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Social Science Research

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670224/proximity-and-the-principle-policy-gap-in-white-racial-attitudes-insight-from-views-of-student-assignment-policies-in-wake-county-north-carolina
#1
Andrew J Taylor, Toby L Parcel
We use a survey of residents of Wake County, North Carolina to test a proximity explanation for what scholars call the "principle-policy gap" in whites' views of government action on race. The derived hypothesis is confirmed when underlying broad views of race are represented by ideology. We show that whereas liberals are materially more supportive of racial diversity in student bodies than are moderates and conservatives, this difference is reduced to statistical insignificance as respondents' personal situations are more directly affected by the policy-a condition denoted by having a child of school age...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670223/particularism-and-racial-mobility-into-privileged-occupations
#2
George Wilson, Nick Petersen, Ryan Smith, David Maume
We assess whether the "particularistic mobility thesis", the predominant theory used to explain African American/White differences in mobility dynamics into occupationally privileged positions in the American labor market is applicable across a greater range of occupational destinations than previously considered, and, if so, whether it captures a racialized "glass ceiling". Findings from a 2009-2014 Panel Study of Income Dynamics sample of men support broadening the scope of theory. Specifically, across four white-collar and blue-collar privileged destinations, African Americans, relative to, Whites, have low rates of mobility and are restricted to relying on a circumscribed and formal mobility route that is structured by a traditional range of stratification-based causal factors, i...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670222/the-ben-carson-effect-do-voters-prefer-racialized-or-deracialized-black-conservatives
#3
Gregory John Leslie, Christopher T Stout, Naomi Tolbert
A plethora of research has explored how blacks and whites respond to deracialized and racialized outreach. However, these studies overwhelmingly focus on individuals' reactions to liberal black elites. We explore whether whites and/or blacks favor co-racial elites who take a conservative deracialized position in the form of support for privatizing social security or a conservative racialized position in the form of advocating for ending the norm of political correctness. Using an online experiment with an oversample of black respondents, we find that whites, and in particular white Republicans, have a strong preference for racialized black conservatives over deracialized black conservatives...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670221/the-probability-of-poverty-for-mothers-after-childbirth-and-divorce-in-europe-the-role-of-social-stratification-and-tax-benefit-policies
#4
Daria Popova, Jekaterina Navicke
This paper looks at the effects of tax-benefit systems and social stratification determinants on the probability of poverty among mothers after childbirth and divorce/separation. The analysis was carried out for twelve EU countries, which represent a variety of welfare regimes providing different degrees of defamilialisation. We applied the stress-testing methodology using microsimulation techniques as proposed by Atkinson (2009) and carried out a regression analysis of the simulated results. We show that the degree of income replacement provided by the welfare state is higher for childbirth than for divorce...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670220/what-do-government-unions-do-public-sector-unions-and-nonunion-wages-1977-2015
#5
Jake Rosenfeld, Patrick Denice
In this article we investigate the connection between public sector union memberships and nonunion worker pay. We leverage nearly four decades of Current Population Survey (CPS) data on millions of U.S. workers to test whether public sector union density, measured at the state-level, is associated with higher average wages among unorganized workers. We find stable and substantively large positive effects of state-level public sector union strength on nonunion public sector workers' wages. These results are robust to the inclusion of a range of state-level controls, including GDP, average educational attainment, public sector size, and the strength of private sector unions...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670219/state-government-public-goods-spending-and-citizens-quality-of-life
#6
Patrick Flavin
A growing literature across the social sciences uses individuals' self-assessments of their own well-being to evaluate the impact of public policy decisions on citizens' quality of life. To date, however, there has been no rigorous empirical investigation into how government spending specifically on public goods impacts well-being. Using individual-level data on respondents' self-reported happiness and detailed government spending data for the American states for 1976-2006, I find robust evidence that citizens report living happier lives when their state spends more (relative to the size of a state's economy) on providing public goods...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670218/corrigendum-to-does-community-social-embeddedness-promote-generalized-trust-an-experimental-test-of-the-spillover-effect-soc-sci-res-73-126-145
