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Preventive Medicine

Andrea H Weinberger, Daniel P Giovenco, Jiaqi Zhu, Joun Lee, Rachel S Kashan, Renee D Goodwin
In the United States (US), racial/ethnic groups differ in cigarette smoking behaviors. We examined changes in cigarette prevalence and quit ratios over 15 years by racial/ethnic group (Non-Hispanic (NH) White, NH Black, Hispanic, NH Other). Data were drawn from the 2002-2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) public use data files and analyzed in 2018. Linear time trends of the prevalence of daily, nondaily, and menthol cigarette use and quit ratios (i.e., proportion of former smokers among lifetime smokers) were assessed using logistic regression models...
April 17, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Arne Buerger, Verena Ernst, Vanessa Wolter, Michael Huss, Michael Kaess, Florian Hammerle
Eating disorders are difficult to treat and often associated with morbidity and mortality. Universal prevention approaches are increasingly focusing on enhancing skills, but few eating disorder programs are available for under-15-year-olds. This study aimed to develop and examine a school-based universal prevention program ('MaiStep') for adolescent boys and girls. A three-arm randomized controlled trial with baseline, post-intervention and 12-month follow-up was conducted with 1654 adolescents (M = 13...
April 17, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Farhad Islami, Stacey A Fedewa, Ahmedin Jemal
Recent trends of cervical cancer incidence by histology and age in the United States (U.S.) have not been reported. We examined contemporary trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) incidence rates in the U.S. by age group, race/ethnicity, and stage at diagnosis after accounting for hysterectomy. Incidence data (1999-2015) were obtained from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Incidence Analytic Database. Hysterectomy prevalence was estimated using National Health Interview Survey data (2000-2015)...
April 16, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Roch A Nianogo, May C Wang, Ricardo Basurto-Davila, Tabashir Z Nobari, Michael Prelip, Onyebuchi A Arah, Shannon E Whaley
There is growing evidence that prenatal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) reduces the risk of adverse birth outcomes. With recent changes in health care, rising health care costs, and increasing rates of prematurity in the U.S., there is urgency to estimate the potential cost savings associated with prenatal WIC participation. A cost-benefit analysis from a societal perspective with a time horizon over the newborn's life course for a hypothetical cohort of 500,000 Californian pregnant women was conducted in 2017...
April 15, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Elias Allara, Paola Angelini, Giuseppe Gorini, Sandra Bosi, Giulia Carreras, Cristina Gozzi, Andrea Martini, Marco Tamelli, Ranadhir Reddy Punreddy, Fabrizio Faggiano
We aimed to assess the effectiveness of 'Paesaggi di Prevenzione', a school-based prevention program delivered by trained teachers and designed to tackle smoking, alcohol misuse, dietary risks, and physical inactivity in adolescence. We evaluated the program between 2010 and 2013 with a two-arm, parallel-group, multicentre cluster randomized controlled trial in which schools were the units of randomization. We collected data on health-compromising behaviours using self-reported measurements of behaviour frequency administered before and after program implementation...
April 11, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Andrew F Brouwer, Marisa C Eisenberg, Thomas E Carey, Rafael Meza
HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the U.S., infecting both anogenital and oral sites. Nationally representative data are collected through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). However, changing designations of HPV genotypes as high or low risk and varying underlying populations as new results are reported have made direct comparison of results difficult. We reanalyzed HPV data from NHANES derived from self-collected cervicovaginal swabs (women ages 18-59, 2003-14), penile swabs (men ages 18-59, 2013-14), and oral rinses (men and women ages 18-69, 2009-14), using consistent populations and definitions across NHANES cycles...
April 5, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Katie Thomson, Frances Hillier-Brown, Nick Walton, Mirza Bilaj, Clare Bambra, Adam Todd
Community pharmacies have great potential to deliver services aimed at promoting health and preventing disease, and are well placed in deprived communities. This review of reviews aimed to assess the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered public health services and assess how they impact on inequalities in health using PROGRESS-Plus characteristics. Twenty databases were searched from their start date until January 2018. The quality of the included articles was determined using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews tool (AMSTAR 2)...
April 5, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Kelly R Peck, Maria A Parker, Stacey C Sigmon
Non-medical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) and related overdoses are disproportionately elevated among young adults. Efforts to understand the underlying reasons for NMUPO are critical for developing more effective prevention and intervention strategies for this group. Given the robust literature on the association between educational status and substance abuse risk, we examined the reasons for NMUPO through the lens of educational attainment among young adults. Data from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health came from an unweighted sample of 941 young adults aged 18-25 years who reported past-year NMUPO...
April 2, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Sarah Krull Abe, Eiko Saito, Norie Sawada, Shoichiro Tsugane, Hidemi Ito, Yingsong Lin, Akiko Tamakoshi, Junya Sado, Yuri Kitamura, Ichiro Tsuji, Chisato Nagata, Atsuko Sadakane, Taichi Shimazu, Tetsuya Mizoue, Keitaro Matsuo, Mariko Naito, Keitaro Tanaka, Manami Inoue
Coffee consumption is increasing globally. We aimed to assess the effect of coffee consumption on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight population-based cohort studies in Japan (Japan Cohort Consortium). Data came from eight Japanese cohort studies (144,750 men and 168,631 women). During a mean follow-up time of 17 years, 52,943 deaths occurred. More specifically, 19,495 cancer deaths, 7321 deaths due to heart disease, 6387 cerebrovascular, 3490 respiratory disease and 3382 injuries and accidents...
