Journals International Journal for Para...

International Journal for Parasitology
Andrés Grecco, Natalia Macchiaroli, Matías Pérez, Adriano Casulli, Marcela Cucher, Mara Cecilia Rosenzvit
Parasites belonging to the class Cestoda include zoonotic species such as Echinococcus spp. and Taenia spp. that cause morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, mainly affecting pastoral and rural communities in low income countries but also upper middle income countries. Cestodes show remarkable developmental plasticity, implying tight regulation of gene expression throughout their complex life cycles. Despite the recent availability of genomic data for cestodes, little progress was made on postgenomic functional studies...
September 10, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
José Gabriel Gonçalves Lins, Ana Cláudia Alexandre de Albuquerque, Fabiana Alves de Almeida, Collette Britton, Camila Malossi, João Pessoa de Araújo-Júnior, Helder Louvandini, Alessandro F T Amarante
Santa Ines (SI) and Ile de France (IF) sheep are known to be resistant and susceptible to Haemonchus contortus infection, respectively. Several studies have shown some genes as potential biological markers for sheep resistance against gastrointestinal nematodes using molecular tools, including transcriptomic analysis. In this study, we sequenced the polyadenylated RNA of the abomasal tissue of SI and IF suckling lambs to identify mucosa-specific transcript alterations between breeds artificially infected with H...
September 4, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Javier Gandasegui, Rosemonde I Power, Emily Curry, Daisy Ching-Wai Lau, Connor M O'Neill, Adrian Wolstenholme, Roger Prichard, Jan Šlapeta, Stephen R Doyle
The heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, is a filarial parasitic nematode responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in wild and domesticated canids. Resistance to macrocyclic lactone drug prevention represents a significant threat to parasite control and has prompted investigations to understand the genetic determinants of resistance. This study aimed to improve the genomic resources of D. immitis to enable a more precise understanding of how genetic variation is distributed within and between parasite populations worldwide, which will inform the likelihood and rate by which parasites, and in turn, resistant alleles, might spread...
August 29, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Aditya Gupta, Mary Duncan, Amy R Sweeny, Larissa S de Araujo, Oliver C H Kwok, Benjamin M Rosenthal, Asis Khan, Michael E Grigg, Jitender P Dubey
Here, we report the first known outbreak of clinical protozoal myeloencephalitis in naturally infected raccoons by the parasite Sarcocystis neurona. The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and the South American opossum (Didelphis albiventris) are its known definitive hosts. Several other animal species are its intermediate or aberrant hosts. The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is considered the most important intermediate host for S. neurona in the USA. More than 50% of raccoons in the USA have sarcocysts in their muscles, however clinical sarcocystosis in raccoons is rare...
August 29, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Alfonso Diaz-Suarez, Kristina Noreikiene, Siim Kahar, Mikhail Y Ozerov, Riho Gross, Veljo Kisand, Anti Vasemägi
Eye flukes (Diplostomidae) are diverse and abundant trematode parasites that form multi-species communities in fish with negative effects on host fitness and survival. However, the environmental factors and host-related characteristics that determine species diversity, composition, and coexistence in such communities remain poorly understood. Here, we developed a cost-effective cox1 region-specific DNA metabarcoding approach to characterize parasitic diplostomid communities in two common fish species (Eurasian perch and common roach) collected from seven temperate lakes in Estonia...
August 24, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Tanja Himmel, Josef Harl, Julia Matt, Nora Nedorost, Madeleine Lunardi, Mikas Ilgūnas, Tatjana Iezhova, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Herbert Weissenböck
Avian haemosporidians of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon are common blood parasites in wild birds all over the world. Despite their importance as pathogens potentially compromising host fitness and health, little is known about the exo-erythrocytic development of these parasites, particularly during co-infections which predominate in wildlife. This study aimed to address this issue using Haemoproteus parasites of Fringilla coelebs, a common bird species of the Western Palearctic and host to a variety of haemosporidian parasite lineages...
August 18, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Jennifer L Cain, Leonor Sicalo Gianechini, Abigail L Vetter, Sarah M Davis, Leah N Britton, Jennifer L Myka, Paul Slusarewicz
Haemonchus contortus is one of the most pathogenic nematodes affecting small ruminants globally and is responsible for large economic losses in the sheep and goat industry. Anthelmintic resistance is rampant in this parasite and thus parasite control programs must account for drug efficacy on individual farms and, sometimes, whether H. contortus is the most prevalent trichostrongylid. Historically, coproculture has been the main way to determine the prevalence of H. contortus in faecal samples due to the inability to morphologically differentiate between trichostrongylid egg types, but this process requires a skilled technician and takes multiple days to complete...
