Haiyun Li, Qian Zhang, Yi Zhang, Sida Zhang, Ruihua Zhang, Dong Chen, Jingjing Shi, Jianfu Xu, Liqin Li
Nonivamide, an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), is widely used as a riot control agent, police incapacitant spray and pesticide. Although generally considered non-fatal, eye discomfort and even ocular injuries caused by such products are common. Little research has been conducted on the effects of nonivamide on corneal epithelial cells. Cell viability, impedance, flow cytometry, western blotting, and real-time fluorescence analyses were performed to investigate the effects of nonivamide on human corneal epithelial cells (HCE-T cells)...
November 19, 2023: Toxicology
Yunyi Xu, Liqun Wang, Rui Qian, Manyu Zhao, Xuxi Chen, Donglei Sun, Ye Wang, Weibo Cheng, Yiping Chen, Qiurong He, Yi Dai, Yuqin Yao
Silicosis is a severe worldwide occupational hazard, characterized with lung tissue inflammation and irreversible fibrosis caused by crystalline silicon dioxide. As the most common and abundant internal modification of messenger RNAs or noncoding RNAs, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation is dysregulated in the chromic period of silicosis. However, whether m6A modification is involved in the early phase of silica-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and its specific effector cells remains unknown. In this study, we established a pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis mouse model by silica particles on day 7 and day 28...
November 16, 2023: Toxicology
Marie Gasser, Sébastien Lenglet, Nasim Bararpour, Tatjana Sajic, Julien Vaucher, Kim Wiskott, Marc Augsburger, Tony Fracasso, Federica Gilardi, Aurélien Thomas
Human lifetime exposure to arsenic through drinking water, food supply or industrial pollution leads to its accumulation in many organs such as liver, kidneys, lungs or pancreas but also adipose tissue. Recently, population-based studies revealed the association between arsenic exposure and the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. To shed light on the molecular bases of such association, we determined the concentration that inhibited 17% of cell viability and investigated the effects of arsenic acute exposure on adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells differentiated in vitro into mature adipocytes and treated with sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 , 10nM to 10µM)...
November 11, 2023: Toxicology
Ankita Srivastava, Ankur Kumar Srivastava, Abhishek Pandeya, Aditya Bhushan Pant
Being human's one of the most protected organs, brain is yet most vulnerable to xenobiotics exposure. Though pesticide-mediated neurotoxicity is well-explored, the fraternity of neurotoxicologists is less focused on the phenomenon of "silent" or "clinically undetectable" neurotoxicity. Silent neurotoxicity defines continual trivial changes in the nervous system that do not manifest any overt signs of toxicity unless unmasked by any natural or experimental event. Although this perception is not novel, insufficient experimental and epidemiological evidence makes it an outlier among toxicological research...
November 7, 2023: Toxicology
Angela Pavan, Laura Cendron, Andrea Di Nisio, Federica Pedrucci, Iva Sabovic, Alessandro Scarso, Alberto Ferlin, Alessandro Angelini, Carlo Foresta, Luca De Toni
In humans, serum testosterone (T) is largely bound to the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and human serum albumin (hSA), resulting in a 2-3% of unbound or "free" active quote (FT). Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including perfluoro-alkyl substances (PFAS), are recognized to interfere with the hormonal axes, but the possible impact on the FT quote has not been addressed so far. Here we investigated the possible competition of two acknowledged PFAS molecules on T binding to SHBG and hSA. In particular, perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFOA) and acetic acid, 2,2-difluoro-2-((2,2,4,5-tetrafluoro-5(trifluoromethoxy)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)oxy)-ammonium salt (1:1) (C6O4) were used as, respectively, legacy-linear and new-generation-cyclic PFASs...
November 4, 2023: Toxicology
Amir Hosein Sanjari Nia, Mehran Reyhani-Ardabili, Maryam Sheikhvand, Saeid Bagheri-Mohammadi, Hadi Niknejad, Hassan Rasoulzadeh, Abolfazl Movafagh, Sam Kharazi Neghad, Mohammad Baniasadi, Ahad Ashraf-Asgarabad, Mobina Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen Aghaei-Zarch
One of the most frequent environmental contaminants, benzene is still widely used as an industrial solvent around the world, especially in developing nations, posing a serious occupational risk. While the processes behind the toxicity of benzene grounds are not fully understood, it is generally accepted that its metabolism, which involves one or more reactive metabolites, is crucial to its toxicity. In order to evaluate the many ways that benzene could influence gene regulation and thus have an impact on human health, new methodologies have been created...
