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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

Stefan van Duijvenboden, Ben Hanson, Nick Child, Pier D Lambiase, Christopher A Rinaldi, Gill Jaswinder, Peter Taggart, Michele Orini
Mechanical alternans (MA) is a powerful predictor of adverse prognosis in patients with heart failure and cardiomyopathy, but its use remains limited due to the need of invasive continuous arterial pressure recordings. This study aims to assess novel cardiovascular correlates of MA in the intact human heart to facilitate affordable and non-invasive detection of MA and advance our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Arterial pressure, respiration, and ECG were recorded in 12 subjects with healthy ventricles during voluntarily controlled breathing at different respiratory rate, before and after administration of beta-blockers...
February 12, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Naomi C Chesler
To accelerate the development of an inclusive culture in biomedical engineering (BME), we must accept complexity, seek to understand our own privilege, speak out about diversity, learn the difference between intent and impact, accept our mistakes, and learn how to engage in difficult conversations. In turn, we will be rewarded by the ideas, designs, devices and discoveries of a new generation of problem solvers and thought leaders who bring diverse experiences and perspectives.
February 11, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Erik L Ritman, A J Vercnocke, M Zamir
The branching architecture of arterial trees traversing the thickness of the left ventricular wall is studied to determine the way in which adequate blood supply is provided to myocardial tissue at different depths within the wall thickness from arterial trees originating at the epicardial surface. The study is based on micro-CT images of tissue biopsies, coupled with a dedicated vascular tree analysis program. The results show that this combination of methodologies allows a more detailed and much more accurate exploration of the vasculature within the sampled tissue than is possible by histological means...
February 7, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Andrey Ethan Rubin, Klimenty Levkov, Osman Berk Usta, Martin Yarmush, Alexander Golberg
Irreversible electroporation of cell membrane with pulsed electric fields is an emerging physical method for disinfection that aims to reduce the doses and volumes of used antibiotics for wound healing. Here we report on the design of the IGBT-based pulsed electric field generator that enabled eradication of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 on the gel. Using a concentric electric configuration we determined that the lower threshold of the electric field required to kill P. aeruginosa PAO1 was 89...
February 6, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Vi Vu, Lorenzo Rossini, Ricardo Montes, Josue Campos, Juyeun Moon, Pablo Martinez-Legazpi, Javier Bermejo, Juan C Del Álamo, Karen May-Newman
Dilated cardiomyopathy produces abnormal left ventricular (LV) blood flow patterns that are linked with thromboembolism (TE). We hypothesized that implantation of mechanical heart valves non-trivially influences TE risk in these patients, exacerbating abnormal LV flow dynamics. The goal of this study was to assess how mitral valve design impacts flow and hemodynamic factors associated with TE. The mid-plane velocity field of a silicone dilated LV model was measured in a mock cardiovascular loop for three different mitral prostheses, two with multiple orientations, and used to characterize LV vortex properties through the cardiac cycle...
February 6, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Hoda Hatoum, Lakshmi Prasad Dasi
Several studies have shown the variation of aortic sinus structures' hemodynamics with different flow and geometric characteristics. They have also correlated aortic sinus hemodynamics with the progression and evolution of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). This study aims at visualizing aortic sinus fluid structure variations as functions of different leaflet calcification degrees and assessing their potential relationship with CAVD. A degenerated 23 mm Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magna valve extracted from a redo-surgery patient was implanted in an aortic root model and tested in a pulse duplicator left heart simulator...
February 1, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
S S R F Rosa, M F F Rosa, M P Marques, G A Guimarães, B C Motta, Y C L Macedo, P Inazawa, A Dominguez, F S Macedo, C A P Lopes, A F da Rocha
This study analyzes the effects of the Rapha® system, which employs red light therapy (RLT) and a natural latex biomembrane in the healing of neuropathic ulcers associated with the diabetic foot. We conducted a randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial with 15 participants that were divided into three groups (GI, GII and GIII): (i) Rapha® system application by the participant and a health professional at home, with clinical status evaluation every 2 weeks at the hospital (GI); (ii) standard protocol used in Brazil, performed by a health professional at the hospital (GII; control); and (iii) the Rapha® system applied by the participant at home and clinical status evaluation every 2 weeks at the hospital (GIII)...
