Journals International Journal for Para...

International Journal for Parasitology
William J Smith, Michał T Jezierski, Jenny C Dunn, Sonya M Clegg
Interactions between wild, feral, and domestic animals are of economic and conservation significance. The pigeon Columba livia is a synanthropic species in a feral form, but it also includes the rare Rock Dove. Columba livia is an important player at the wild-domestic interface, acting as a carrier of avian diseases, and the feral form threatens Rock Doves with extinction via hybridisation. Despite its abundance, little is known about drivers of disease prevalence in C. livia, or how disease and hybridisation represent synergistic threats to Rock Doves...
July 18, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Francisco C Ferreira, Julia González, Matthew T Milholland, Grayson A Tung, Dina M Fonseca
The northeastern United States (US) is a hotspot for tick-borne diseases. Adding to an already complex vector landscape, in 2017 large populations of the invasive Haemaphysalis longicornis, the Asian longhorned tick, were detected in New Jersey (NJ) and later found to be widespread from Connecticut to Georgia. In its native range in northeastern Asia, H. longicornis is considered an important vector of deadly pathogens to humans, companion animals, and livestock. To identify the primary hosts of H. longicornis, we surveyed synanthropic small and medium-sized mammals in three different sites in suburban New Brunswick, NJ...
July 17, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Mary La Chapelle, Marcello Ruta, Jenny C Dunn
Avian blood parasites, from the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon, are predicted to alter their range and prevalence as global temperatures change, and host and vector ranges shift. Understanding large-scale patterns in the prevalence and diversity of avian malaria and malaria-like parasites is important due to an incomplete understanding of their effects in the wild, where studies suggest even light parasitaemia can potentially cause rapid mortality, especially in naïve populations. We conducted phylogenetically controlled analyses to test for differences in prevalence and lineage diversity of haemoparasite infection (for Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) in and between resident and migratory species along the African-Eurasian flyway...
July 17, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
A Morrill, R Poulin, M R Forbes
Aggregation of macroparasites among hosts is nearly universal among parasite-host associations. Researchers testing hypotheses on origins of parasite aggregation and its importance to parasite and host population ecology have used different measures of aggregation that are not necessarily measuring the same thing, potentially clouding our understanding of underlying epidemiological processes. We highlight these differences in meanings by exploring properties and interrelationships of six common measures of parasite aggregation, and provide a "user's guide" to inform researchers' decisions regarding their application...
July 17, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Mikhail Gopko, Darya Tkachenko, Anastasia Shpagina, Darya Maximenko, Ekaterina Mironova
Trematodes localizing in the lenses of fish change the behavior of their hosts. These behavioral changes are widely suggested to be parasitic manipulations of host behavior aimed at increasing the possibility of eye flukes completing their life cycle. It is often assumed that fish change their behavior due to the vision deterioration caused by trematode larvae. We checked this assumption by testing Salvelinus malma infected with eye flukes (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum) under different lighting conditions. We suggested that if the parasite alters the host's behavior through vision impairment, then in the dark (when fish do not rely on vision to navigate), the difference in the behavior of infected and uninfected fish would disappear...
July 5, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Mare Geraerts, Tine Huyse, Maxwell Barson, Hassan Bassirou, Charles F Bilong Bilong, Arnold R Bitja Nyom, Auguste Chocha Manda, Armando J Cruz-Laufer, Clément Kalombo Kabalika, Gyrhaiss Kapepula Kasembele, Fidel Muterezi Bukinga, Samuel Njom, Maarten Van Steenberge, Tom Artois, Maarten P M Vanhove
Invasive Nile tilapias negatively impact native tilapia species through hybridisation and competition. However, the co-introduction of parasites with Nile tilapia, and subsequent changes in parasite communities, are scarcely documented. Monogeneans are known pathogens of cultured Nile tilapia, although little is known about their fate once Nile tilapias establish in new ecosystems. We investigate the parasitological consequences of Nile tilapia introduction on native tilapias in basins in Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Zimbabwe, focusing on ectoparasitic dactylogyrids (Monogenea)...
July 4, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Christen Rune Stensvold, Rebecca P K D Berg, Jenny G Maloney, Aleksey Molokin, Monica Santin
Molecular characterisation of endobionts that are shared among human and non-human hosts can help shed light on the epidemiology and inform studies that aim to unravel the role of these organisms in health and disease. Two of the most common of shared endobionts include the single-celled intestinal protists Blastocystis and Entamoeba. Here, we present the first known data on genetic diversity and host specificity of these two genera in Greenland. Faecal DNA samples from 243 muskoxen and 44 sheep were submitted to metabarcoding of nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA...
June 22, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Chengsong Sun, Fang Luo, Yanmin You, Mengjie Gu, Wenbin Yang, Cun Yi, Wei Zhang, Zheng Feng, Jipeng Wang, Wei Hu
Eggs laid by mature female schistosomes are primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis and critical for transmission. Consequently, elucidating the mechanism of sexual maturation as well as egg production may lead to new strategies for the control of schistosomiasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in multiple biological processes including reproduction in many organisms, yet their roles have not been well characterized in schistosomes. Here, we investigated microRNA-1 (miR-1), which was downregulated gradually in both male and female Schistosoma japonicum after they reached sexually maturity...
June 22, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Andreas W Oehm, Markus Leinmueller, Yury Zablotski, Amely Campe, Martina Hoedemaker, Andrea Springer, Daniela Jordan, Christina Strube, Gabriela Knubben-Schweizer
Fasciola hepatica and Ostertagia ostertagi are cattle parasites with worldwide relevance for economic outcome as well as animal health and welfare. The on-farm exposure of cattle to both parasites is a function of host-associated, intrinsic, as well as environmental and farm-specific, extrinsic, factors. Even though knowledge on the biology of both parasites exists, sophisticated and innovative modelling approaches can help to deepen our understanding of key aspects fostering the exposure of dairy cows to these pathogens...