#7
Sergio Lo Iacono
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670217/response-styles-confound-the-age-gradient-of-four-health-and-well-being-outcomes
#8
Arthur A Stone, Stefan Schneider, Doerte U Junghaenel, Joan E Broderick
OBJECTIVES: Accurate representation of the association of health and well-being outcomes over age can inform us about how well the population is doing, where segments of the population may be in need, and allow hypothesis generation about correlates and causes of observed gradients. In this paper, we examine the possibility that response styles can impact associations between respondent age and four common, self-report variables: overall health; life satisfaction; pain intensity; and, fatigue level...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670216/intermarriage-and-mother-child-relationships
#9
Jenjira J Yahirun
Research indicates that when adult children marry, ties to parents weaken. Yet less is known about how spousal characteristics, and specifically, spouse's race or ethnicity, affect ties to the family of origin. This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to ask how interracial/ethnic marriage, compared to same-race/ethnicity marriage, is associated with ties to mothers among young adults in the United States. Results indicate that offspring who are intermarried differ little in their relationships to mothers compared to those who married same-race/ethnicity partners...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670215/the-link-between-mothers-vulnerability-to-intimate-partner-violence-and-children-s-human-capital
#10
Sonia Akter, Namrata Chindarkar
We propose a conceptual framework to examine the association between mothers' vulnerability to intimate partner violence (IPV) and children's human capital. An important contribution of our framework is that it uses multiple dimensions of human capital and identifies several pathways through which the negative associations of IPV translate to human capital deficits. The conceptual framework is empirically tested using a large-scale representative child-level dataset from India that includes two dimensions of children's human capital - traditional school-based measures of educational attainment, and standardized reading and arithmetic test scores reflecting cognitive ability...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670214/mixed-land-use-and-neighborhood-crime
#11
James C Wo
The concentration of certain land uses has been linked to crime rates; yet, it remains to be seen whether mixed land use, defined as heterogeneity among several land uses, independently affects neighborhood crime. The goal of the current study, therefore, is to build upon the extant literature by examining how mixed land use influences crime, net of specific land uses and sociodemographic characteristics. Using data on Los Angeles block groups, a Herfindahl index was constructed of eight specific land uses to capture mixed land use, and a series of negative binomial regression models were estimated to assess the main and moderating effects of mixed land use on neighborhood crime...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670213/solidarity-through-punishment-an-experiment-on-the-merits-of-centralized-enforcement-in-generalized-exchange
#12
Georg Kanitsar
Solidarity and punishment are both central to maintaining social order, but their interaction remains poorly understood. A number of studies report that punishment undermines solidarity in domains of generalized exchange, whereas other studies find that punishment furthers norm-compliant behavior and thereby promotes solidarity in the realm of public goods. Using a laboratory experiment, this study is the first to directly compare the effect of centralized punishment on solidarity between generalized exchange and public good settings...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670212/are-the-faithful-becoming-less-fruitful-the-decline-of-conservative-protestant-fertility-and-the-growing-importance-of-religious-practice-and-belief-in-childbearing-in-the-us
#13
Samuel L Perry, Cyrus Schleifer
Studies of religion and fertility argue that American childbearing has become less predicated on religious tradition and more on religious commitment and belief. Yet studies have not documented this transition over time or considered whether the growing importance of religious commitment and belief in childbearing applies across Christian traditions equally. Using data from the 1972-2016 General Social Surveys, we analyze childbearing trends across time and birth cohort focusing on the independent and interrelated effects of religious tradition, religious practice, and theological fundamentalism...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670211/how-and-why-have-attitudes-about-cannabis-legalization-changed-so-much
#14
Jacob Felson, Amy Adamczyk, Christopher Thomas