April 2, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Chen Chen, Christian Stock, Lina Jansen, Jenny Chang-Claude, Michael Hoffmeister, Hermann Brenner
An increasing number of countries have recently introduced colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs. Typically, one specific screening exam, such as fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or flexible sigmoidoscopy, is offered as a primary screening test. We aimed to assess trends in FOBT and colonoscopy use in Germany following the introduction of the offer of screening colonoscopy as an alternative to FOBT in 2002. We used data from 4052 control participants aged 50-79 years recruited during 2003-2016 for a population-based case-control study in Germany...
April 1, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Kara M Whitaker, Qian Xiao, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Penny Gordon Larsen, David R Jacobs, Stephen Sidney, Jared P Reis, Bethany Barone Gibbs, Barbara Sternfeld, Kiarri Kershaw
We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of neighborhood environment characteristics with accelerometer-measured sedentary time (SED), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Participants were 2120 men and women in the year 20 (2005-2006) and year 30 CARDIA exams (2015-2016). Year 20 neighborhood characteristics included neighborhood cohesion, resources for physical activity, poverty, and racial residential segregation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometer at years 20 and 30...
March 30, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Dharma N Bhatta, Robert A Hiatt, Katherine Van Loon, Stanton A Glantz
Active and secondhand tobacco exposures are major causes of cancer. Cancer prevention efforts are particularly relevant in resource-constrained settings in which significant barriers to early detection and cancer treatments contribute to poor outcomes. We assess the associations between exposure to household tobacco smoke and cancer morbidity and mortality. We used household data from Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey, which was a national cross-sectional survey that applied a two-stage stratified random sampling technique in 2015 and 2016...
March 30, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Jessica Reimann, Jennifer E McWhirter, Andrea Cimino, Andrew Papadopoulos, Cate Dewey
Jurisdictions around the world have implemented indoor tanning legislations, which aim to protect all individuals, especially youth, from dangers of artificial ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to synthesize the available peer-reviewed literature to determine whether indoor tanning legislation has impacted the prevalence of youth indoor tanning. Following PRISMA guidelines, six databases were searched in 2016. Reference lists from relevant articles were also searched...
March 30, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Julii Brainard, Rachel Cooke, Kathleen Lane, Charlotte Salter
Active travel (walking or cycling for transport) can generate personal and environmental benefits. We determined the frequency of participation in walking or cycling active travel by age and sex, as well as used multivariate analysis to find correlations with many other factors using a large cross-sectional 2016/17 survey of people living in England. Walking and cycling active travel were explored separately. Most respondents reported no active travel, but at least 25% of people under age 45 met activity recommendations only from active travel...
March 30, 2019: Preventive Medicine
João Firmino-Machado, Sofia Varela, Romeu Mendes, Amélia Moreira, Nuno Lunet
The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a stepwise intervention with an increasing level of complexity and cost to increase adherence to organized cervical cancer screening. This was a randomized (1: 1) controlled trial, conducted among 13 Portuguese primary health care units. Participants (n = 1220) were women aged 25-49 years, eligible for cervical cancer screening, with a mobile phone number available. The tested intervention was a 3-step invitation to screening, based on automated text messages/phone calls (step 1), manual phone calls (step 2) and face-to-face interviews (step 3), applied sequentially to non-adherent women after each step...
March 29, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Thierry Gagné, Amélie Quesnel-Vallée, Katherine L Frohlich
Young adulthood is a sensitive period characterized by the accumulation of resources and transitions in and out of education, employment, family, and housing arrangements. The association between these characteristics and smoking outcomes likely varies with age yet few studies address its dynamic age-graded nature. To explore this, we examined 2083 young adults ages 18-25 from the 2011-2012 cross-sectional sample of the Montreal-based Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking. We operationalized participants' socioeconomic characteristics using their resources (e...
March 29, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Daniel P Giovenco, Torra E Spillane, Bryce A Wong, Olivia A Wackowski
Tobacco companies in the U.S. spend billions of dollars advertising at the point-of-sale. Using photographs of storefront tobacco ads in New York City (NYC), we conducted a content analysis to describe the prevalence of common features across four product categories and illuminate ways in which they may influence behavior. In 2017, data collectors photographed exterior ads from a representative sample of tobacco retailers in NYC (n = 796). We coded each ad (n = 976) for the presence of various characteristics (e...
March 28, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Kate Bartlem, Luke Wolfenden, Kim Colyvas, Libby Campbell, Megan Freund, Emma Doherty, Carolyn Slattery, Danika Tremain, Jenny Bowman, John Wiggers
Primary healthcare services are recommended to provide preventive care to address chronic disease risk behaviours. However, all care elements are infrequently provided, and there is a need to understand the impact of partial care provision on behaviour change. This study examined the association between variable levels of preventive care receipt from primary care clinicians on short-term behaviour change for four risk behaviours. A survey was undertaken with 5639 Australian community health service clients (2009-2014)...
March 28, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Kristen Clements-Nolle, Roy F Oman, Minggen Lu, Taylor Lensch, Leah Moser
Youth who experience alcohol-related problems are at increased risk for developing alcohol dependence. Identifying factors associated with adolescent alcohol-related problems is essential, but most studies have focused on risk factors or a limited number of protective factors, with little attention to sex differences. We assessed the prospective association between 17 assets and alcohol-related problems among male and female youth. A 4-year cohort study with 1, 111 youth living in randomly-selected census tracts in the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area was conducted...
March 28, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Jennifer C Spencer, William Calo, Noel T Brewer
Studies disagree about whether racial and ethnic groups have lower or higher human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake, an important issue given large disparities in some HPV cancers. We sought to characterize and explain racial and ethnic differences in HPV vaccination. We systematically searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Web of Science to identify US studies through mid-2017 reporting associations of race and ethnicity with HPV vaccination. We identified 118 studies (n = 3,095,486) published in English that reported HPV vaccine initiation or follow-through in the US from which we could calculate effect sizes...
March 28, 2019: Preventive Medicine
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