November 2, 2023: Toxicology
Raffaella di Vito, Mattia Acito, Cristina Fatigoni, Carl H Schiesser, Michael J Davies, Francesca Mangiavacchi, Milena Villarini, Claudio Santi, Massimo Moretti
1,4-Anhydro-4-seleno-D-talitol (SeTal) is a highly water-soluble selenosugar with interesting antioxidant and skin-tissue-repair properties; it is highly stable in simulated gastric and gastrointestinal fluids and is a potential pharmaceutical ingredient that may be administered orally. Hepatic toxicity is often a major problem with novel drugs and can result in drug withdrawal from the market. Predicting hepatotoxicity is therefore essential to minimize late failure in the drug-discovery process. Herein, we report in vitro studies to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of SeTal in HepG2 and hepatocyte-like differentiated HepaRG cells...
November 2, 2023: Toxicology
Rebecca von Hellfeld, Christoph Gade, Neil Vargesson, Astley Hastings
With increasing annual chemical development and production, safety testing demands and requirements have also increased. In addition to traditional animal testing, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling can be used to predict the biological effect of a chemical structure, based on the analysis of quantitative characteristics of structure features. Whilst suitable for e.g., pharmaceuticals, other compounds can be more challenging to model. The naturally occurring heavy metal mercury speciates in the environment, with some toxic species accumulating in aquatic organisms...
November 2, 2023: Toxicology
Regitze Sølling Wils, Nicklas Raun Jacobsen, Ulla Vogel, Martin Roursgaard, Annie Jensen, Peter Møller
Many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and genotoxicity, although there is a paucity of studies on these effects in the pleural cavity. In the present study, we investigated adverse outcomes of pleural exposure to multi-walled CNTs (MWCNT-7, NM-401 and NM-403) and single-walled CNTs (NM-411). Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.2 or 5µg of CNTs by intra-pleural injection and sacrificed one-year post-exposure...
November 1, 2023: Toxicology
Tian Fujun, Sun Jiabao, Yue Jianmin, Wang Qiyu
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP). HBCD is found in the blood and tissues of most populations and causes a range of toxicological damage to tissues and cells. However, the toxicological effects of HBCD on chondrocytes are not fully understood. Here, we evaluated the toxicological effects of HBCD on chondrocytes and cartilaginous tissue. For this, a model of primary cartilage cells was established. Chondrocytes were exposed to different concentrations of HBCD. Western blot, indirect immunofluorescence, ELISA and other biochemical experiments were performed to analyze the toxicological effects of HBCD on chondrocytes/articular cartilage tissue...
November 1, 2023: Toxicology
Hsiao-Ho Fang, Jiun Hsu, Jyan-Gwo Joseph Su
Etoricoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that possesses properties that include reducing inflammation and relieving pain and fever. Etoricoxib is an oral medication that selectively inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 with high efficacy. Controversies about its cardiovascular side effects have long existed. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a cytoplasmic receptor that plays a key role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and many physiological functions. 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) is a tryptophan metabolite and endogenous AhR agonist...
October 25, 2023: Toxicology
MengMeng Wang, Yue Zhou, GuoXiang Hao, Yue E Wu, Rui Yin, Yi Zheng, Wei Zhao
Emerging studies support that Klotho protects against different kidney diseases. However, the role of Klotho in vancomycin induced acute kidney injury (Van-AKI) is largely unclear. Hence this study aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of Klotho in Van-AKI. The mRNA expression of Klotho and the JAK2/STAT3/GPx3 in renal tissue were assessed by RNA sequence analysis after 600mg/kg Van daily for seven days; Small interfering RNA and recombinant protein are applied to examine the mechanism action of Klotho in vitro and in vivo respectively...
October 24, 2023: Toxicology
Mónica G Silva, Maria Manuel Oliveira, Francisco Peixoto
Mitochondria's role as a central hub in cellular metabolism and signaling cascades is well established in the scientific community, being a classic marker of organisms' response to toxicant exposure. Nonetheless, little is known concerning the effects of emerging contaminants, such as microplastics, on mitochondrial metabolism. Micro- and nanoplastics present one of the major problems faced by modern societies. What was once an environmental problem is now recognized as an one-health issue, but little is known concerning microplastic impact on human health...
