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Medical Microbiology and Immunology

Elizabeth Elder, John Sinclair
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency and reactivation is regulated by the chromatin structure at the major immediate early promoter (MIEP) within myeloid cells. Both cellular and viral factors are known to control this promoter during latency, here we will review the known mechanisms for MIEP regulation during latency. We will then focus on the virally encoded G-protein coupled receptor, US28, which suppresses the MIEP in early myeloid lineage cells. The importance of this function is underlined by the fact that US28 is essential for HCMV latency in CD34+ progenitor cells and CD14+ monocytes...
February 14, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Xiaorui Chen, Bo Li, Jinfei Yu, Yue Zhang, Zujian Mo, Tiejun Gu, Wei Kong, Yong Zhang, Yongge Wu
Streptococcuspneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a major respiratory-tract pathogen that causes high levels of mortality and morbidity in infants and elderly individuals. Despite the development of various capsular polysaccharide vaccines to prevent pneumococcal disease, it remains epidemic. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a highly immunogenic surface protein existing in all strains of S. pneumoniae, and it can elicit immunizing protection against pneumococcal infection. In our previous studies, a fusion protein (PsaA-PspA23), consisting of PspA and pneumococcal surface antigen A (PsaA), displayed greater immunogenicity and provided better protection in mice against S...
February 1, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Renan Marrichi Mauch, Claudio Lucio Rossi, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco da Silva, Talita Bianchi Aiello, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, Niels Høiby, Carlos Emilio Levy
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) detection in the paranasal sinuses may help to prevent or postpone bacterial aspiration to the lower airways (LAW) and chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF). We assessed the ability of an ELISA test for measurement of specific Pa secretory IgA (sIgA) in saliva (a potential marker of sinus colonization) to early detect changes in the Pa LAW status (indicated by microbiological sputum or cough swab culture and specific serum IgG levels) of 65 patients for three years, in different investigation scenarios...
January 31, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Andi Krumbholz, Miriam Schäfer, Thomas Lorentz, Andreas Sauerbrei
Infections with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) as well as with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may take a serious course. Thus, rapid and reliable detection of these alphaherpesviruses is urgently needed. For this, we established a qualitative quadruplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) covering HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and endogenous human glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The PCR was validated with quality assessment samples and pre-characterized clinical samples including swabs, blood and cerebrospinal as well as respiratory fluids...
January 24, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Somya Aggarwal, Vikas Kumar Somani, Sonal Gupta, Rajni Garg, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Bacillus anthracis (BA), the etiological agent of anthrax, secretes protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF) as major virulence mediators. Amongst these, PA-based vaccines are most effective for providing immunity against BA, but their low shelf life limits their usage. Previous studies showed that B-cell epitopes, ID II and ID III present in PA domain IV possess higher toxin neutralization activity and elicit higher antibody titer than ID I. Moreover, N-terminal region of both LF and EF harbors PA-binding sites which share 100% identity with each other...
January 22, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Ilaria Sauzullo, Fabio Mengoni, Claudia Mascia, Paolo Pavone, Giulia Savelloni, Anna Paola Massetti, Miriam Lichtner, Vincenzo Vullo, Claudio M Mastroianni
The new QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus employs modified peptides optimized to elicit an IFNγ response from CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes in addition to CD4+ T cells. With a view to improve the difficult identification of TB cases, we assessed the combination of two specific immunological markers comprising IFNγ secretion and T cells co-expression of CD25 and CD134 in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. A total of 34 subjects with suspected TB and 10 age-matched HD were prospectively enrolled...
January 8, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Maura Statzu, Letizia Santinelli, Agnese Viscido, Claudia Pinacchio, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Claudia Rotondo, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Ivano Mezzaroma, Ombretta Turriziani, Guido Antonelli, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Carolina Scagnolari
PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of SAMHD1 to HIV-1 infection in vivo and its relationship with IFN response, the expression of SAMHD1 and IFN-related pathways was evaluated in HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 388 HIV-1-infected patients, both therapy naïve (n = 92) and long-term HAART treated (n = 296), and from 100 gender and age-matched healthy individuals were examined. CD4+ T cells, CD14+ monocytes and gut biopsies were also analyzed in HIV-1-infected subjects on suppressive antiretroviral therapy...
December 18, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Loic Raffray, Claude Giry, David Vandroux, Stéphanie Fayeulle, Marie-Pierre Moiton, Anne Gerber, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee, Philippe Gasque
Leptospirosis is a life-threatening zoonotic disease and it has been hypothesized that the innate immune system fails to control the infection through ill-characterized mechanisms. The aim of this observational study was to better evaluate the activation processes of monocytes at the early stage of the disease. Blood samples were taken from healthy donors (n = 37) and patients hospitalized for either non-severe (n = 25) or severe (n = 32) leptospirosis. Monocyte cell counts and phenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry...
December 12, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Vigyasa Singh, Ujjal Jyoti Phukan
Staphylococcus aureus causes various health care- and community-associated infections as well as certain chronic TH2 driven inflammatory diseases. It is a potent pathogen with serious virulence and associated high morbidity. Severe pathogenicity is accredited to the S. aureus secreted virulence factors such as proteases and host protease modulators. These virulence factors promote adhesion and invasion of bacteria through damage of tight junction barrier and keratinocytes. They inhibit activation and transmigration of various immune cells such as neutrophils (and neutrophil proteases) to evade opsono-phagocytosis and intracellular bacterial killing...