February 1, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
L Derycke, D Perrin, F Cochennec, J-N Albertini, S Avril
Total endovascular repair of the aortic arch represents a promising option for patients ineligible to open surgery. Custom-made design of stent-grafts (SG), such as the Terumo Aortic® RelayBranch device (DB), requires complex preoperative measures. Accurate SG deployment is required to avoid intraoperative or postoperative complications, which is extremely challenging in the aortic arch. In that context, our aim is to develop a computational tool able to predict SG deployment in such highly complex situations...
January 31, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Addison Walker, Johntaehwan Kim, Joseph Wyatt, Abby Terlouw, Kartik Balachandran, Jeffrey Wolchok
Pathological changes to the physical and chemical properties of brain extracellular matrix (ECM) occur following injury. It is generally assumed that astrocytes play an important role in these changes. What remain unclear are the triggers that lead to changes in the regulation of ECM by astrocytes following injury. We hypothesize that mechanical stimulation triggers genotypic and phenotypic changes to astrocytes that could ultimately reshape the ECM composition of the central nervous system following injury...
January 31, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Kun Qian, Maximilian Schmitt, Christoph Janott, Zixing Zhang, Clemens Heiser, Winfried Hohenhorst, Michael Herzog, Werner Hemmert, Björn Schuller
Snore sound (SnS) classification can support a targeted surgical approach to sleep related breathing disorders. Using machine listening methods, we aim to find the location of obstruction and vibration within a subject's upper airway. Wavelet features have been demonstrated to be efficient in the recognition of SnSs in previous studies. In this work, we use a bag-of-audio-words approach to enhance the low-level wavelet features extracted from SnS data. A Naïve Bayes model was selected as the classifier based on its superiority in initial experiments...
January 30, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Peter C Raffalt, Jenny A Kent, Shane R Wurdeman, Nicholas Stergiou
The present study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the Wolf et al. (LyE_W) and Rosenstein et al. largest Lyapunov Exponent (LyE_R) algorithms to differentiate data sets with distinctly different temporal structures. The three-dimensional displacement of the sacrum was recorded from healthy subjects during walking and running at two speeds; one low speed close to the preferred walking speed and one high speed close to the preferred running speed. LyE_R and LyE_W were calculated using four different time series normalization procedures...
January 30, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jesús E Dos Reis, Paul Soullié, Alberto Battaglia, Gregory Petitmangin, Philip Hoyland, Laurent Josseaume, Christian de Chillou, Freddy Odille, Jacques Felblinger
Electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition is required during catheter treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. The remote magnetic navigation technology allows the catheter to be moved automatically inside the heart chambers using large external magnets. Each change of position of the catheter requires fast motion of the magnets, therefore magnetic fluxes are created through the ECG cables, causing large distortions of the ECG signals. In this study a novel ECG sensor is proposed for reducing such distortions. The sensor uses short cables to connect the electrodes to the amplification and optical conversion circuit, using a technology similar to that used for magnetic resonance imaging...
January 30, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Amit Madhukar, Martin Ostoja-Starzewski
Head impacts leading to traumatic brain injury (TBI) present a major health risk today, projected to become the third leading cause of death by 2020. While finite element (FE) models of the human brain are important tools to understand and mitigate TBI, many unresolved issues remain that need to be addressed to improve these models. This work aims to provide readers with background information regarding the current state of research in this field as well as to present recent advancements made possible by improvements to computational resources...
January 28, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Ghazal Ayoub, Young Eun Kim, Tong In Oh, Sang-Wook Kim, Eung Je Woo
Noninvasive continuous imaging of the upper airway during natural sleep was conducted for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) technique. A safe amount of alternating current (AC) was injected into the lower head through multiple surface electrodes. Since the air is an electrical insulator, upper airway narrowing during OSA altered internal current pathways and changed the induced voltage distribution. Since the measured voltage data from the surface of the lower head were influenced not only by upper airway narrowing but respiratory motions, head motions, and blood flows, we developed a pre-processing algorithm to extract the voltage component originated from upper airway closing and opening...
