Journals International Journal for Para...

International Journal for Parasitology
María Fernández-Álvarez, Pilar Horcajo, Alejandro Jiménez-Meléndez, Carlos Diezma-Díaz, Ignacio Ferre, Iván Pastor-Fernández, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Gema Álvarez-García
Besnoitia besnoiti-infected bulls may develop severe systemic clinical signs and orchitis that may ultimately cause sterility during the acute infection. Macrophages might play a relevant role in pathogenesis of the disease and the immune response raised against B. besnoiti infection. This study aimed to dissect the early interaction between B. besnoiti tachyzoites and primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. First, the B. besnoiti tachyzoite lytic cycle was characterized. Next, dual transcriptomic profiling of B...
May 17, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Hanchen Li, David Gazzola, Yan Hu, Raffi V Aroian
Hookworms (genera Ancylostoma and Necator) are amongst the most prevalent and important parasites of humans globally. These intestinal parasites ingest blood, resulting in anemia, growth stunting, malnutrition, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. They are also critical parasites of dogs and other animals. In addition, hookworms and hookworm products are being explored for their use in treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. There is thus a significant and growing interest in these mammalian host-obligate parasites...
May 16, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Nicholas Scaramella, Ashley Burke, Melissa Oddie, Bjørn Dahle, Joachim de Miranda, Fanny Mondet, Peter Rosenkranze, Peter Neumann, Barbara Locke
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is an invasive species of Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) and the largest pathogenic threat to their health world-wide. Its successful invasion and expansion is related to its ability to exploit the worker brood for reproduction, which results in an exponential population growth rate in the new host. With invasion of the mite, wild honeybee populations have been nearly eradicated from Europe and North America, and the survival of managed honeybee populations relies on mite population control treatments...
May 8, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Jianbo Huang, Ming Chen, Yongli He, Haoyu Chen, Mingming Huang, Na Li, Una Ryan, Martin Kváč, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao, Yaqiong Guo
The horse genotype is one of three common Cryptosporidium spp. in equine animals and has been identified in some human cases. The species status of Cryptosporidium horse genotype remains unclear due to the lack of extensive morphological, biological, and genetic data. In the present study, we have conducted biological and whole genome sequence analyses of an isolate of the genotype from hedgehogs and proposed to name it Cryptosporidium equi n. sp. to reflect its common occurrence in equine animals. Oocysts of C...
May 5, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Louis Bohard, Séverine Lallemand, Romain Borne, Sandra Courquet, Solange Bresson-Hadni, Carine Richou, Laurence Millon, Anne-Pauline Bellanger, Jenny Knapp
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a parasitosis that is expanding worldwide, including in Europe. The development of genotypic markers is essential to follow its spatiotemporal evolution. Sequencing of the commonly used mitochondrial genes cob, cox1, and nad2 shows low discriminatory power, and analysis of the microsatellite marker EmsB does not allow nucleotide sequence analysis. We aimed to develop a new method for the genotyping of Echinococcus multilocularis based on whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing, to determine the genetic diversity among 30 human visceral samples from French patients, and compare this method with those currently in use...
May 4, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Richard D Corner, Thomas H Cribb, Scott C Cutmore
Neospirorchis Price, 1934 is a genus of blood flukes that infect the cardiovascular system, including vessels surrounding the nervous systems of marine turtles. Although the genus comprises just two named species, the available molecular data suggest substantial richness which has not yet been formally described. The lack of description of species of Neospirorchis is probably explained by their small, slender, elongate bodies, which allow them to infect numerous organs and vessels in their hosts, such as the heart and peripheral vessels of nervous system, endocrine organs, thymus, mesenteric vessels, and gastrointestinal submucosa...
April 17, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Alicia Colos-Arango, Andrea Largo-de la Torre, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo
Most Toxoplasma gondii research has been carried out using strains maintained in the laboratory for long periods of time. Long-term passage in mice or cell culture influences T. gondii phenotypic traits such as the capability to produce oocysts in cats and virulence in mice. In this work, we investigated the effect of cell culture adaptation in the short term for recently obtained type II (TgShSp1 (Genotype ToxoDB#3), TgShSp2 (#1), TgShSp3 (#3) and TgShSp16 (#3)) and type III (#2) isolates (TgShSp24 and TgPigSp1)...
