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International Journal for Parasitology

Helen J Esser, Edward Allen Herre, Roland Kays, Yorick Liefting, Patrick A Jansen
Ticks are obligatory parasites with complex life cycles that often depend on larger bodied vertebrates as final hosts. These traits make them particularly sensitive to local coextinction with their host. Loss of wildlife abundance and diversity should thus lead to loss of tick abundance and diversity to the point where only generalist tick species remain. However, direct empirical tests of these hypotheses are lacking, despite their relevance to our understanding of tick-borne disease emergence in disturbed environments...
February 8, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Mariângela Carneiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, Juliana Maria Trindade Bezerra, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck
Chagas disease continues to be an important cause of morbidity, mortality and disability in several Latin American countries including Brazil. Using findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016), we present years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to Chagas disease in Brazil, by sex, age group, and Brazilian states, from 1990 to 2016. Results are reported in absolute numbers and age-standardized rates (per 100,000 population) with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs)...
February 7, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Yueying Wang, Fang Liu, Joseph Urban F, Oonagh Paerewijck, Peter Geldhof, Robert W Li
The effect of infection of pigs with Ascaris suum on the microbial composition in the proximal colon and fecal matter was investigated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The infection significantly decreased various microbial diversity indices including Chao1 richness, but the effect on Chao1 in the colon luminal contents was worm burden-independent. The abundance of 49 genera present in colon contents, such as Prevotella and Faecalibacterium, and 179 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly changed as a result of infection...
February 7, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Alasdair J Nisbet, Tom N McNeilly, Daniel R G Price, E Margaret Oliver, Yvonne Bartley, Mairi Mitchell, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo, Jacqueline B Matthews
Using data from five independent vaccine trials, which employed a subunit cocktail vaccine containing eight recombinant proteins to protect sheep against Teladorsagia circumcincta, a strategy was developed to simplify antigen complexity of the vaccine. A meta-analysis of data from these five trials demonstrated statistically significant reductions in cumulative faecal egg count (cFEC) and worm burden in vaccinated sheep when compared with those which had received adjuvant only (P = 0.009 and P < 0.0001, respectively)...
January 25, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Peter J Krause
Babesiosis is a worldwide emerging tick-borne disease that is increasing in frequency and geographic range. It imposes a significant health burden, especially on those who are immunocompromised and those who acquire the infection through blood transfusion. Death from babesiosis occurs in up to 20 percent of these groups. Diagnosis is confirmed with identification of typical intraerythrocytic parasites on a thin blood smear or Babesia DNA using PCR. Treatment consists of atovaquone and azithromycin or clindamycin and quinine, and exchange transfusion in severe cases...
January 25, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Carlos E Suarez, Heba F Alzan, Marta G Silva, Vignesh Rathinasamy, William A Poole, Brian M Cooke
The global impact of bovine babesiosis caused by the tick-borne apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Babesia divergens is vastly underappreciated. These parasites invade and multiply asexually in bovine red blood cells (RBCs), undergo sexual reproduction in their tick vectors (Rhipicephalus spp. for B. bovis and B. bigemina, and Ixodes ricinus for B. divergens) and have a trans-ovarial mode of transmission. Babesia parasites can cause acute and persistent infections to adult naïve cattle that can occur without evident clinical signs, but infections caused by B...
January 25, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Sarah Nathaly Wieser, Leonhard Schnittger, Monica Florin-Christensen, Stephane Delbecq, Theo Schetters
The increase in human babesiosis is of major concern to health authorities. In the USA, most of these cases are due to infections with Babesia microti, whereas in Europe B. divergens is the major cause of clinical disease in humans. Here we review the immunological and biological literature of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored merozoite proteins of human Babesia parasites with emphasis on their role in immunity, and provide some new bioinformatical information on B. microti GPI-Anchored Proteins (GPI-AP)...
