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Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

Selina Türtscher, Michael Grabner, Torsten W Berger
Our goal was to reconstruct soil recovery from Acid Rain based upon removal of stemflow at beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) stands of known historic and recent soil status. Fourteen beech stands in the Vienna Woods were selected in 1984 and again in 2012 to study changes in soil and foliar chemistry over time. A part of those stands had been strip cut, and to assess reversibility of soil acidification, we analyzed soils around beech stumps from different years of felling, representing the years when acidic stemflow ceased to affect the soil...
2019: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Agnieszka Bus, Agnieszka Karczmarczyk, Anna Baryła
The goal of the study was to assess the sorption properties of calcined eggshells (CEs) as a P reactive media filter. The CEs were calcined in a temperature of 900 °C. A double stage test was performed: batch studies (kinetic and equilibrium) and small-scale column experiment. The estimation of optimal mass ratio of CEs for perspective usage was the additional benefit of column experiment. The short kinetic tests showed that 5 min of contact time with solution of initial concentration of 6.020 mgP-PO4  L-1 is enough to reduce the P-PO4 in 100%...
2019: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
A Bawiec, T Garbowski, K Pawęska, K Pulikowski
The latest research focused on the analysis of algal growth and the dynamics of their growth use the laser diffraction technique, enabling determination of the volume fraction of suspended particles with specific diameters in aqueous solution as well as their fractal dimensions. This study focuses on the possibility of using a laser granulometer to assess the growth dynamics of algae growing in treated wastewater in a hydroponic system, supported by artificial lighting with the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs)...
2019: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Tomasz Ciesielczuk, Czesława Rosik-Dulewska, Joanna Poluszyńska
Sorption of oil-related products (including mainly the propellants) is the very basic process that counteracts spreading these types of pollution into environment. Plenty of synthetic substances (including the monoaromatic hydrocarbons) are both from the surface and underground waters. The aim of this study was to present the research's results on the possibilities of using the broadleaf cattail ( Typha latifolia L .) seeds as a sorbent of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from an aqueous solution. In order to increase sorptive capacity, the seeds biomass was submitted for the process of mercerizing in diversified time and temperature in water and the NaOH solution...
2019: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
M Stocker, A Yakirevich, A Guber, G Martinez, R Blaustein, G Whelan, D Goodrich, D Shelton, Y Pachepsky
Modeling the fate and transport of Escherichia coli is of substantial interest because of how this organism serves as an indicator of fecal contamination in microbial water quality assessment. The efficacy of models used to assess the export of E. coli from agricultural fields is dependent, in part, on submodels they utilize to simulate E. coli release from land-applied manure and animal waste. Although several release submodels have been proposed, they have only been evaluated and compared with data from laboratory or small plot E...
June 2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Marek Pająk, Ewa Błońska, Marta Szostak, Michał Gąsiorek, Marcin Pietrzykowski, Otmar Urban, Piotr Derbis
The main objectives of our study were to evaluate soil contamination on a zinc-lead spoil heap in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region in southern Poland using pollution indices, and to investigate the relation between soil properties and the natural succession of vegetation. Organic carbon and nitrogen, pH, soil texture, base cations, and heavy metal content were analyzed in soil samples at depths of 0-15 cm below the organic horizon over a regular grid of 14 sampling plots. The contents of Zn, Pb, and Cd exceeded by several times the acceptable thresholds...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
M Foszpańczyk, K Bednarczyk, E Drozdek, R C Martins, S Ledakowicz, M Gmurek
It is well-established that aquatic wildlife is exposed to natural and synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds which are able to interfere with the hormonal system. Although advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have shown to be effective, their application is limited by a relatively high operational cost. In order to reduce the cost of energy consumed in the AOPs, widely available solar energy instead of UV light may be applied either as photocatalytic oxidation or as photosensitized oxidation. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the sunlight photodegradation of paraben mixture...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Hedi Rasul, Robert Earon, Bo Olofsson
Roads and traffic can be a source of water-bound pollutants, which can percolate through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. Deicing salt is widely used on roads in northern Europe during winter and is usually applied at a time when the temperature is below zero and the soil is partly frozen. Understanding the mechanism by which water-bound pollutants such as deicing salt are transferred from roads to groundwater is highly important for groundwater protection, environmental sustainability and road maintenance...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Ewa Liwarska-Bizukojc, Małgorzata Galamon, Przemysław Bernat