November 27, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Florencia B González, Silvina R Villar, Judith Toneatto, María F Pacini, Julia Márquez, Luciano D'Attilio, Oscar A Bottasso, Graciela Piwien-Pilipuk, Ana R Pérez
Adipose tissue is a target of Trypanosoma cruzi infection being a parasite reservoir during the chronic phase in mice and humans. Previously, we reported that acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice is linked to a severe adipose tissue loss, probably triggered by inflammation, as well as by the parasite itself. Here, we evaluated how infection affects adipose tissue homeostasis, considering adipocyte anabolic and catabolic pathways, the immune-endocrine pattern and the possible repercussion upon adipogenesis...
November 9, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Changle Wang, Xia Chuai, Mei Liang
Gram-negative bacterium Legionella is able to proliferate intracellularly in mammalian host cells and amoeba, which became known in 1976 since they caused a large outbreak of pneumonia. It had been reported that different strains of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella micdadei, Legionella longbeachae, and Legionella feeleii caused human respiratory diseases, which were known as Pontiac fever or Legionnaires' disease. However, the differences of the virulence traits among the strains of the single species and the pathogenesis of the two diseases that were due to the bacterial virulence factors had not been well elucidated...
November 1, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Huali Yin, Jiani Qu, Qiu Peng, Runliang Gan
The early stage of oncogenesis is linked to the disorder of the cell cycle. Abnormal gene expression often leads to cell cycle disorders, resulting in malignant transformation of human cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a diverse range of human neoplasms, such as malignant lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric cancer. EBV mainly infects human lymphocytes and oropharyngeal epithelial cells. EBV is latent in lymphocytes for a long period of time, is detached from the cytoplasm by circular DNA, and can integrate into the chromosome of cells...
November 1, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Vahid Salimi, Habib Mirzaei, Ali Ramezani, Alireza Tahamtan, Abbas Jamali, Shahram Shahabi, Maryam Golara, Bagher Minaei, Mohammad Javad Gharagozlou, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Louis Bont, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhtari-Azad
In the original publication, seventh author's name was incorrectly published as 'Maryam Golaram'.
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Riikka Ihalin, Deyu Zhong, Maribasappa Karched, Casey Chen, Sirkka Asikainen
Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) is covalently incorporated into bacterial surface structures, contributing to host mimicry and promoting adhesion to surfaces. Our aims were to determine the frequency of ChoP display among Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains, to clarify which surface structures bear ChoP, and whether ChoP-positivity relates to serum killing. The tested oral (N = 67) and blood isolates (N = 27) represented 6 serotypes. Mab TEPC-15 was used for immunoblotting of cell lysates and fractions and for immunofluorescence microscopy of cell surface-bound ChoP...
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Aldana G Vistarop, Melina Cohen, Fuad Huaman, Lucia Irazu, Marcelo Rodriguez, Elena De Matteo, María Victoria Preciado, Paola A Chabay
Epstein Barr virus (EBV) gains access to the host through tonsillar crypts. Our aim was to characterize microenvironment composition around EBV+ cells in tonsils from pediatric carriers, to disclose its role on viral pathogenesis. LMP1 expression, assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), was used to discriminate EBV + and - zones in 41 tonsil biopsies. Three regions were defined: Subepithelial (SE), interfollicular (IF) and germinal center (GC). CD8, GrB, CD68, IL10, Foxp3, PD1, CD56 and CD4 markers were evaluated by IHC; positive cells/100 total cells were counted...
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Mohamed A El-Mokhtar, Agnieszka Bauer, Julia Madela, Sebastian Voigt
CD200 is a membrane protein that interacts with CD200R on the surface of immune cells and delivers an inhibitory signal. In this study, we characterized the distribution of inhibitory CD200R in rats. In addition, we investigated if e127, a homologue of rat CD200 expressed by rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV), can suppress immune functions in vitro. RT-PCR analysis was carried out to test the expression of CD200R in different rat tissues and flow cytometry was performed to characterize CD200R at the cellular level...
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Krisana Asano, Kouji Narita, Shouhei Hirose, Akio Nakane
Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), a superantigen produced by Staphylococcus aureus is a causative agent of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) that is frequently associated with tampon use. It has long been suggested that TSS is induced when TSST-1 circulates through the body. However, the systemic distribution of TSST-1 from vagina or uterus has never been demonstrated. In this study, a mouse cervicovaginal infection model was established. Transcervical inoculation with a virulence strain of S. aureus and its derivative TSST-1-deficient mutant demonstrated that TSST-1 distributed to the bloodstream and spleen, and promoted systemic inflammation without bacteremia...
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Michael Schultheiß, Sharon Kling, Ulrike Lenker, Miriam von Bibra, Bernd Rosenkranz, Hartwig Klinker
The role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pediatric antiretroviral therapy is unclear. A little pharmacokinetic datum from clinical practice exists beyond controlled approval studies including clinically stable children. The aim of this study is to quantify LPV exposure of critically ill infants in an ICU and-by identifying risk factors for inadequate exposure-to define sensible indications for TDM in pediatric HIV care; in addition, assume total drug adherence in ICU to compare LPV exposure with a setting of unknown adherence...
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Jiao Hu, Chunxi Ma, Xiufan Liu
PA-X, a fusion protein belonging to influenza A viruses (IAVs), integrating the N-terminal 191 amino acids of PA gene and the ribosomal frame-shifting product that lengthens out to 41 or 61 amino acids. Since its discovery in 2012, multiple functions have been attributed to this small protein, including a process, where wide-spread protein synthesis in infected host cells is shut down (called host shutoff), and viral replication, polymerase activity, viral-induced cell apoptosis, PA nuclear localization, and virulence are modulated...
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Annemarie Berger, Hans Wilhelm Doerr
Several virus infections affect the pregnancy itself as well as the foetal development (rubella, PVB19, VZV, HSV, HCMV, HBV, HIV). Prevention can be established by vaccination or an assessment of the immunity status as well as by chemotherapy. The following review provides an update to current aspects focusing on the role of serologic screening.
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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