April 12, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Collin J Horn, Caroline Liang, Lien T Luong
Body size generally correlates intraspecifically with insect fitness but can also correlate with parasite abundance (number of parasites). Host preferences by parasites, and variation in host immunity, could contribute to this trend. We investigated the effect of host size on mite-fly interactions (Macrocheles subbadius and Drosophila nigrospiracula). Mites strongly preferred to infect larger flies in pair-wise choices, and larger flies were more likely to be infected and acquired more mites in infection microcosms...
April 11, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Robert Poulin, Bronwen Presswell, Antoine Filion, Priscila M Salloum, Xuhong Chai, Jerusha Bennett, Daniela de Angeli Dutra
Experimental approaches are among the most powerful tools available to biologists, yet in many disciplines their results have been questioned due to an underrepresentation of female animal subjects. In parasitology, experiments are crucial to understand host-parasite interactions, parasite development, host immune responses, as well as the efficacy of different control methods. However, distinguishing between species-wide and sex-specific effects requires the balanced inclusion of both male and female hosts in experiments and the reporting of results for each sex separately...
April 5, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Jinming Wang, Kai Chen, Qiaoyun Ren, Shangdi Zhang, Jifei Yang, Yanbo Wang, Yueli Nian, Xiaoyun Li, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin, Guiquan Guan
Parasites of the Babesia genus are prevalent worldwide and infect a wide diversity of domestic animals and humans. Herein, using Oxford Nanopore Technology and Illumina sequencing technologies, we sequenced two Babesia sub-species, Babesia motasi lintanensis and Babesia motasi hebeiensis. We identified 3,815 one-to-one ortholog genes that are specific to ovine Babesia spp. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the two B. motasi subspecies form a distinct clade from other Piroplasma spp. Consistent with their phylogenetic position, comparative genomic analysis reveals that these two ovine Babesia spp...
March 31, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
V Sarabeev, J A Balbuena, A Jarosiewicz, N Voronova, R A Sueiro, J M Leiro, M Ovcharenko
Dispersal of alien species is a global problem threatening native biodiversity. Co-introduction of non-native parasites and pathogens adds to the severity of this threat, but this indirect impact has received less attention. To shed light on the key factors determining the richness of microorganisms in native and invasive host species, we compared symbiotic (parasitic and epibiotic) communities of gammarids across different habitats and localities along the Baltic coast of Poland. Seven gammarid species, two native and five invasive, were sampled from 16 freshwater and brackish localities...
March 31, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Olivier Verneau, Gerald R Johnston, Louis Du Preez
While monogenean worms are mainly parasites of the gills and skin of fish, and to a lesser extent parasites of the oral cavity, urinary bladder, and/or conjunctival sacs of amphibians and freshwater turtles, Oculotrema hippopotami Stunkard, 1924 is the single monogenean polystome reported from a mammal, the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus). Several hypotheses have been suggested in the last decade to explain the origin of this enigmatic parasite which infects the conjunctival sacs of H...
March 31, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Jerusha Bennett, Bronwen Presswell, Robert Poulin
Parasitic helminths exhibit remarkable diversity in their life cycles, although few parasite species have their whole life cycles resolved. Owing to the fact that parasite life stages within hosts are often not comparable using morphological data, genetic data provides convincing evidence of transmission pathways between intermediate and definitive hosts. We took this approach to an ecosystem level, genetically matching parasite (acanthocephalan, cestode, nematode and trematode) life stages across a broad taxonomic range of intermediate and definitive hosts (invertebrates, seabirds, elasmobranchs and teleost fish) in Otago's (New Zealand) coastal marine ecosystem...
