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Journal of Environmental Quality

Nicholson N Jeke, Francis Zvomuya, Nazim Cicek, Lisette Ross, Pascal Badiou
Spreading biosolids on farmland can be an effective and beneficial option for managing end-of-life municipal lagoons. Where the spreading of biosolids on farmland is restricted or unavailable, in situ phytoremediation could be a sustainable alternative. This study examined nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) phytoextraction by cattail ( spp.) from biosolids in a wetland constructed within a lagoon cell previously used for primary treatment of municipal wastewater. The effect of harvesting season as well as harvest frequency on N and P removal were evaluated...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Joshua T Padilla, H Magdi Selim
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of PO on the sorption and transport of glyphosate [-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, GPS] in soils. The results of batch experiments indicated significant competition between PO and GPS in two different soils, with PO being preferentially sorbed. The 24-h Freundlich partitioning coefficients for GPS sorption were decreased by 50 to 60% with PO in solution. High sorptive capacities exhibited by soils in the presence of PO suggest the existence of both competitive and ion specific sites in either soil...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Conrad E Brendel, Michelle L Soupir, Leigh Ann M Long, Matthew J Helmers, Charles D Ikenberry, Amy L Kaleita
The site-specific nature of P fate and transport in drained areas exemplifies the need for additional data to guide implementation of conservation practices at the catchment scale. Total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total suspended solids (TSS) were monitored at five sites-two streams, two tile outlets, and a grassed waterway-in three agricultural subwatersheds (221.2-822.5 ha) draining to Black Hawk Lake in western Iowa. Median TP concentrations ranged from 0.034 to 1.490 and 0.008 to 0.055 mg P L for event and baseflow samples, respectively...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Michael S Massey
Phosphorus recovery from wastewater as struvite (MgNHPO⋅6HO) or dittmarite (MgNHPO⋅HO) can decrease water pollution risk, as well as produce a P-rich material suitable as fertilizer. However, most studies to date have focused on the removal of P from wastewater, rather than on characterization of the recovered P materials. The objective of this work was to apply microfocused X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, and both bulk and microfused X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, to provide insight into the speciation of recovered P in various struvite-containing and struvite-like materials...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Le Hou, Xinju Li, Fang Li
Coal mining has environmental impacts on surrounding areas, including heavy metal contamination of soil. This study explores the feasibility of using hyperspectral remote sensing to determine the heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) content of soils in a coal-mining area in the city of Zoucheng, Shandong Province, China. We used a plasma mass spectrometer to measure the heavy metal contents of soils and an ASD Field Spec4 spectrometer to measure soil hyperspectral data. Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolution smoothing and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were applied to the data, along with multiple mathematical transformations...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Tomas Della Chiesa, Gervasio Piñeiro, Laura Yahdjian
Agricultural soils are the largest single source of NO emissions globally. However, soils left uncultivated would still release NO. Distinguishing anthropogenic from natural emissions (i.e., background emissions) in crops is important if we want to assess the net effect of human activity. This study aimed to characterize NO emissions from croplands and unmanaged grasslands to estimate the net anthropogenic emissions and to gain a better insight into their main drivers. We established a replicated manipulative field experiment in the Pampas Region of Argentina to quantify soil NO emissions from corn ( L...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Vanesa L Perillo, Donald S Ross, Beverley C Wemple, Courtney Balling, Liza E Lemieux
Watershed land use affects nutrient and sediment export, particularly through streambank erosion, which can add to P export and contribute to eutrophication in downstream waterbodies. We characterized P of soils from four different land uses (32 sites) along streams in the Missisquoi River basin (Vermont, USA)-silage corn ( L.), hay meadow, emergent wetlands, and forest-and their corresponding streambanks. We measured total P (TP), pH 4.8 NH-acetate P, degree of P saturation (DPS), and soluble P. The latter three measurements were used as predictors of potential P bioavailability...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Danika N Hill, Inna E Popova, John E Hammel, Matthew J Morra
Although adding manure to agricultural soils is a commonly practiced disposal method and a means to enhance soil productivity, potential environmental contamination by any associated chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) such as hormones and pharmaceuticals is not well understood. Our objective was to provide field-relevant predictions of soil transport and attenuation of 19 potential manure CECs using undisturbed soil columns irrigated under unsaturated conditions. The CEC concentrations in leached water were monitored for 13 wk using high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS), after which time soil in the cores was removed and sampled for extractable CECs...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
María R Yagüe, Alcira S Valdez, Àngela D Bosch-Serra, Carlos Ortiz, Francesc Castellví
Abatement of NH emissions is crucial in calcareous soils under semiarid Mediterranean climates. The aim of the study was to compare NH emissions using different slurry application methods. An experiment was performed on a clay loam soil to evaluate NH emissions before sowing and at winter cereal tillering. Pig slurry was applied using two methods, one that applied slurry by splashing it over a plate (SP), and another that applied slurry in strips using trail hoses (TH). Emissions were measured using semi-static chambers at variable intervals for 12 to 13 d (315...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ed Gregorich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Zhaozhi Wang, T Q Zhang, C S Tan, X Wang, R A J Taylor, Z M Qi, J W Yang
Simulation of phosphorus (P) transfer from manured agricultural lands to water bodies via surface runoff and subsurface drainage is potentially of great help in evaluating the risks and effects of eutrophication under a range of best management practice scenarios. However, it remains a challenge since few models are capable of providing a reasonably accurate prediction of P losses under manure treatment. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was applied to simulate the impacts on dissolved reactive P (DRP) losses through surface runoff and subsurface drainage from a solid cattle manure-amended corn ( L...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ziteng Luo, Jianzhi Niu, Linus Zhang, Xiongwen Chen, Wei Zhang, Baoyuan Xie, Jie Du, Zhijun Zhu, Shanshan Wu, Xiang Li
