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Acta Theriologica

Marcin Brzeziński, Lukasz Rodak, Andrzej Zalewski
Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set...
2014: Acta Theriologica
Jonas Malmsten, Anne-Marie Dalin
Knowledge on reproductive success is vital for successful management of large ungulates and is often measured by means of observing surviving offspring. In harvested ungulates, postmortem investigations of reproductive organs are used to estimate reproductive potential by obtaining ovulation rates and fetus numbers. However, there are differences in numbers of offspring observed, fetal/embryo counts, and ovulation rates. We hypothesize that the discrepancy between estimated reproductive potential and reproductive outcome in large ungulates is not only due to ova loss but also due to embryonic mortality...
2014: Acta Theriologica
Jacinta Mullins, Allan D McDevitt, Rafał Kowalczyk, Iwona Ruczyńska, Marcin Górny, Jan M Wójcik
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has the widest global distribution among terrestrial carnivore species, occupying most of the Northern Hemisphere in its native range. Because it carries diseases that can be transmitted to humans and domestic animals, it is important to gather information about their movements and dispersal in their natural habitat but it is difficult to do so at a broad scale with trapping and telemetry. In this study, we have described the genetic diversity and structure of red fox populations in six areas of north-eastern Poland, based on samples collected from 2002-2003...
2014: Acta Theriologica
Magdalena M Buś, Michał Zmihorski, Jerzy Romanowski, Laima Balčiauskienė, Jan Cichocki, Linas Balčiauskas
Owl pellets have high potential as a source of DNA. However, this noninvasive method of collecting DNA is rarely used, and its methodological aspects are poorly understood. We investigated the methodology for DNA extraction and amplification from owl pellets containing the smallest European rodent-the Harvest mouse Micromys minutus-as an example. We used mandibles identified in owl pellets for mitochondrial and nuclear DNA amplification. For DNA extraction, we tested two commercial protocols and utilized a protocol being a combination of two commercial kits which ensured high efficiency of DNA extraction...
2014: Acta Theriologica
Michał J Dąbrowski, Jan J Pomorski, Joanna Gliwicz
Based on published information about the glacial, postglacial, and recent distribution of the root vole, Microtus oeconomus, we hypothesized that a population inhabiting the pristine wetland in eastern Poland (Bialowieza Primeval Forest) might comprise a high diversity of haplotypes. The support for this hypothesis was provided by an analysis of partial cytb gene sequences from 149 voles sampled within a two-hectare plot during a nine-year study. In this population, we identified eight haplotypes (PLB1-PLB8), four of which were new to the root vole...
April 2013: Acta Theriologica
Jerzy Romanowski, Marcin Brzeziński, Michał Zmihorski
The increase in Eurasian otter Lutra lutra populations in their natural range and recolonization processes are recently observed in several European countries. We address the process of otter recolonization and habitat utilization in Central Poland over 14 years. Field surveys in 1998 and 2007 documented increase in occurrence of the species. The frequency of positive sites denoted 15 % in 1993, 38 % in 1998, and 89 % in 2007. Otter occurrence at study sites was positively affected by river width while negatively affected by presence of buildings at the site and river regulation...
April 2013: Acta Theriologica
Karol Zub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2013: Acta Theriologica
Tomasz Borowik, Thomas Cornulier, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska
Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances...
2013: Acta Theriologica
Rafał Kowalczyk, Małgorzata Krasińska, Tomasz Kamiński, Marcin Górny, Paweł Struś, Emilia Hofman-Kamińska, Zbigniew A Krasiński
The European bison is the largest terrestrial mammal in Europe. After extinction in the wild at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was re-introduced to Białowieża Forest and other woodlands in Eastern Europe. In this paper, we analysed the movements of European bison beyond the continuous woodlands of the Białowieża Forest (NE Poland) between 1964 and 2010. In total, 1,117 direct observations of bison were collected. The number of males moving out of the forest fluctuated during the study period, whilst the number of females steadily increased...
2013: Acta Theriologica
Amy Eycott, Katarzyna Daleszczyk, Jacqueline Drese, Adrià Solé Cantero, Jennifer Pèbre, Samuel Gladys
Data on the digestive characteristics of European bison, Bison bonasus (L.), are needed for studies of their role as the largest extant herbivore in Europe and a potential keystone species of the temperate forest ecosystem. Very little published data are available, particularly on the defecation rate which affects population estimates from dropping counts and also the individual seed deposition rate. We gathered data from a captive bison group kept at the Show Reserve of the Białowieża National Park. Droppings accumulated in the enclosure over a 72-h period were counted in winter 2010...
2013: Acta Theriologica
Marta Czernik, Pierre Taberlet, Magdalena Swisłocka, Magdalena Czajkowska, Norbert Duda, Mirosław Ratkiewicz
Effects of cervid browsing on timber production, especially during winter, lead to economic losses in forest management. The aim of this study was to present an efficient DNA-based method which allows qualitative assessment of the winter diet from stools of moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). The preliminary results of the diet composition of the three cervids from Poland were also presented with a special emphasis on moose. The electropherograms of the chloroplast intron trnL (UAA) P6 loop amplification products using g (fluorescence-labeled) and h primers revealed differences in the length of PCR products among various plant species eaten by these herbivores...