January 28, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Mohammadhossein Ebrahimi, Simo Ojanen, Ali Mohammadi, Mikko A Finnilä, Antti Joukainen, Heikki Kröger, Simo Saarakkala, Rami K Korhonen, Petri Tanska
Articular cartilage constituents (collagen, proteoglycans, fluid) are significantly altered during osteoarthritis (OA). A fibril-reinforced poroelastic (FRPE) material model can separate the contribution of each constituent on the mechanical response of cartilage. Yet, these properties and their OA related alterations are not known for human tibial cartilage. To answer this gap in the knowledge, we characterized the FRPE as well as elastic and viscoelastic properties of healthy and osteoarthritic human tibial cartilage...
January 28, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Adam J Dixon, Jun Li, John-Marschner Robert Rickel, Alexander L Klibanov, Zhiyi Zuo, John A Hossack
Limitations of existing thrombolytic therapies for acute ischemic stroke have motivated the development of catheter-based approaches that utilize no or low doses of thrombolytic drugs combined with a mechanical action to either dissolve or extract the thrombus. Sonothrombolysis accelerates thrombus dissolution via the application of ultrasound combined with microbubble contrast agents and low doses of thrombolytics to mechanically disrupt the fibrin mesh. In this work, we studied the efficacy of catheter-directed sonothrombolysis in a rat model of ischemic stroke...
January 28, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jonathan Garcia, Nisha Patel, Sarah Basehore, Alisa Morss Clyne
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), an important regulator of angiogenesis, binds to endothelial cell (EC) surface FGF receptors (FGFRs) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). FGF2 binding kinetics have been predominantly studied in static culture; however, the endothelium is constantly exposed to flow which may affect FGF2 binding. We therefore used experimental and computational techniques to study how EC FGF2 binding changes in flow. ECs adapted to 24 h of flow demonstrated biphasic FGF2-HSPG binding, with FGF2-HSPG complexes increasing up to 20 dynes/cm2 shear stress and then decreasing at higher shear stresses...
January 28, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Ui Jun Park, Woonhyeok Jeong, Sun Young Kwon, Yunkun Kim, Kimyung Choi, Hyoung Tae Kim, Daegu Son
An absorbable vascular anastomosis device (AVAD) was fabricated and tested in pig liver transplantation experiments. We prepared biodegradable copolymers with various ratios of L-lactide: glycolide and tested their properties including inherent viscosity, in vitro biodegradation, and tensile strength. The mechanical and physical properties of the finally selected copolymers were analyzed according to decomposition time. The AVAD, consisting of two inner rings and one coupler, was fabricated with 5-, 15-, and 20-mm diameter sizes using an injection molding machine...
January 24, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Christian Klemt, Daniel Nolte, Ziyun Ding, Lance Rane, Rebecca A Quest, Mary E Finnegan, Miny Walker, Peter Reilly, Anthony M J Bull
Linear scaling of generic shoulder models leads to substantial errors in model predictions. Customisation of shoulder modelling through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improves modelling outcomes, but model development is time and technology intensive. This study aims to validate 10 MRI-based shoulder models, identify the best combinations of anthropometric parameters for model scaling, and quantify the improvement in model predictions of glenohumeral loading through anthropometric scaling from this anatomical atlas...
January 24, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Ayelet Atkins, Mikhail Burke, Saeid Samiezadeh, Margarete K Akens, Michael Hardisty, Cari M Whyne
Metastasis of cancer to the spine impacts bone quality. This study aims to characterize vertebral microdamage secondary to metastatic disease considering the pattern of damage and its relationship to stress and strain under load. Osteolytic and mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic vertebral metastases were produced in athymic rats via HeLa cervical or canine Ace-1 prostate cancer cell inoculation, respectively. After 21 days, excised motion segments (T12-L2) were µCT scanned, stained with BaSO4 and re-imaged. T13-L2 motion segments were loaded in axial compression to induce microdamage, re-stained and re-imaged...
January 23, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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