August 14, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Kirsty L Lightbody, Andrew Austin, Peter A Lambert, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Laura Jürgenschellert, Jürgen Krücken, Martin K Nielsen, Guillaume Sallé, Fabrice Reigner, Callum G Donnelly, Carrie J Finno, Nicola Walshe, Grace Mulcahy, Nicola Housby-Skeggs, Steven Grice, Kathrin K Geyer, Corrine J Austin, Jacqueline B Matthews
Cyathostomins are ubiquitous equine nematodes. Infection can result in larval cyathostominosis due to mass larval emergence. Although faecal egg count (FEC) tests provide estimates of egg shedding, these correlate poorly with burden and provide no information on mucosal/luminal larvae. Previous studies describe a serum IgG(T)-based ELISA (CT3) that exhibits utility for detection of mucosal/luminal cyathostomins. Here, this ELISA is optimised/validated for commercial application using sera from horses for which burden data were available...
August 1, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Emily Kate Francis, Alistair Antonopoulos, Mark Edward Westman, Janina McKay-Demeler, Roz Laing, Jan Šlapeta
Anthelmintic-resistant parasitic nematodes present a significant threat to sustainable livestock production worldwide. The ability to detect the emergence of anthelmintic resistance at an early stage, and therefore determine which drugs remain most effective, is crucial for minimising production losses. Despite many years of research into the molecular basis of anthelmintic resistance, no molecular-based tools are commercially available for the diagnosis of resistance as it emerges in field settings. We described a mixed deep amplicon sequencing approach to determine the frequency of the levamisole (LEV)-resistant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within arc-8 exon 4 (S168T) in Haemonchus spp...
August 1, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Robert E Rollins, Gabriele Margos, Andreas Brachmann, Stefan Krebs, Alexia Mouchet, Niels J Dingemanse, AbdElkarim Laatamna, Nassiba Reghaissia, Volker Fingerle, Dirk Metzler, Noémie S Becker, Lidia Chitimia-Dobler
Ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens, but many questions remain unanswered regarding their taxonomy. Molecular sequencing methods have allowed research to start understanding the evolutionary history of even closely related tick species. Ixodes inopinatus is considered a sister species and highly similar to Ixodes ricinus, an important vector of many tick-borne pathogens in Europe, but identification between these species remains ambiguous with disagreement on the geographic extent of I...
July 27, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Scott C Cutmore, Richard D Corner, Thomas H Cribb
Species of Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Transversotrematidae) occupy a unique ecological niche for the Trematoda, living externally under the scales of their teleost hosts. Previous studies of the genus have been impeded partly by limited variation in ribosomal DNA sequence data between closely related species and partly by a lack of morphometrically informative characters. Here, we assess richness of the tropical Indo-west Pacific species through parallel phylogenetic and morphometric analyses, generating cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial sequence data and morphometric data for hologenophore specimens from Australia, French Polynesia, Japan and Palau...
July 22, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
William J Smith, Michał T Jezierski, Jenny C Dunn, Sonya M Clegg
Interactions between wild, feral, and domestic animals are of economic and conservation significance. The pigeon Columba livia is a synanthropic species in a feral form, but it also includes the rare Rock Dove. Columba livia is an important player at the wild-domestic interface, acting as a carrier of avian diseases, and the feral form threatens Rock Doves with extinction via hybridisation. Despite its abundance, little is known about drivers of disease prevalence in C. livia, or how disease and hybridisation represent synergistic threats to Rock Doves...
July 18, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Francisco C Ferreira, Julia González, Matthew T Milholland, Grayson A Tung, Dina M Fonseca
The northeastern United States (US) is a hotspot for tick-borne diseases. Adding to an already complex vector landscape, in 2017 large populations of the invasive Haemaphysalis longicornis, the Asian longhorned tick, were detected in New Jersey (NJ) and later found to be widespread from Connecticut to Georgia. In its native range in northeastern Asia, H. longicornis is considered an important vector of deadly pathogens to humans, companion animals, and livestock. To identify the primary hosts of H. longicornis, we surveyed synanthropic small and medium-sized mammals in three different sites in suburban New Brunswick, NJ...