Macropores formed by roots are crucial channels for preferential flows in forest soils that are largely responsible for water percolation and solute leaching. Using dual-tracer experiments (Brilliant Blue FCF and bromide [Br]), this study investigated the preferential flows of water and solutes in a deciduous forest dominated by Bl. and a coniferous forest mainly planted with (L.) Franco. Dye-stained patterns and concentrations of Brilliant Blue and Br were obtained in vertical soil profiles (0-30 cm), whereas stained and unstained roots were collected and analyzed in horizontal soil profiles to a 30-cm soil depth...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Melanie Couch, Getahun E Agga, John Kasumba, Rohan R Parekh, John H Loughrin, Eric D Conte
The impact of anaerobic digestion of animal waste on the persistence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotics is not widely studied. Two identical, 800-L digesters seeded with swine slurry were followed up to 100 d in three separate trials. The trials received varying amounts of antibiotic-free corn ( L.) mixed with water to maintain the digestion process. Biogas production, seven tetracycline resistance () genes, and three tetracyclines and their transformation products were measured. Biogas production proportionally increased as the feeding loads increased between trials...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Aubert R Michaud, Simon-Claude Poirier, Joann K Whalen
Cyanobacteria growth in Missisquoi Bay of Lake Champlain is triggered by the P load carried by tributaries in surrounding watersheds where agriculture is a dominant land use. The objective of this study was to apportion the total P (TP) load in streamflow from an agricultural subwatershed into distinct hydrologic pathways: groundwater resurgence, surface runoff, and tile drainage components (matrix flow and preferential flow). Stream discharge during peak flow was separated into these four components using electrical conductivity (EC)-discharge relationships developed from the stream water EC at the subwatershed outlet and from EC values of surface runoff and tile drain water in 10 fields within the subwatershed...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Bryan M Maxwell, François Birgand, Louis A Schipper, Laura E Christianson, Shiying Tian, Matthew J Helmers, David J Williams, George M Chescheir, Mohamed A Youssef
Woodchip bioreactors are widely used to control nitrogen export from agriculture using denitrification. There is abundant evidence that drying-rewetting (DRW) cycles can promote enhanced metabolic rates in soils. A 287-d experiment investigated the effects of weekly DRW cycles on nitrate (NO) removal in woodchip columns in the laboratory receiving constant flow of nitrated water. Columns were exposed to continuous saturation (SAT) or to weekly, 8-h drying-rewetting (8 h of aerobiosis followed by saturation) cycles (DRW)...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Christian Nyrop Albers, Vibeke Ernstsen, Anders Risbjerg Johnsen
Pesticides frequently leach through clayey tills, even when they are expected to be strongly adsorbed. In this study, we observed that sorption of two strongly sorbing pesticides, tebuconazole and glyphosate, varied by more than an order of magnitude across soil domains in 5-m-deep clay till profiles with biopores and fractures. Eight soil domains were identified in each of the profiles: five matrix soils and three in the macropores. Tebuconazole sorption was controlled by soil organic matter content, except in the reduced matrix, which was low in organic matter, where there was surprisingly high sorption...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Matthew B Hicks, Jason M Taylor
In large, alluvial floodplains dominated by agriculture, small streams have the potential to experience nutrient enrichment affecting algal assemblage structure and metabolism. Nutrient enrichment is largely driven by application of nutrients and altered hydrologic regimes. To inform stressor-response-based nutrient reduction goals for agricultural alluvial plain streams, diatom assemblages were sampled from 25 streams located within the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (MAP) with various land management practices and associated P and N inputs...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Humberto Blanco-Canqui
Biochar application is considered to be an emerging strategy to improve soil ecosystem services. However, implications of such application on water quality parameters have not been widely discussed. This paper synthesizes the state-of-the-art research on biochar effects on water erosion, nitrate leaching, and other sources of water pollution. Literature indicates that in general, biochar application reduces runoff by 5 to 50% and soil loss by 11 to 78%, suggesting that it can be effective at reducing water erosion, but the magnitude of erosion reduction is highly variable...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
Yixiang Zhang, Xinqiang Liang
The analytical techniques and instrumentation used to assess agricultural and rural nonpoint-source organic pollution loading are usually complex and expensive. There has been a strong demand for alternative methodologies to determine the presence and composition of organic pollutants and to predict their levels. In the current work, we investigated a simple and inexpensive approach combining excitation-emission matrix and support vector machine that measures pollution and predicts the levels of precursors to disinfection by-products, which are organic pollutants derived from agricultural and rural nonpoint sources in small watersheds...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
A Scott Andres, Christopher R Main, D Tye Pettay, William J Ullman
Noxious cyanobacterial blooms are common in many ponds in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Delaware, blooms normally occur between July and October, yet no in-depth analyses of the causes and predictors exist. A study using commercially available, high-frequency, continuous, and automated biogeochemical sensors at Coursey Pond, Delaware, a pond known for perennial summer blooms, was conducted to investigate how hydrophysical and hydrochemical conditions affect bloom dynamics. Cyanobacterial abundance (based on the in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence and phycocyanin/chlorophyll fluorescence ratios) increases during periods of high water temperatures (up to 32°C), low discharge through the pond (mean hydraulic residence time ≥5 d) with evaporative concentration of dissolved solids, and decreasing NO concentrations (reaching <0...
January 2019: Journal of Environmental Quality
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