June 22, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Kangli Feng, Na Li, Yujin Huang, Chengyi Chen, Luxing Wen, Weijian Wang, Una M Ryan, Lihua Xiao, Yaoyu Feng, Yaqiong Guo
Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium ryanae are common species causing cryptosporidiosis in cattle. Data accumulated thus far indicate that the infection patterns of the two species could be different between areas with and without Cryptosporidium parvum. To better understand the infection dynamics of these two species, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of Cryptosporidium spp. were conducted using genotyping and subtyping tools. In the cross-sectional survey, analysis of 634 faecal samples from two farms identified only C...
June 14, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Ana Paula Lula Costa, Jordi Bascompte, Andre Andrian Padial
Parasitism is an association based on host individual traits and environmental factors. The complexity of this type of interaction is often lost when studying species-by-species interaction networks. Here we analyze changes in modularity - a metric describing groups of nodes interacting much more frequently among themselves than they do with nodes of other modules, considering the host individual variation and the different forms of parasitism: ecto- and endo-parasitism. For this, we studied mixed networks: bipartite networks comprising host individuals and parasite species as two sets of nodes interacting with each other...
June 14, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Boris R Krasnov, Georgy I Shenbrot, Irina S Khokhlova
We investigated compositional and phylogenetic nestedness in the host assemblages of 26 host-generalist fleas across regions within the Palearctic. We asked the following questions: (i) are host assemblages exploited by a flea species compositionally or phylogenetically nested (=C-nested and P-nested, respectively) across regions?; (ii) if yes, what are the processes that generate nestedness, and does phylogenetic nestedness follow the same processes as compositional nestedness?; and (iii) are the biological traits of a flea species associated with its host assemblages' degree of nestedness? Nestedness was calculated for matrices with rows ordered either by decreasing region area (=a-matrices) or increasing distance from the centre of a flea's geographic range (d-matrices)...
June 7, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Kaylee S Herzog, Janine N Caira, Pradip Kumar Kar, Kirsten Jensen
The parasites of hosts of conservation concern are often poorly known. This is the case with the iconic group of elasmobranchs known as the sawfish of the genus Pristis, all four species of which are considered as Endangered or Critically Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN, Switzerland). Examination of cestodes from three species of sawfish (Pristis pristis, Pristis clavata, and Pristis zijsron) in Australia and one of their close relatives, the also critically endangered widenose guitarfish, Glaucostegus obtusus, in India, collected over the past 25 years, yielded four new species of tapeworms which are described herein...
June 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Suzanne M McDermott, Vy Pham, Isaac Lewis, Maxwell Tracy, Kenneth Stuart
Trypanosoma brucei and related kinetoplastid parasites possess unique RNA processing pathways, including in their mitochondria, that regulate metabolism and development. Altering RNA composition or conformation through nucleotide modifications is one such pathway, and modifications including pseudouridine regulate RNA fate and function in many organisms. We surveyed pseudouridine synthase (PUS) orthologs in trypanosomatids, with a particular interest in mitochondrial enzymes due to their potential importance for mitochondrial function and metabolism...
May 31, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Mélanie Duc, Tanja Himmel, Mikas Ilgūnas, Vytautas Eigirdas, Herbert Weissenböck, Gediminas Valkiūnas
Avian haemosporidians are widespread parasites categorized into four families of the order Haemosporida (Apicomplexa). Species of the subgenus Parahaemoproteus (genus Haemoproteus) belong to the Haemoproteidae and are transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Reports of death due to tissue damage during haemoproteosis in non-adapted birds have raised concerns about these pathogens, especially as their exo-erythrocytic development is known for only a few Haemoproteus spp. More research is needed to better understand the patterns of the parasites' development in tissues and their impact on avian hosts...
May 30, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Raffi Aroian, Alex Loukas, Richard Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Andrew Hemphill, Alexandre Leitão, Luis-Miguel Ortega-Mora, Brian M Cooke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
María Fernández-Álvarez, Pilar Horcajo, Alejandro Jiménez-Meléndez, Carlos Diezma-Díaz, Ignacio Ferre, Iván Pastor-Fernández, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Gema Álvarez-García
Besnoitia besnoiti-infected bulls may develop severe systemic clinical signs and orchitis that may ultimately cause sterility during the acute infection. Macrophages might play a relevant role in pathogenesis of the disease and the immune response raised against B. besnoiti infection. This study aimed to dissect the early interaction between B. besnoiti tachyzoites and primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. First, the B. besnoiti tachyzoite lytic cycle was characterized. Next, dual transcriptomic profiling of B...
May 17, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Hanchen Li, David Gazzola, Yan Hu, Raffi V Aroian
Hookworms (genera Ancylostoma and Necator) are amongst the most prevalent and important parasites of humans globally. These intestinal parasites ingest blood, resulting in anemia, growth stunting, malnutrition, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. They are also critical parasites of dogs and other animals. In addition, hookworms and hookworm products are being explored for their use in treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. There is thus a significant and growing interest in these mammalian host-obligate parasites...
May 16, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Nicholas Scaramella, Ashley Burke, Melissa Oddie, Bjørn Dahle, Joachim de Miranda, Fanny Mondet, Peter Rosenkranze, Peter Neumann, Barbara Locke
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is an invasive species of Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) and the largest pathogenic threat to their health world-wide. Its successful invasion and expansion is related to its ability to exploit the worker brood for reproduction, which results in an exponential population growth rate in the new host. With invasion of the mite, wild honeybee populations have been nearly eradicated from Europe and North America, and the survival of managed honeybee populations relies on mite population control treatments...
May 8, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
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