström, Mark Wales
This paper presents a perspective we find lacking in the general discussion on urban transformative capacity, as well as the discourse on children's environmental experiences and their participation in urban planning processes. Children contribute to the building of urban transformative capacity in several ways. Firstly, they contribute with new perspectives on the environment that broaden existing perspectives on human-environment relations in urban planning. Secondly, children's participation in planning processes challenges existing power relations through the creation of new adult-child relationships which in turn transform relations between adults and other actors and agencies...
February 15, 2019: Ambio
Gina Ziervogel
The intersecting challenges of urbanization, growing inequality, climate and environmental risk and economic sustainability require new modes of urban governance. Although the urban poor are increasingly recognized as needing to be part of climate adaptation planning and implementation, many governance arrangements fail to explicitly include them. In order to make climate governance more inclusive, transformative capacity is needed. Drawing on two case studies from different urban contexts in South Africa, this paper explores the nature of inclusive governance between local government and the urban poor and the extent to which this has contributed to transformative development trajectories...
February 8, 2019: Ambio
Thomas K Rudel, Patrick Meyfroidt, Robin Chazdon, Frans Bongers, Sean Sloan, H Ricardo Grau, Tracy Van Holt, Laura Schneider
Forest transitions occur when net reforestation replaces net deforestation in places. Because forest transitions can increase biodiversity and augment carbon sequestration, they appeal to policymakers contending with the degrading effects of forest loss and climate change. What then can policymakers do to trigger forest transitions? The historical record over the last two centuries provides insights into the precipitating conditions. The early transitions often occurred passively, through the spontaneous regeneration of trees on abandoned agricultural lands...
January 21, 2019: Ambio
Jennifer Hodbod, Edward G J Stevenson, Gregory Akall, Thomas Akuja, Ikal Angelei, Elias Alemu Bedasso, Lucie Buffavand, Samuel Derbyshire, Immo Eulenberger, Natasha Gownaris, Benedikt Kamski, Abdikadir Kurewa, Michael Lokuruka, Mercy Fekadu Mulugeta, Doris Okenwa, Cory Rodgers, Emma Tebbs
This paper synthesizes current knowledge on the impacts of the Gibe III dam and associated large-scale commercial farming in the Omo-Turkana Basin, based on an expert elicitation coupled with a scoping review and the collective knowledge of an multidisciplinary network of researchers with active data-collection programs in the Basin. We use social-ecological systems and political ecology frameworks to assess the impacts of these interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in the Basin, and cascading effects on livelihoods, patterns of migration, and conflict dynamics for the people of the region...
January 8, 2019: Ambio
Philippe Rufin, Florian Gollnow, Daniel Müller, Patrick Hostert
Dam construction and operation modify land systems. We synthesized 178 observations of dam-induced land system changes from 54 peer-reviewed case studies. Changing extents of forests (23%), agricultural land (21%), and built-up areas (11%) were reported frequently, alongside alterations in land use intensity (23%). Land cover changes were mostly related to hydropower and multi-purpose dams, while irrigation dams dominantly caused land use intensity changes. While a significant share of the changes was caused by reservoir flooding (29%), indirect effects which interact with societal and environmental systems (42%) were of utmost importance...
January 8, 2019: Ambio
Rémi Jaligot, Stéphanie Hasler, Jérôme Chenal
Previous studies assessed cultural ecosystem services (CES) at the local scale but often ignored them in national assessments. This paper explores CES relationships in Switzerland using web-based participatory mapping. We identified the spatial relationships between CES, the drivers of negative change and solutions to mitigate it. Results indicated that CES tend to have positive spatial relationships, although not always significant. A proxy-based approach supported the findings that the provision of heritage and inspiration services decreased along the urban-rural gradient while others increased...
January 5, 2019: Ambio
Rosamond L Naylor, Matthew M Higgins, Ryan B Edwards, Walter P Falcon
Indonesia's oil palm expansion during the last two decades has resulted in widespread environmental and health damages through land clearing by fire and peat conversion, but it has also contributed to rural poverty alleviation. In this paper, we examine the role that decentralization has played in the process of Indonesia's oil palm development, particularly among independent smallholder producers. We use primary survey information, along with government documents and statistics, to analyze the institutional dynamics underpinning the sector's impacts on economic development and the environment...