Since the late 1990s public opinion about cannabis legalization has become drastically more liberal, and some states have begun to legalize cannabis for recreational use. Why have attitudes changed so much? Prior research has considered a few of the reasons for this change, but this is the first comprehensive and empirically-based study to consider the wide range of potential causes for how and why this happened. We use data from the General Social Survey, National Study of Drug Use and Health, and word searches from the New York Times...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670210/reproduction-of-social-inequality-through-housing-a-three-generational-study-from-norway
#15
George Galster, Terje Wessel
The means through which socioeconomic status is transmitted across generations has long been of central interest to scholarship on inequality. We explore multi-generational reproduction of socioeconomic status through transmission of housing wealth by investigating how the tenure, size and location of housing occupied by grandparents relates to the tenure and value of housing occupied by their grandchildren. We estimate OLS, tobit and structural equation models based on Norwegian register data on three generations of families linked from 1960 to 2015...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670209/what-do-housing-wealth-and-tenure-have-to-do-with-it-changes-in-wellbeing-of-men-and-women-after-divorce-using-australian-panel-data
#16
Stéfanie André, Caroline Dewilde, Ruud Muffels
Homeownership, as a way to build up housing wealth, is believed to play an increasingly important role in terms of providing welfare to citizens. However, homeownership does not always act as a nest-egg; it can be a source of financial anxiety as well. In this paper we investigate how homeownership and housing wealth impact on the relationship between divorce and subjective wellbeing (life satisfaction, happiness, financial satisfaction). Using longitudinal data for Australia we find that homeowners are more negatively affected with respect to wellbeing by divorce than tenants, amongst others because the owned house becomes a financial burden...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670208/the-effect-of-concealed-carry-weapons-laws-on-firearm-sales
#17
Trent Steidley
Despite numerous studies exploring the link between concealed carry weapons (CCW) laws and the effect of "more guns, more/less crime" it is unknown if liberalizing CCW laws indeed influences legal firearm sales. Building on previous research, I hypothesize that liberal CWW laws are associated with increases in handgun sales while having no association with long gun sales. Using National Instant Background Check System (NICS) data as a proxy for firearm sales and state fixed-effects regression models to examine the effect of CCW laws on gun sales in all 50 states the results can be simply put: liberal CCW laws are associated with increases in handgun sales, are not associated with long gun sales, and are associated with an increase in the overall share of firearms sold that are handguns...
February 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466881/till-multiculturalism-do-us-part-multicultural-policies-and-the-national-identification-of-immigrants-in-european-countries
#18
Akira Igarashi
How do multicultural policies affect immigrants' identification with the country of destination? Theory suggests that these policies may have two opposite effects and either widen or diminish the gap between the national identification of natives and immigrants. In addition to these opposite effects, I expect that the effects of multicultural policies are also diverse depending on immigrants' cultural and social distance from the host society. In this study, immigrants are categorised based on generations and origins...
January 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466880/modeling-the-micro-macro-link-understanding-macro-level-outcomes-using-randomization-tests-on-micro-level-data
#19
Jacob Dijkstra, Loes Bouman, Dieko M Bakker, Marcel A L M van Assen
Analytical sociology explains macro-level outcomes by referring to micro-level behaviors, and its hypotheses thus take macro-level entities (e.g. groups) as their units of analysis. The statistical analysis of these macro-level units is problematic, since macro units are often few in number, leading to low statistical power. Additionally, micro-level processes take place within macro units, but tests on macro-level units cannot adequately deal with these processes. Consequently, much analytical sociology focuses on testing micro-level predictions...
January 2019: Social Science Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466879/how-great-and-how-good-third-places-neighbor-interaction-and-cohesion-in-the-neighborhood-context
#20
Seth A Williams, John R Hipp
Though Ray Oldenburg's (1989) notion of "third places", or places conducive to sociality outside of the realms of home and work, has received both scholarly and popular attention over the past several decades, many of the author's central claims remain empirically untested. The present study considers the association between neighborhood third places, cohesion and neighbor interaction. Drawing on various literatures regarding interaction in public space and neighborhood use-value, we consider how the role of third places might vary according to neighborhood socioeconomic context...
January 2019: Social Science Research
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