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Journal of Medical Primatology

Fabio Spina, Laura Brizzi, Giliola Spattini, Fabio Faiola, Francesco Birettoni
BACKGROUND: Previous ultrasonographic studies of Sapajus apella to determine the normal anatomy and physiology are incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine normal ultrasonographic appearance and measurements of all abdominal organs and structures of interest. METHODS: Twelve adult monkeys were recruited considered healthy on the basis of history, physical examination, and general blood work. To avoid additional anesthesia, the ultrasonographic examinations were performed during routine screening, annually scheduled by the Unit of Cognitive Primatology & Primate Center, CNR-Rome, where the animals were housed...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Medical Primatology
Heidi L Pecoraro, Melissa R Berg, Brandy L Dozier, Lauren Drew Martin, Cindy T McEvoy, Michael H Davies, Rebecca Ducore
Invasive Candida infections (ICI) have been associated with neurodevelopmental impairment or death in human pre-term neonates. Candidiasis in nonhuman primates is seen mostly in immunosuppressed animals, and ICI is not commonly reported. Here, we report a case of Candida albicans-associated ICI in a pre-term neonatal rhesus macaque.
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Primatology
Sanele Khoza, Thobile Ngqaneka, Zandisiwe Emilia Magwebu, Chesa Gift Chauke
BACKGROUND: Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is a rare metabolic disorder that is characterized by high levels of glycine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in humans. In this study, total congenital cataract captive-bred Vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) that are hyperglycinemic were screened to identify mutations in Bola type 3 (BOLA3), glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5), and lipoate synthase (LIAS) genes. METHODS: Twenty-four Vervet monkeys (12 hyperglycinemic and 12 healthy controls) were selected for mutation analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Sanger sequencing, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Medical Primatology
Collin Richard Diedrich, Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon, Tara Rutledge, Tonilynn Marie Baranowski, Pauline Maiello, Amy J Myers, Philana Ling Lin
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) kills millions of people every year. CD4 and CD8 T cells are critical in the immune response against TB. T cells expressing both CD4 and CD8 (CD4CD8 T cells) are functionally active and have not been examined in the context of TB. METHODS: We examine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BAL) and lung granulomas from 28 cynomolgus macaques during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. RESULTS: CD4CD8 T cells increase in frequency during early Mtb infection in PBMC and BAL from pre-infection...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Medical Primatology
Ana Navarro-Serra, Héctor Sanz-Cabañes
BACKGROUND: Internal temperature data are essential for clinical evaluation in veterinary medicine. During the last decade, new thermometry devices have been developed. Identification microchips with a temperature sensor offer double utility to clinicians by satisfying animal identification regulations and providing a non-invasive method for temperature measurement. METHODS: During this study, 26 healthy vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) were implanted with a subcutaneous temperature transponding microchip...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Medical Primatology
Stacey Carol Kang, Katechan Jampachaisri, Cholawat Pacharinsak
BACKGROUND: Indirect blood pressure measurements are often used to guide clinical decisions, but few studies have verified their agreement with direct arterial blood pressure in nonhuman primates. Here, the accuracy and precision of Doppler (DOP) and oscillometric (OS) [systolic (OSsys), mean (OSmean), and diastolic (OSdias)] blood pressure readings were assessed in rhesus macaques. METHODS: DOP and OS were utilized to measure blood pressure values in nine anesthetized rhesus macaques, which were compared to direct measurements via a saphenous arterial catheter...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Medical Primatology
Cun Li, Susan Jenkins, McKenna M Considine, Laura A Cox, Kenneth G Gerow, Hillary F Huber, Peter W Nathanielsz
BACKGROUND: Non-human primate models of developmental programming by maternal obesity (MO) are needed for translation to human programming outcomes. We present baboon offspring (F1) morphometry, blood cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from 0.9 gestation to 0-2 years. METHODS: Control mothers ate chow; MO mothers ate high-fat high-energy diet pre-pregnancy through lactation. RESULTS: Maternal obesity mothers weighed more than controls pre-pregnancy...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Jonathan B Clayton, Jessica L Danzeisen, Timothy J Johnson, Ava M Trent, Shivdeep S Hayer, Tami Murphy, Arno Wuenschmann, Megan Elder, Zeli Shen, Anthony Mannion, Erin Bryant, Dan Knights, James G Fox
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from non-human primates primate (NHP) with a history of endemic diarrhea housed at Como Park Zoo. METHODS: Fecal samples from 33 symptom-free NHP belonging to eight different species were collected weekly for 9 weeks. Species-level characterization and phylogenetic analysis of isolates included biochemical testing and 16S rRNA sequencing...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Dolores Hernández-Rodríguez, Antonio Acini Vásquez-Aguilar, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva, Eria Alaide Rebollar, Alejandro Azaola-Espinosa
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium genus are considered to be beneficial bacteria for their hosts; however, knowledge about the specific species that are part of the gut microbiome of howler monkeys is scarce. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a useful technique for the identification of non-cultivable or difficult to grow bacterial species. With the goal of detecting species of the genus Bifidobacterium in black howler monkeys, we used PCR on DNA derived from faecal samples. METHODS: We collected and extracted DNA from 40 faecal samples...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Akihiro Hirata, Yoko Miyamoto, Akihisa Kaneko, Hiroki Sakai, Kyoko Yoshizaki, Tokuma Yanai, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Juri Suzuki
Primary neuroendocrine neoplasm of the liver is extremely rare in both humans and non-human primates. The present report describes the clinical and pathological findings of an aged Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) with hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hepatic neuroendocrine neoplasm in macaques.
