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Development, Growth & Differentiation

Kentaro Ishida, Tetsuichiro Saito, Toshiyuki Mitsui
Selective cell death by apoptosis plays important roles in organogenesis. Apoptotic cells are observed in the developmental and homeostatic processes of several ectodermal organs, such as hairs, feathers, and mammary glands. In chick feather development, apoptotic events have been observed during feather morphogenesis, but have not been investigated during early feather bud formation. Previously, we have reported a method for generating feather buds on a bioengineered skin from dissociated skin epithelial and mesenchymal cells in three-dimensional culture...
January 24, 2019: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tao Jiang, Yanhua Chen, Zhichen Tan, Jiashuang Li, Ping Qian, Shunming Tang, Xingjia Shen
Diapause is an important characteristic of insects used to adapt to extreme changes in environmental conditions. Embryonic diapause of the bivoltine silkworm (Bombyx mori) is determined by environmental conditions experienced by the mother while in the embryo stage. If they are incubated at 25°C with natural light, their progenies will be diapause-destined. If they are incubated at 17°C in darkness, their progenies will be non-diapause-destined. The molecular mechanism of diapause remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed two downregulated genes (BGIBMGA003835, BGIBMGA012335) and two upregulated genes (BGIBMG012996, BGIBMG002426) related to carbohydrate metabolism, verified differentially expressed in ovaries and heads of 1-day-old fifth-instar larvae to 6-day pupae by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
January 17, 2019: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yue Gao, Yaqin Wang, Chan Zhou, Shuangbo Kong, Jinhua Lu, Haibin Wang, Jing Yang
Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7), a member of the deubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme family, regulates protein stability and has a well-characterized function in tumorigenesis. Given its critical role in growth and development, it was speculated to be involved in modulating processes in the female reproductive system but its exact role has not been elucidated. Decidualization is one of the key processes in pregnancy and aberrant decidualization is a cause of pregnancy failure. The uterine endometrium layer undergoes significant structural and functional changes during decidualization in preparation for and after embryo implantation...
January 9, 2019: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Mikiko Tanaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Seitaro Denbo, Katsutoshi Aono, Takaaki Kai, Rei Yagasaki, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, Hiroshi Suga
The genome sequences of unicellular holozoans, the closest relatives to animals, are shedding light on the evolution of animal multicellularity, shaping the genetic contents of the putative premetazoans. However, the assembly quality of the genomes remains poor compared to the major model organisms such as human and fly. Improving the assembly is critical for precise comparative genomics studies and further molecular biological studies requiring accurate sequence information such as enhancer analysis and genome editing...
December 25, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Benjamin Kruppke, Christiane Heinemann, Alena-Svenja Wagner, Jana Farack, Sabine Wenisch, Hans-Peter Wiesmann, Thomas Hanke
In order to investigate the influence of calcium and strontium ion concentration on human bone marrow stromal cells and their differentiation to osteoblasts, different cell culture media have been used. Even though this study does not contain a bone substitute material, the reason for this study was the decrease of cation concentration by many biomaterials, due to induced apatite precipitation. As a consequence, the reduced calcium ion concentration is known to affect osteoblastic development. Therefore, the main focus was put on the question, whether an increased strontium concentration (in the range of mM) might be suitable to compensate the lack of calcium ions...
December 25, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Di Zhao, Siyu Chen, Xiao Liu
The nervous systems in most bilaterians are centralized, composed of central nervous systems (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). Common molecular and cellular patterns of medial nerve cords have been observed in various distantly related bilaterians, suggesting deep homology of CNS. The development patterns of PNS, however, are more diverse than CNS across different phylogenetic lineages and the evolution of PNS so far has been thought to be polygenic. The molecular and cellular programs during the development of PNS among different bilaterian branches are drastically different...
December 21, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Randall B Widelitz, Gee-Way Lin, Yung-Chih Lai, Julie A Mayer, Pin-Chi Tang, Hsu-Chen Cheng, Ting-Xin Jiang, Chih-Feng Chen, Cheng-Ming Chuong
Many animals can change the size, shape, texture and color of their regenerated coats in response to different ages, sexes, or seasonal environmental changes. Here, we propose that the feather core branching morphogenesis module can be regulated by sex hormones or other environmental factors to change feather forms, textures or colors, thus generating a large spectrum of complexity for adaptation. We use sexual dimorphisms of the chicken to explore the role of hormones. A long-standing question is whether the sex-dependent feather morphologies are autonomously controlled by the male or female cell types, or extrinsically controlled and reversible...
December 19, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Ayaka Kinoshita, Hirokazu Tsukaya
The aerial part of seed plants is called the shoot, which is composed of stems, leaves, and axial buds. These are produced by indeterminate activity in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), whereas the morphogenesis of leaves depends on determinate activity of leaf meristems. However, one-leaf plants in the Gesneriaceae family (eudicots) do not have a typical SAM and do not produce new organs when in the vegetative phase. Instead, they have one cotyledon whose growth is indeterminate. This peculiar development is supported by the groove meristem, which corresponds to the canonical SAM, and the basal meristem, which corresponds to the typical leaf meristem...