January 23, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Natalia Macchiaroli, Marcela Cucher, Laura Kamenetzky, Cristian Yones, Leandro Bugnon, Matt Berriman, Peter Olson, Mara Rosenzvit
Tapeworms (cestodes) of the genus Hymenolepis are the causative agents of hymenolepiasis, a neglected zoonotic disease. Hymenolepis nana is the most prevalent human tapeworm, especially affecting children. The genomes of Hymenolepis microstoma and H. nana have been recently sequenced and assembled. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are principle regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are involved in many different biological processes. In previous work, we experimentally identified miRNA genes in the cestodes Echinococcus, Taenia and Mesocestoides...
January 21, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Diego Santiago-Alarcon, Ian MacGregor-Fors, Ina Falfán, Bruntje Lüdtke, Gernot Segelbacher, H Martin Schaefer, S Renner
Prevalence responses to anthropic factors differ across hosts and parasite species. We here analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of avian haemosporidian prevalence in bird assemblages of the Mooswald forest (i.e., urban greenspace; Freiburg, Germany), in response to local environmental features (e.g., water sources, human presence (visited)/absence (unvisited)) and bird-level traits (e.g., body condition, age, sex) in 2 years. We used a nested PCR protocol (mitochondrial (mt)DNA cytochrome b (cyt b) gene) and microscopy to determine haemosporidian infections...
January 20, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Christina M Brock, Kevin B Temeyer, Jason Tidwell, Yunlong Yang, Maria A Blandon, Diana Carreón-Camacho, Michael T Longnecker, Consuelo Almazán, Adalberto A Pérez de León, Patricia V Pietrantonio
The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae), is a one-host tick that infests primarily cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. This species transmits deadly cattle pathogens, especially Babesia spp., for which a recombinant vaccine is not available. Therefore, disease control depends on tick vector control. Although R. microplus was eradicated in the USA, tick populations in Mexico and South America have acquired resistance to many of the applied acaricides...
January 20, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Francisca Samsing, Ingrid Johnsen, Eric A Treml, Tim Dempster
Marine ecosystems are beset by disease outbreaks, and efficient strategies to control dispersal of pathogens are scarce. We tested whether introducing no-farming areas or 'firebreaks' could disconnect dispersal networks of a parasitic disease affecting the world's largest marine fish farming industry (∼1000 farms). Larval salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) are released from and transported among salmon farms by ocean currents, creating inter-farm networks of louse dispersal. We used a state-of-the-art biophysical model to predict louse movement along the Norwegian coastline and network analysis to identify firebreaks to dispersal...
January 17, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Lokman Galal, Gereon Schares, Claire Stragier, Philippe Vignoles, Carine Brouat, Thomas Cuny, Camille Dubois, Thao Rohart, Clément Glodas, Marie-Laure Dardé, Mamadou Kane, Youssoupha Niang, Mamoudou Diallo, Aliou Sow, Dominique Aubert, Azra Hamidović, Daniel Ajzenberg, Aurélien Mercier
Commensal rodent species are key reservoirs for Toxoplasma gondii in the domestic environment. In rodents, different T. gondii strains show variable patterns of virulence according to host species. Toxoplasma gondii strains causing non-lethal chronic infections in local hosts will be more likely to persist in a given environment, but few studies have addressed the possible role of these interactions in shaping the T. gondii population structure. In addition, the absence of validated techniques for upstream detection of T...
December 20, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Volodimir Sarabeev, Juan Antonio Balbuena, Serge Morand
A number of hypotheses exist to explain aggregated distributions, but they have seldom been used to investigate differences in parasite spatial distribution between native and introduced hosts. We applied two aggregation models, the negative binomial distribution and Taylor's power law, to study the aggregation patterns of helminth populations from Liza haematocheilus across its native (Sea of Japan) and introduced (Sea of Azov) distribution ranges. In accordance with the enemy release hypothesis, we predicted that parasite populations in the introduced host range would be less aggregated than in the native host area, because aggregation is tightly constrained by abundance...
