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Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Ngangyola Tuikhar, Santosh Keisam, Rajendra Kumar Labala, Imrat, Padma Ramakrishnan, Moirangthem Cha Arunkumar, Giasuddin Ahmed, Elena Biagi, Kumaraswamy Jeyaram
Gut microbiota is among the factors that may be involved in healthy aging. Broader and geographically spread studies on gut microbiota of centenarians can help in identifying a common signature of longevity. We identified an endogamous Indian population with high centenarian prevalence. Here, we compared the gut microbiota composition and fecal metabolites of a centenarians group (˜100 years) with young people (25-45 years) of the region with the high centenarian prevalence and the nearby region of low centenarian prevalence to decipher microbial-related longevity signatures...
February 6, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
M Shamim Nassrally, Ashley Lau, Katherine Wise, Noah John, Sanjeev Kotecha, Kar Lai Lee, Robert F Brooks
In replicative senescence, cells with critically-short telomeres activate a DNA-damage response leading to cell-cycle arrest, while those without telomere dysfunction would be expected to cycle normally. However, population growth declines more gradually than such a simple binary switch between cycling and non-cycling states would predict. We show here that late-passage cultures of human fibroblasts are not a simple mixture of cycling and non-cycling cells. Rather, although some cells had short cycle times comparable to those of younger cells, others continued to divide but with greatly extended cycle times, indicating a more-gradual approach to permanent arrest...
January 30, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Shubham Banga, Stefan D Heinze-Milne, Susan E Howlett
In clinical medicine, the concept of frailty is viewed as a state of high vulnerability to adverse health outcomes in people of the same age. Frailty is an important challenge because the loss of physiological reserve means that even minor stressors can lead to disability and death in those who are frail. Even so, the biology of frailty is not well understood. Rodent models of frailty are stimulating research into the biology of frailty. These pre-clinical models are based on "reverse-translation"...
January 28, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Pampa Saha, Nilkantha Sen
Tau, a microtubule-associated protein promotes assembly and stability of microtubules which is related to axoplasmic flow and critical neuronal activities upon physiological conditions. Under neurodegenerative condition such as in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), tau-microtubule binding dynamics and equilibrium are severely affected due to its aberrant post-translational modifications including acetylation and hyperphosphorylation. This event results in its conformational changes to form neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) after aggregation in the cytosol...
January 19, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Emmanuel Moyse, Madeleine Arsenault, Pierrette Gaudreau, Guylaine Ferland, Charles Ramassamy
Caloric restriction (CR) is the most effective intervention to improve health span and extend lifespan in preclinical models. This anti-aging effect of CR is related to attenuation of oxidative damage in various tissues, with divergent results in the brain. We addressed how brain oxidoreductive balance would be modulated in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats submitted to a 40% CR from 8 to 19 months of age, by reference to ad libitum-fed (AL) rats at 2 and 19 months of age. Four brain structures were compared: hippocampus, striatum, parietal cortex, cerebellum...
January 16, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Philip Rosenstock, Veronika Bezold, Kaya Bork, Jonas Scheffler, Rüdiger Horstkorte
One hallmark of molecular aging is glycation, better known as formation of so-called advanced glycation end products (AGEs), where reactive carbonyls react with amino-groups of proteins. AGEs accumulate over time and are responsible for various age-dependent diseases and impairments. Two very potent dicarbonyls to generate AGEs are glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO). The plasma level of such dicarbonyls is higher in aging and age-related diseases. Natural killer (NK) cells are cells of the innate immune system and provide a major defense against tumor cells and virus infected cells...
January 16, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
E Ferri, C Gussago, M Casati, D Mari, P D Rossi, S Ciccone, M Cesari, B Arosio
INTRODUCTION: The genetic background plays a role on longevity. The distribution of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) variants (ε2, ε3, ε4) may differ across age groups, especially in the oldest old and despite geographical and ethnic specificities. Since the ε4 variant is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), it might represent an opportunity for exploring the relationship of APOE with physiological and pathological aging. AIM: To explore the role played by APOE genotype/alleles on physiological and pathological brain aging...
January 15, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
E Acquarone, F Monacelli, R Borghi, A Nencioni, P Odetti
From a biological point of view, aging can be considered a progressive inability of an organism to react to stress, maintain homeostasis, and survive unfavourable changes during post-maturational life. The expression of several adipokines changes during aging and for some changes, a role in the onset of chronic disease and frailty has been proposed. Among adipokines, resistin was shown in recent studies to play a key role in aging. Resistin is a small secreted protein that regulates glucose metabolism in mammalians...
January 13, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Valérie Haydont, Véronique Neiveyans, Nicolas O Fortunel, Daniel Asselineau
Interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibroblasts are essential for maintaining dermis integrity, and are subject to ageing. The 'tissue skeleton' network connects ECM to the nucleus and DNA, impacting nuclear shape and gene expression. In a previous Mech Ageing Dev publication, we have presented a transcriptomic study of papillary (Fp) and reticular (Fr) fibroblasts, with a main focus on Fp ageing. As shown here, ageing affects 'tissue skeleton' transcripts, even more clearly in Fr than in Fp...