December 18, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Koji Yoshimura, Yoshiaki Morino, Hiroshi Wada
The origin of the notochord is a central issue in chordate evolution. This study examined the development of the acorn worm pygochord, a putative homologue of the notochord. Because the pygochord differentiates only after metamorphosis, the developmental was followed process by inducing regeneration after artificial amputation in Ptychodera flava. It was found that although the regeneration of the posterior part of the body did not proceed via formation of an obvious regeneration bud, pygochord regeneration was observed within a few weeks, possibly via trans-differentiation of endoderm cells...
December 18, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Wataru Katano, Yuuta Moriyama, Jun K Takeuchi, Kazuko Koshiba-Takeuchi
The heart is one of the vital organs and is functionalized for blood circulation from its early development. Some vertebrates have altered their living environment from aquatic to terrestrial life over the course of evolution and obtained circulatory systems well adapted to their lifestyles. The morphology of the heart has been changed together with the acquisition of a sophisticated respiratory organ, the lung. Adaptation to a terrestrial environment requires the coordination of heart and lung development due to the intake of oxygen from the air and the production of the large amount of energy needed for terrestrial life...
December 13, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Masaru Bamba, Yawako W Kawaguchi, Takashi Tsuchimatsu
Ever since Darwin, one of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to unravel the process and mechanisms of adaptation and speciation. Population genomics-the analysis of whole-genome polymorphism data from large population samples-is a critical approach to study adaptation and speciation, as population genomics datasets enable us to: (1) perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to find genes underlying adaptive phenotypic variations; (2) scan the footprints of selection across the genome to pinpoint loci under selection; and (3) infer the structure and demographic history of populations...
November 25, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Toru Miura
Phenotypic plasticity and polyphenism, in which phenotypes can be changed depending on environmental conditions, are common in insects. Several studies focusing on physiological, developmental, and molecular processes underlying the plastic responses have revealed that similar endocrine mechanisms using juvenile hormone (JH) are used to coordinate the flexible developmental processes. This review discusses accumulated knowledge on the caste polyphenism in social insects (especially termites), the wing and the reproductive polyphenisms in aphids, and the nutritional polyphenism and sexual dimorphism in stag beetles...
November 23, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hiroshi Kudoh
Seasonal developmental plasticity, which consists of season-dependent alternations of developmental processes, has evolved to produce optimal phenotypes depending on specific periods in a year. For example, many phenological events in plants, such as flowering, fruiting, bud blast, bud formation, and growth cessation, are often controlled seasonally. Although temperature and photoperiod are the two major seasonal cues for such responses, the importance of phase lag between annual oscillations of the two signals has been unexplored, despite its universal nature in the context of seasonal environments...
November 22, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Eri Okamoto, Yuuta Moriyama, Shigehiro Kuraku, Kei-Ichi Kai, Mikiko Tanaka
In amniotes, limb muscle precursors de-epithelialize from the ventral dermomyotome and individually migrate into limb buds. In catsharks, Scyliorhinus, fin muscle precursors are also derived from the ventral dermomyotome, but shortly after de-epithelialization, they reaggregate within the pectoral fin bud and differentiate into fin muscles. Delamination of muscle precursors has been suggested to be controlled by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its tyrosine kinase receptor (MET) in amniotes. Here, we explore the possibility that HGF/MET signaling regulates the delamination of appendicular muscle precursors in embryos of the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula...
January 2019: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Toshiya Ando, Teruyuki Niimi
Many organisms show various geometric color patterns on their bodies, and the developmental, evolutionary, genetic, and ecological bases of these patterns have been intensely studied in various organisms. Ladybird beetles display highly diverse patterns of wing (elytral) color and are one of the most attractive model organisms for studying these characteristics. In this study, we reviewed the genetic history of elytral color patterns in the Asian multicolored ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis from the classical genetic studies led by the pupils of Thomas Hunt Morgan and Theodosius Dobzhansky to recent genomic studies that revealed that a single GATA transcription factor gene, pannier, regulates the highly diverse elytral color patterns in this species...
January 2019: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Shosei Yoshida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hironobu Fujiwara, Ko Tsutsui, Ritsuko Morita
Over the past decade, multiple stem cell compartments have been identified within the epidermis. These stem cell pools have different transcriptional properties, proliferative modes and anatomical locations, and they maintain distinct epidermal compartments. The importance of this stem cell heterogeneity and compartmentalization has been understood as a key feature in epidermal homeostasis. However, recent studies have revealed that these heterogeneous stem cells themselves act as a niche for neighboring cells, thereby establishing spatially and temporally patterned epidermal-dermal functional units...
December 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Rina Nagata, Tatsushi Igaki
Cell competition is a context-dependent cell elimination through short-range cell-cell interaction, in which cells with higher fitness eliminate neighboring less-fit or oncogenic cells within the growing tissue. Cell competition can be triggered by many different factors such as heterozygous mutations in the ribosomal protein genes (which are called "Minute" mutations), elevated Myc, Yorkie/YAP, Wg/Wnt, JAK-STAT, Ras, or Src activity, and loss of Mahjong/VprBP, endocytic pathway components, or apicobasal cell polarity...
November 15, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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