December 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Aline Vieira Pinheiro Dos Santos, Aline Moreira de Souza, Camila de Souza Cerqueira Machado, Marina Galvão Bueno, José Luiz Catao-Dias, Sabrina Destri Emmerick Campos, Fabiana Batalha Knackfuss, Alcides Pissinatti, Maria Cecília Martins Kierulff, Danilo Gomes de Freitas Silva, Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny
BACKGROUND: The Atlantic Forest where the animals were captured is surrounded by residences, so this close contact could favor the presence of disease-transmitting pathogens, putting the local population at risk. For these and other factors, it is important to perform laboratory tests enabling the performance of important diagnoses. METHODS: Blood samples of 268 golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) inhabiting an Atlantic Forest area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were processed for accessing age and sex influence in hematological parameters and to establish normative hematology values...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Alexandra Confer, Michael A Owston, Shyamesh Kumar, Edward J Dick
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) has not been reported in baboons, but this condition is well described in humans. An internal database was searched for all cases of concurrent endocrine hyperplasia and neoplasia in baboons. Twenty-four baboons (Papio spp.) with concurrent endocrine hyperplasia and neoplasia were identified. Twenty-one baboons had lesions in two endocrine organs, two baboons had lesions in three organs, and one baboon had lesions in four organs. Ten baboons aligned with the MEN1 classification; 14 baboons did not match any current human MEN classification...
December 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Joseph Cyrus Parambeth, Jonathan A Lidbury, Jan S Suchodolski, Jörg M Steiner
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop and analytically validate a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of alpha1 -proteinase inhibitor (α1 -PI) concentrations in serum and feces from the common marmoset. METHODS: Serum samples (n = 30) and 3-day fecal samples (n = 30) were obtained from healthy marmosets. An RIA was established and validated by determination of sensitivity, working range, dilutional parallelism, spiking recovery, and intra- and interassay variability...
December 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Sreetharan Kanthaswamy, Robert F Oldt, Jillian Ng, David Glenn Smith, Melween I Martínez, Carlos A Sariol
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) composition and distribution in rhesus macaque colonies is critical for management strategies that maximize the utility of this model for biomedical research. METHODS: Variation within the Mamu-A and Mamu-B (class I) and DRB, DQA/B, and DPA/B (class II) regions of 379 animals from the Caribbean Primate Research Center's (CPRC) specific pathogen free (SPF) colony was examined using massively parallel sequencing...
December 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Ov Daniel Slayden, Francis Kathryn E Friason, Kise Rosen Bond, Emily Cathleen Mishler
BACKGROUND: Macaques are outstanding animal models for the development of new contraceptives. In women, progestin-only contraceptives often fail to block ovulation and are believed to act by altering cervix physiology. Herein, we assessed oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) in the macaque cervix as a marker for progestogen action. MATERIALS: Rhesus macaques were treated with estradiol (E2 ), E2 plus progesterone (P), and E2 plus levonorgestrel (LNG), a contraceptive progestin...
December 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Marilisa Novacco, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Udo Hetzel, Jean-Michel Hatt, Stefanie Ohlerth, Martina Stirn
An orangutan (Pongo abelii) presented with chronic respiratory problems. Cytological evaluation of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids revealed macrophages with well-circumscribed intracytoplasmic clear vacuoles and lipid droplets in the background, confirmed by Oil Red O staining. The findings were indicative of lipoid pneumonia. This is the first report of lipoid pneumonia in an orangutan.
November 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Bruna Zafalon-Silva, Frederico Aécio Carvalho Soares, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, Miúriel de Aquino Goulart, Gustavo Geraldo Medina Snel, Félix Hilário Diaz González, Dayana Bittencourt Vaz, Bruna Correa Lopes, Moira Ansolch da Silva Oliveira, Marcelo Meller Alievi
A brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) was presented with lethargy, hyporexia, cough and heart murmur. The complementary tests and necropsy revealed pleuropneumonia, bacterial endocarditis and interventricular septal defect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of increased cardiac troponin I levels in this species.
November 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Mostafa Hajinasrollah, Soroush Mohitmafi, Asma Asadian
Phimosis is the inability of the penis to protrude from the prepuce. In the present report, we present two cases of phimosis in two rhesus monkeys. Surgical enlargement of preputial orifice was performed for unrestricted movement of penis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown to us.
October 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Madinah Adrus, Ramlah Zainudin, Mariana Ahamad, Mohd-Azlan Jayasilan, Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah
BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to determine gastrointestinal (GI) parasites commonly found in Malaysia's non-human primates (NHP) living in three different types of populations (wild, urban, and captive) and the basis of major GI parasites of zoonotic importance. METHODS: A total of 308 samples was collected and microscopically screened from the NHP in the wild (n = 163), urban (n = 76), and captive (n = 69) populations. The samples were taken from 12 species of local NHPs...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Shervin Liddie, Haruka Okamoto, Jesper Gromada, Matthew Lawrence
BACKGROUND: Management of diabetes remains a major health and economic challenge, demanding test systems in which to develop new therapies. These studies assessed different methodologies for determining glucose tolerance in green monkeys. METHODS: Twenty-eight African green monkeys between 4 and 24 years old underwent single or repeat intravenous glucose tolerance testing (IVGTT), oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT), and/or graded glucose infusion testing. RESULTS: Geriatric monkeys exhibited glucose intolerance with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion following IVGTT...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
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