July 17, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Mary La Chapelle, Marcello Ruta, Jenny C Dunn
Avian blood parasites, from the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon, are predicted to alter their range and prevalence as global temperatures change, and host and vector ranges shift. Understanding large-scale patterns in the prevalence and diversity of avian malaria and malaria-like parasites is important due to an incomplete understanding of their effects in the wild, where studies suggest even light parasitaemia can potentially cause rapid mortality, especially in naïve populations. We conducted phylogenetically controlled analyses to test for differences in prevalence and lineage diversity of haemoparasite infection (for Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) in and between resident and migratory species along the African-Eurasian flyway...
July 17, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
A Morrill, R Poulin, M R Forbes
Aggregation of macroparasites among hosts is nearly universal among parasite-host associations. Researchers testing hypotheses on origins of parasite aggregation and its importance to parasite and host population ecology have used different measures of aggregation that are not necessarily measuring the same thing, potentially clouding our understanding of underlying epidemiological processes. We highlight these differences in meanings by exploring properties and interrelationships of six common measures of parasite aggregation, and provide a "user's guide" to inform researchers' decisions regarding their application...
July 17, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Mikhail Gopko, Darya Tkachenko, Anastasia Shpagina, Darya Maximenko, Ekaterina Mironova
Trematodes localizing in the lenses of fish change the behavior of their hosts. These behavioral changes are widely suggested to be parasitic manipulations of host behavior aimed at increasing the possibility of eye flukes completing their life cycle. It is often assumed that fish change their behavior due to the vision deterioration caused by trematode larvae. We checked this assumption by testing Salvelinus malma infected with eye flukes (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum) under different lighting conditions. We suggested that if the parasite alters the host's behavior through vision impairment, then in the dark (when fish do not rely on vision to navigate), the difference in the behavior of infected and uninfected fish would disappear...
July 5, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Mare Geraerts, Tine Huyse, Maxwell Barson, Hassan Bassirou, Charles F Bilong Bilong, Arnold R Bitja Nyom, Auguste Chocha Manda, Armando J Cruz-Laufer, Clément Kalombo Kabalika, Gyrhaiss Kapepula Kasembele, Fidel Muterezi Bukinga, Samuel Njom, Maarten Van Steenberge, Tom Artois, Maarten P M Vanhove
Invasive Nile tilapias negatively impact native tilapia species through hybridisation and competition. However, the co-introduction of parasites with Nile tilapia, and subsequent changes in parasite communities, are scarcely documented. Monogeneans are known pathogens of cultured Nile tilapia, although little is known about their fate once Nile tilapias establish in new ecosystems. We investigate the parasitological consequences of Nile tilapia introduction on native tilapias in basins in Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Zimbabwe, focusing on ectoparasitic dactylogyrids (Monogenea)...
July 4, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Christen Rune Stensvold, Rebecca P K D Berg, Jenny G Maloney, Aleksey Molokin, Monica Santin
Molecular characterisation of endobionts that are shared among human and non-human hosts can help shed light on the epidemiology and inform studies that aim to unravel the role of these organisms in health and disease. Two of the most common of shared endobionts include the single-celled intestinal protists Blastocystis and Entamoeba. Here, we present the first known data on genetic diversity and host specificity of these two genera in Greenland. Faecal DNA samples from 243 muskoxen and 44 sheep were submitted to metabarcoding of nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA...
June 22, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Chengsong Sun, Fang Luo, Yanmin You, Mengjie Gu, Wenbin Yang, Cun Yi, Wei Zhang, Zheng Feng, Jipeng Wang, Wei Hu
Eggs laid by mature female schistosomes are primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis and critical for transmission. Consequently, elucidating the mechanism of sexual maturation as well as egg production may lead to new strategies for the control of schistosomiasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in multiple biological processes including reproduction in many organisms, yet their roles have not been well characterized in schistosomes. Here, we investigated microRNA-1 (miR-1), which was downregulated gradually in both male and female Schistosoma japonicum after they reached sexually maturity...
June 22, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
Andreas W Oehm, Markus Leinmueller, Yury Zablotski, Amely Campe, Martina Hoedemaker, Andrea Springer, Daniela Jordan, Christina Strube, Gabriela Knubben-Schweizer
Fasciola hepatica and Ostertagia ostertagi are cattle parasites with worldwide relevance for economic outcome as well as animal health and welfare. The on-farm exposure of cattle to both parasites is a function of host-associated, intrinsic, as well as environmental and farm-specific, extrinsic, factors. Even though knowledge on the biology of both parasites exists, sophisticated and innovative modelling approaches can help to deepen our understanding of key aspects fostering the exposure of dairy cows to these pathogens...
June 22, 2023: International Journal for Parasitology
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