2013: Acta Theriologica
Magdalena Swisłocka, Magdalena Czajkowska, Norbert Duda, Jan Danyłow, Edyta Owadowska-Cornil, Mirosław Ratkiewicz
In recent years, human activity directly and indirectly influenced the demography of moose in Poland. The species was close to extinction, and only a few isolated populations survived after the Second World War; then, unprecedented demographic and spatial expansions had occurred, possibly generating a very complex pattern of population genetic structure at the present-day margins of the species range in Poland. Over 370 moose from seven populations were collected from Poland, and partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region (mtDNA-cr; 607 bp) were obtained...
2013: Acta Theriologica
Mikhail Petrovich Tiunov, Irina Vasiljevna Kartavtseva, Alexander Sergeevich Lapin
Here, we present the morphotypic variety of the m1 and M3 teeth diagnostics for the recently formed isolated population of the sibling vole in Far Eastern Russia. In the Far Eastern population, the prevalence of the individuals with m1 with a complicated crown of the forward unpaired loop of the paraconid is characteristic. Namely, m1 in these individuals shows well-expressed sixth exterior and fifth interior salient angles. The structure of the M3 morphotypes is also unique in the sibling voles in Far Eastern Russia...
January 2013: Acta Theriologica
R Kamieniarz, U Voigt, M Panek, E Strauss, H Niewęgłowski
Habitat management should be an important part of the brown hare (Lepus europaeus) conservation, but the habitat requirements of this species are not fully recognised. The aim of our research was to estimate these requirements by analysing the effect of various agricultural landscape structure features on the distribution of hares in five agricultural areas in Germany and Poland. The local density of hares was assessed in the spring and autumn of 2006 by using the method of spotlight-strip counts on 9-15 subareas in each research region...
January 2013: Acta Theriologica
Andrzej Zalewski
Two strategies of home range acquisition by male subadult pine martens (Martes martes) were described from a high-density population inhabiting Białowieża National Park. Four mother-offspring pairs were identified by genetic parentage assignments. Four subadult males showed two different strategies of home range acquisition: dispersal and sedentary. The dispersing males used an area 4-10 times larger than in sedentary subadult males. A sedentary subadult male used his natal area with his mother, and in the following mating season, this male left this area and established a home range that overlapped greatly with another unrelated female near the natal range...
October 2012: Acta Theriologica
Magdalena Misiorowska, Michał Wasilewski
We describe the results of our research on population dynamics among brown hares reared in enclosures and then released into suitable natural habitat. Radio-tracking was used to follow the fate of 60 released brown hares over a 4-year period, extending between November 2005 and November 2009. The survival rate among these animals after 12 months was estimated to be 37 %, with 22 tagged individuals surviving beyond 1 year post-release. The highest (40 %) level of mortality characterised the first month after release, while a second period of enhanced mortality coincided with the breeding season (altogether accounting for a 20 % mortality rate)...
October 2012: Acta Theriologica
Elżbieta Bonda-Ostaszewska, Tadeusz Włostowski, Alicja Krasowska, Paweł Kozłowski
Seasonal changes in lipid droplet size and lipid peroxidation in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of wild bank voles were examined. In addition, a role of photoperiod in these changes was studied; bank voles were held from the birth under long photoperiod (LP) for 12 weeks, and then half of them was transferred to short photoperiod (SP) for 6 weeks and another one remained under LP. In the wild bank voles the absolute BAT weight was seasonally constant, while the significant differences in the lipid droplet size were observed...
October 2012: Acta Theriologica
Natalia Lanocha, Elzbieta Kalisinska, Danuta I Kosik-Bogacka, Halina Budis, Kinga Noga-Deren
In this study we determined the levels of trace elements (zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and mercury) in three layers of bones of the hip joint (cartilage, compact bone and spongy bone) of 30 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from north-western Poland. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) in inductively coupled argon plasma using a Perkin-Elmer Optima 2000 DV. Determination of Hg concentration was performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In cartilage, compact bone and spongy bone samples from the red fox, median concentrations of the metals studied could be arranged in the following descending series: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > Hg, the values ranging from 142 to 0...
July 2012: Acta Theriologica
Erlend B Nilsen, John D C Linnell, John Odden, Gustaf Samelius, Henrik Andrén
Detailed knowledge of the variation in demographic rates is central for our ability to understand the evolution of life history strategies and population dynamics, and to plan for the conservation of endangered species. We studied variation in reproductive output of 61 radio-collared Eurasian lynx females in four Scandinavian study sites spanning a total of 223 lynx-years. Specifically, we examined how the breeding proportion and litter size varied among study areas and age classes (2-year-old vs. >2-year-old females)...
July 2012: Acta Theriologica
K Zub, B Jędrzejewska, W Jędrzejewski, K A Bartoń
Cyclic population dynamics of small mammals are not restricted to the boreal and arctic zones of Eurasia and North America, but long-term data series from lower latitudes are still less common. We demonstrated here the presence of periodic oscillations in small mammal populations in eastern Poland using 22-year (1986-2007) trapping data from marginal meadow and river valley grasslands located in the extensive temperate woodland of Białowieża Primeval Forest. The two most common species inhabiting meadows and river valleys, root vole Microtus oeconomus and common shrew Sorex araneus, exhibited synchronous periodic changes, characterised by a 3-year time lag as indicated by an autocorrelation function...
July 2012: Acta Theriologica
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