March 29, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Céline Ducournau, Pauline Cantin, Vanessa Alerte, Benoît Quintard, Florine Popelin-Wedlarski, Rudy Wedlarski, Florence Ollivet-Courtois, Johanne Ferri-Pisani Maltot, Clément Herkt, François Fasquelle, Mylène Sannier, Mélanie Berthet, Vanessa Fretay, Dominique Aubert, Isabelle Villena, Didier Betbeder, Nathalie Moiré, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson
Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.), new world primates from South America, are very susceptible to toxoplasmosis. Numerous outbreaks of fatal toxoplasmosis in zoos have been identified around the world, resulting in acute respiratory distress and sudden death. To date, preventive hygiene measures or available treatments are not able to significantly reduce this mortality in zoos. Therefore, vaccination seems to be the best long-term solution to control acute toxoplasmosis. Recently, we developed a nasal vaccine composed of total extract of soluble proteins of Toxoplasma gondii associated with muco-adhesive maltodextrin-nanoparticles...
March 28, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Élise Courtot, Morgane Miclon, Barbara Reaves, Adrian J Wolstenholme, Cédric Neveu
Levamisole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic which permanently activates cholinergic receptors from nematodes, inducing a spastic paralysis of the worms. Whereas this molecule is widely used to control parasitic nematodes impacting livestock, its efficacy is compromised by the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. In that respect, there is an urgent need to identify and validate molecular markers associated with resistance. Previous transcriptomic analyses revealed truncated cholinergic receptor subunits as potential levamisole resistance markers in the trichostrongylid nematodes Haemonchus contortus, Telodorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis...
March 23, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Candela Canton, Lucila Canton, Adrian Lifschitz, Maria Paula Dominguez, Luis Alvarez, Laura Ceballos, Laura Mate, Carlos Lanusse, Mariana Ballent
Improvement in the use of existing anthelmintics is a high priority need for the pharmaco-parasitology research field, considering the magnitude and severity of anthelmintic resistance as an important issue in livestock production. In the work described here, monepantel (MNP) was given alone or co-administered with either macrocyclic lactone (ML) or benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics to calves naturally infected with ML- and BZ-resistant gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes on two different commercial cattle farms...
March 22, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Collette Britton, Roz Laing, Tom N McNeilly, Matias G Perez, Thomas D Otto, Katie A Hildersley, Rick M Maizels, Eileen Devaney, Victoria Gillan
How parasites develop and survive, and how they stimulate or modulate host immune responses are important in understanding disease pathology and for the design of new control strategies. Microarray analysis and bulk RNA sequencing have provided a wealth of data on gene expression as parasites develop through different life-cycle stages and on host cell responses to infection. These techniques have enabled gene expression in the whole organism or host tissue to be detailed, but do not take account of the heterogeneity between cells of different types or developmental stages, nor the spatial organisation of these cells...
March 15, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
William J Maciejowski, Gillian H Gile, Jon Jerlström-Hultqvist, Joel B Dacks
The eukaryotic phylum Parabasalia is composed primarily of anaerobic, endobiotic organisms such as the veterinary parasite Tritrichomonas foetus and the human parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, the latter causing the most prevalent, non-viral, sexually transmitted disease world-wide. Although a parasitic lifestyle is generally associated with a reduction in cell biology, T. vaginalis provides a striking counter-example. The 2007 T. vaginalis genome paper reported a massive and selective expansion of encoded proteins involved in vesicle trafficking, particularly those implicated in the late secretory and endocytic systems...
March 8, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Árni Kristmundsson, Fjóla Rut Svavarsdóttir, Friðþjófur Árnason, Þórólfur Antonsson, Guðni Guðbergsson, Hildur Magnúsdóttir, Mark Andrew Freeman
Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a myxozoan parasite and the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD), a serious, temperature-dependent and emerging disease affecting salmonid fish. It was first identified in Iceland in 2008, from Arctic charr inhabiting a shallow lowland lake. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and prevalence of macroscopic and subclinical T. bryosalmonae infections in Icelandic salmonids and compare different time periods, lake depths, altitudes, areas, volumes and fish age...
February 21, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Eleanor R Dickinson, Karin Orsel, Christine Cuyler, Susan J Kutz
Parasites can impact wildlife populations through their effects on host fitness and survival. The life history strategies of a parasite species can dictate the mechanisms and timing through which it influences the host, however, unravelling this species-specific effect is difficult as parasites generally occur as part of a broader community of co-infecting parasites. Here, we use a unique study system to explore how life histories of different abomasal nematode species may influence host fitness. We examined abomasal nematodes in two adjacent, but isolated, West Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) populations...
February 16, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
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