January 11, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Zewu Zhu, Weiping Xia, Yu Cui, Feng Zeng, Yang Li, Zhongqing Yang, Chen Hequn
Klotho gene polymorphisms have been implicated in healthy aging, but inconsistences in findings from previous case-control studies have raised concerns regarding the associations between KLOTHO gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to aging-related diseases and longevity. Hence, this meta-analysis was performed. We assessed the associations between two polymorphisms (G-395 A/rs1207568 and F352 V/rs9536314) and five parameters (urolithiasis, cognitive impairment, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and longevity) by calculating pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals...
January 8, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Rumi Arai, Atsuki En, Yuki Takauji, Keisuke Maki, Kensuke Miki, Michihiko Fujii, Dai Ayusawa
Cellular senescence is a phenomenon of irreversible growth arrest in mammalian somatic cells in culture. Various stresses induce cellular senescence and indeed, we have found that excess thymidine effectively induces cellular senescence in human cells. Further, many reports indicate the implication of chromatin proteins in cellular senescence. Here we analysed the role of lamin B receptor (LBR), a nuclear envelope protein that regulates heterochromatin organization, in cellular senescence induced by excess thymidine...
January 4, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Efstathios S Gonos, Niki Chondrogianni, Aleksandra Mladenovic Djordjevic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Babatunde Fariyike, Quante Singleton, Monte Hunter, William D Hill, Carlos M Isales, Mark W Hamrick, Sadanand Fulzele
MicroRNA's are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of genes by targeting the 3' UTR's of mRNA. Studies reveal that miRNAs play a pivotal role in normal musculoskeletal function such as mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, survivability and apoptosis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis. Changes in normal miRNA expression have been linked to a number of pathological disease processes. Additionally, with aging, it is noted that there is dysregulation in the normal function of stem cell differentiation, bone formation/degradation, chondrocyte function, and muscle degeneration...
December 6, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Hongcai Cai, Yamin Li, Jean Damascene Niringiyumukiza, Ping Su, Wenpei Xiang
Circular RNA (circRNA) is a class of newly discovered noncoding RNA (ncRNA), presenting as a special covalent loop without a 5' cap or 3' tail. Multiple biological properties of circRNA have been revealed during the past decades, such as widespread expression, high conservation, cell-specificity, tissue-specificity and developmental stage-specific expression patterns, as well as resistance to RNase R digestion. CircRNA also exhibits diverse biological functions, including regulation of host genes, alternative splicing, miRNA sponges, protein traps and even protein synthesis...
December 1, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Qi Zhu, Linsheng Huang, Jian Zhu, Jianquan Lu, Huanlong Qin
Promoting the health span and lifespan of humans is the ultimate proposition of medical science. Several lifespan-reducing chronic diseases are associated with alterations in the gut microbiota (GM) composition. We aimed to identify the particular age-related GM trajectory in older Chinese adults and investigated the characteristic gut bacterial taxa of long-lived Chinese individuals. Faecal samples from 375 older adults (centenarians or adults nearly 100 years old and their younger immediate relatives) from a longevity area in East China were analysed by 16S-rRNA sequencing...
November 21, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Qi Zhu, Linsheng Huang, Jian Zhu, Jianquan Lu, Huanlong Qin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Luigi Fontana, Jamil Nehme, Marco Demaria
Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest characterized by hypertrophy and secretion of various bioactive molecules, a phenomenon defined the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP). Senescent cells are implicated in a number of biological functions, from embryogenesis to aging. Significantly, excessive accumulation of senescent cells is associated to a decline of regenerative capacity and chronic inflammation. In accordance, the removal of senescent cells is sufficient to delay several pathologies and promote healthspan...
November 3, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Nahid Tamanna, Shyamchand Mayengbam, James D House, Jason R Treberg
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) increases lifespan in several animal models. Despite low dietary intake of sulphur amino acids, rodents on MR develop hyperhomocysteinemia. On the contrary, MR has been reported to increase H2 S production in mice. Enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism also take part in H2 S production and hence, in this study, the impact of MR on hyperhomocysteinemia and H2 S production capacity were investigated using Fischer-344 rats assigned either a control or a MR diet for 8 weeks...
October 25, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Kedar N Prasad, Stephen C Bondy
Many studies show that daily consumption of high-fiber diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing kidney stones, inflammatory disease, colon cancer and other malignancies, obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary fibers are non-digestible polysaccharides that are composed of complex carbohydrates. Based on their relative solubility in water, dietary fibers can be divided into insoluble and soluble forms. An important property of insoluble fibers is their ability to bind with carcinogens, mutagens, and other toxic chemicals that are formed during digestion of food and eliminate them through the feces...
October 15, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Nithya Mary Joseph, Nateshwar Yogindra Elphick, Sasha Mohammad, Johannes H Bauer
Many insect behaviors, including foraging, aggression, mating or group behavior, are tightly regulated by pheromones. Recently, it has been shown that pheromones may influence extreme longevity in the honeybee Apis mellifera, while changes in pheromone profile have been observed during ageing in Drosophila melanogaster. These data suggest a potential link between the pheromone system, behavior and longevity in insects. Here, we investigate this potential link by examining changes in behavior and longevity in fruit flies with altered pheromone profiles...
October 10, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
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