December 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Russell W Avramenko, Elizabeth M Redman, Lynsey Melville, Yvonne Bartley, Janneke Wit, Camila Queiroz, Dave J Bartley, John S Gilleard
Parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes contribute to significant human morbidity and cause billions of dollars per year in lost agricultural production. Control is dependent on the use of anthelmintic drugs which, in the case of livestock parasites, is severely compromised by the widespread development of drug resistance. There are now concerns regarding the emergence of anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematodes of humans in response to the selection pressure resulting from mass drug administration programs...
November 22, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Sandrine Musa, Ute Mackenstedt, Friederike Woog, Anke Dinkel
Previous studies about geographic patterns of species diversity of avian malaria parasites and others in the Order Haemosporida did not include the avian biodiversity hotspot Madagascar. Since there are few data available on avian malaria parasites on Madagascar, we conducted the first known large-scale molecular-based study to investigate their biodiversity. Samples (1,067) from 55 bird species were examined by a PCR method amplifying nearly the whole haemosporidian cytochrome b gene (1,063 bp). The parasite lineages found were further characterized phylogenetically and the degree of specialization was determined with a newly introduced hostdiversity index (Hd)...
November 21, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Johanna A Harvey, Gary Voelker
A majority of avian haemosporidian diversity likely remains undiscovered, and each new recovery helps to further elucidate distributional patterns of diversification. We conducted the first known sampling of avian haemosporidians, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Plasmodium from Benin located in tropical West Africa. We sampled 222 birds of 77 species and across distinct ecoregions with varied habitats. Haemosporidians were detected in 113 of 222 individuals, resulting in a 50.9% infection rate. By molecular analysis, we recovered a high number of novel lineages, 52...
November 21, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Musa A Hassan, Aude-Anais Olijnik, Eva-Maria Frickel, Jeroen P Saeij
The severe virulence of Toxoplasma gondii in classical laboratory inbred mouse strains contradicts the hypothesis that house mice (Mus musculus) are the most important intermediate hosts for its transmission and evolution because death of the mouse before parasite transmission equals death of the parasite. However, the classical laboratory inbred mouse strains (Mus musculus domesticus), commonly used to test Toxoplasma strain differences in virulence, do not capture the genetic diversity within Mus musculus...
January 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Una Ryan, Nawal Hijjawi, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Foodborne zoonotic pathogens are a serious public health issue and result in significant global economic losses. Despite their importance to public health, epidemiological data on foodborne diseases including giardiasis caused by the enteric parasite, Giardia duodenalis, are lacking. This parasite is estimated to cause ∼28.2 million cases of diarrhoea each year due to contamination of food, but very few foodborne outbreaks have been documented due to the limitations of current detection as well as surveillance methods...
January 2019: International Journal for Parasitology
Inga Siden-Kiamos, Tomasino Pace, Antonios Klonizakis, Marco Nardini, Celia R S Garcia, Chiara Currà
Sporozoites are the infective form of malaria parasites which are transmitted from the mosquito salivary glands to a new host in a mosquito blood meal. The sporozoites develop inside the sporogonic oocyst and it is crucial for the continuation of the life cycle that the oocyst ruptures to release sporozoites. We recently described two Plasmodium Oocyst Rupture Proteins (ORP1 and ORP2), localized at the oocyst capsule, that are each essential for rupture of the oocysts. Both ORPs contain a histone fold domain implicated in the mechanism of oocyst rupture, possibly through the formation of a heterodimer between the two histone fold domains...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
R Pigeault, C-S Cozzarolo, R Choquet, M Strehler, T Jenkins, J Delhaye, L Bovet, J Wassef, O Glaizot, P Christe
Theoretical studies predict that parasitic infection may impact host longevity and ultimately modify the trade-off between reproduction and survival. Indeed, a host may adjust its energy allocation in current reproduction to balance the negative effects of parasitism on its survival prospects. However, very few empirical studies tested this prediction. Avian haemosporidian parasites provide an excellent opportunity to assess the influence of parasitic infection on both host survival and reproduction. They are represented by three main genera (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) and are highly prevalent in many bird populations...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
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