January 4, 2019: Ambio
Vernon G Thomas, Niels Kanstrup, Anthony D Fox
This review presents evidence of lead exposure and toxicity to wildlife and humans from spent shotgun and rifle ammunition and fishing weights, and the barriers and bridges to completing the transition to non-lead products. Despite the international availability of effective non-lead substitutes, and that more jurisdictions are adopting suitable policies and regulations, a broader transition to non-lead alternatives is prevented because resolution remains divided among disparate human user constituencies. Progress has occurred only where evidence is most compelling or where a responsible public authority with statutory powers has managed to change mindsets in the wider public interest...
January 4, 2019: Ambio
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2018: Ambio
Nicole K Ward, Leah Fitchett, Julia A Hart, Lele Shu, Joeseph Stachelek, Weizhe Weng, Yu Zhang, Hilary Dugan, Amy Hetherington, Kevin Boyle, Cayelan C Carey, Kelly M Cobourn, Paul C Hanson, Armen R Kemanian, Michael G Sorice, Kathleen C Weathers
Integrated modeling is a critical tool to evaluate the behavior of coupled human-freshwater systems. However, models that do not consider both fast and slow processes may not accurately reflect the feedbacks that define complex systems. We evaluated current coupled human-freshwater system modeling approaches in the literature with a focus on categorizing feedback loops as including economic and/or socio-cultural processes and identifying the simulation of fast and slow processes in human and biophysical systems...
December 19, 2018: Ambio
Camilla Brattland, Einar Eythórsson, Jørn Weines, Knut Sunnanå
Through the construction of a socio-ecological timeline for the Porsanger fjord ecosystem, this article illustrates the different ways in which environmental and social-ecological changes have influenced the adaptations of rural households in coastal Sami communities in Finnmark, north Norway. The main finding is that, although environmental change in the form of seal invasions and dwindling fish stocks directly impacted the fisheries, the introduction of a new vessel quota system decisively changed adaptive capacity and coastal Sami household adaptation strategies...
December 19, 2018: Ambio
Christopher S Jones, Chad W Drake, Claire E Hruby, Keith E Schilling, Calvin F Wolter
Growth and consolidation in the livestock industry in the past 30 years have resulted in more total farm animals being raised on fewer Iowa farms. The effects of this on stream water quality at the landscape scale have largely gone unexplored. The main objective of this work was to quantify the effects on stream nitrate levels of livestock concentration in two western Iowa watersheds relative to seven other nearby watersheds. To achieve this objective, we used data on high-frequency nitrate concentration and stream discharge, commercial nitrogen fertilizer use, and manure-generated nitrogen in each watershed...
December 19, 2018: Ambio
Faruk Djodjic, Hampus Markensten
Concentrations of phosphorus (P), the main limiting nutrient in freshwater ecosystems, need to be reduced, but this is difficult due to high spatial and temporal variations and limited resources. Reliable targeting of critical source areas, such as erosion-prone fields and parts of fields, is necessary to improve the cost efficiency of mitigation measures. We used high-resolution (2 m × 2 m) distributed modelling to calculate erosion risk for a large area (202 279 km2 ) covering > 90% of Swedish arable land...
December 19, 2018: Ambio
Vernon G Thomas
The chemical composition of non-lead, non-toxic, gunshot used for hunting waterfowl is regulated only in Canada and the USA. No nation regulates the composition of non-lead fishing weights, rifle bullets, and gunshot used for upland game hunting. Compositional criteria for these non-lead products are proposed here, based on established experimental toxicity protocols. Because of the demonstrated acute toxicity of ingested zinc shot to birds, fishing weights and gunshot should never be made of this pure metal...
December 13, 2018: Ambio
David Costalago, Barbara Bauer, Maciej T Tomczak, Karl Lundström, Monika Winder
Seal populations are recovering in many regions around the world and, consequently, they are increasingly interacting with fisheries. We used an Ecopath with Ecosim model for the offshore Central Baltic Sea to investigate the interactions between the changes in fish stocks and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) population under different fishing and environmental scenarios for the twenty-first century. The assumed climate, eutrophication and cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries scenarios modified seal predation impacts on fish...
December 8, 2018: Ambio
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