October 23, 2023: Toxicology
Shaghayegh Aghajanshakeri, Ramin Ataee, Mohammad Karami, Shahin Aghajanshakeri, Mohammad Shokrzadeh
The hematopoietic factor granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been identified via its capacity to promote bone marrow progenitors' development and differentiation into granulocytes and macrophages. Extensive pre-clinical research has established its promise as a critical therapeutic target in an assortment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Despite the broad literature on GM-CSF as hematopoietic of stem cells, the cyto/geno protective aspects remain unknown. This study aimed to assess the cyto/geno protective possessions of GM-CSF on cypermethrin-induced cellular toxicity on HFF-1 cells as an in vitro model...
October 21, 2023: Toxicology
Hui Chen, Wei Zhang, Song Luo, Yanshu Li, Qian Zhu, Yongli Xia, Hong Tan, Ying Bian, Yaobing Li, Jianmin Ma, Wei Chen, Xietian Luo, Gaochun Zhu
Lead (Pb), as a heavy metal that is easily exposed in daily life, can cause damage to various systems of body. Apoptosis is an autonomous cell death process regulated by genes in order to maintain the stability of internal environment, which plays an important role in the development of nervous system. RB binding protein 4 (RBBP4) is one of the core histone binding subunits and is closely related to the apoptosis process of nervous system cells. However, it is not known whether RBBP4 can regulate neuronal apoptosis in lead-exposed environments...
October 20, 2023: Toxicology
Yu-Hong Xie, Ling Wang, Ming-Liang Li, Zhi-Cheng Gong, Jie Du
There is an increasing evidence suggesting that myo-inositol (MI) may be a renoprotective factor. Our previous study revealed that decreased MI concentrations and increased excretion are often observed in animal models of renal injury and in patients with nephropathy. However, the role of MI supplementation in renal injury remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of MI in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). We established a model of acute kidney injury caused by cisplatin (CDDP)...
October 18, 2023: Toxicology
Iru Paudel, A Rasim Barutcu, Raymond Samuel, Marjory Moreau, Scott D Slattery, Leslie Recio
New Approach Methodologies (NAMs) are being widely used to reduce, refine, and replace, animal use in studying toxicology. For respiratory toxicology, this includes both in silico and in vitro alternatives to replace traditional in vivo inhalation studies. 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-DCP) is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in agriculture as a pre-planting fumigant. Short-term exposure of humans to 1,3-DCP can result in mucous membrane irritation, chest pain, headache, and dizziness. In our previous work, we exposed differentiated cells representing different parts of the respiratory epithelium to 1,3-DCP vapor, measured cytotoxicity, and did In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation (IVIVE)...
October 18, 2023: Toxicology
Joshua Jin, Valentina L Kouznetsova, Santosh Kesari, Igor F Tsigelny
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a fungal metabolite found in animal feeds and human foods. It is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic of aflatoxins and is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen. Dietary exposure to AFB1 and infection with chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) make up two of the major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These two major risk factors raise the probability of synergism between the two agents. This review proposes some collaborative molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between AFB1 and HBV in accelerating or magnifying the effects of HCC...
October 17, 2023: Toxicology
Wen-Qiang Ren, Nuo Liu, Yan Shen, Xian-Yan Wang, Qiong Zhou, Chen Rui, Xiao-Han Yang, Sheng-Long Cao, Ling-Yu Li, Yan Wang, Qu-Nan Wang
Epidemical and animal experiments have shown that exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) can cause neurotoxicity, but the mechanism is not clear. Blood brain barrier (BBB) is one of the most important tissues to protect the brain. However, whether DEHP can disrupt the BBB or not remains unclear. The objective is to investigate the potential effects of subchronic DEHP exposure on BBB integrity and discuss the role of BBB in DEHP inducible neurotoxicity with an emphasis on neuroinflammatory responses...
October 17, 2023: Toxicology
Hyo Jin Gu, Jin Seop Ahn, Gi Jeong Ahn, Seung Hee Shin, Buom-Yong Ryu
Particulate matter (PM) generated by environmental and air pollution is known to have detrimental effects on human health. Among these, PM2.5 particles (diameter < 2.5 μm) can breach the alveolar-capillary barrier and disseminate to other organs, posing significant health risks. Numerous studies have shown that PMs can harm various organs, including the reproductive system. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the harmful effects of PM2.5 on mouse GC-1 spermatogonia cells (GC-1 spg cells) and to verify the ameliorative effects of parthenolide (PTL) treatment on damaged GC-1 spg cells...
October 17, 2023: Toxicology
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