17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), diclofenac (DCF), and 4-nonylphenol (4NP) belong to the most common micropollutants (MPs) occurring in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The WWTPs are the primary barrier against the spread of micropollutants in the environment. The aim of this work was to study the kinetics of biological removal of the three aforementioned micropollutants from wastewater and to check whether the acclimation of biomass influenced on the kinetic parameters. In addition, the effect of MPs on the biochemical activity of microorganisms was tested...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Jerzy Bartnicki, Valiyaveetil Shamsudheen Semeena, Andrzej Mazur, Jerzy Zwoździak
Poland is the second most important emission source after Germany in contributing atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin. The main sectors contributing to reactive nitrogen emissions from Polish sources, in the period 1995-2014, are combustion and transportation, responsible together for over 97% of nitrogen oxide emissions, and agriculture responsible for over 98% of ammonia emissions. The EMEP MSC-W model with 50-km resolution was used for estimating the contribution of nitrogen emission sources from Poland to nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin and its sub-basins, in the period 1995-2014...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Kazimierz Warmiński, Agnieszka Bęś
Ozone (O3 ) decomposition in the troposphere is a very important process which prevents excessive O3 accumulation in the air. It is particularly significant on warm summer days which are marked by a high risk of photochemical smog. We used Spearman's rank correlation test to determine relationships between the drop in O3 concentrations over time (-ΔO3 ), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), and total nitrogen oxide (NOx ) concentrations and meteorological factors (1-h average) in low-polluted urban area in Olsztyn (north-eastern Poland)...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Karrar N M Mahdi, Ruud Peters, Martine van der Ploeg, Coen Ritsema, Violette Geissen
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can enter the environment when released from products containing them. As AgNPs enter soil, they are often retained in the soil profile and/or leached to the groundwater. This research assessed the transport of AgNPs in their "particle form" through the soil profile using a series of columns. Three soil types were put into soil columns: LSH (loam with high organic matter (OM)), LSL (loam with low OM), and Sand (no OM). The results showed that AgNP transport and retention in soil as well as particle size changes are affected by soil organic matter (OM) and the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soil...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Magdalena Kuśnierz
The light scattering method is a valuable tool for accessing particle size and structure mainly due to fast and the nonintrusive nature of the measurement. The method is based on a scattered intensity pattern and depends on particle volume, particle morphology, the light wavelength and the scattering angle. The light scattering model, for particles characterised by a fractal structure, is enabled with the use of the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye theory under constrained assumptions. The range of validity of the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye is limited when primary particles constituting aggregate have a size close to the wavelength...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Emily Hudson, Bernd Kulessa, Paul Edwards, Tom Williams, Rory Walsh
The mining and processing of metal ores in the UK has left a legacy of environmental degradation, and abandoned metal mines still pose a significant threat to terrestrial and fluvial environments. Flow gauging, water quality and geophysics were combined in an integrated assessment of surface and subsurface hydrological contamination at Esgair Mwyn, an abandoned mine in Ceredigion, Wales. Heavy metals discharged from the site are polluting downstream watercourses, leading to widespread Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) compliance failures...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Michael Oteng-Peprah, Mike Agbesi Acheampong, Nanne K deVries
This paper presents a literature review of the quality of greywater generated in different, especially developing, countries, constituents found in greywater, some treatment systems, natural materials for treatment, some reuse strategies and public perception regarding greywater reuse. The review shows that generation rates are mostly influenced by lifestyle, types of fixtures used and climatic conditions. Contaminants found in greywater are largely associated with the type of detergent used and influenced by other household practices...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Monika Paszkiewicz, Celina Sikorska, Danuta Leszczyńska, Piotr Stepnowski
The differences in effectiveness of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) sorbent for the selective extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were explained on the basis of theoretical study. It was observed that for low molecular weight PAHs, the recoveries using non-helical and helical MWCNTs were similar. In contrary, for PAHs containing five or more aromatic rings, the extraction efficiency was higher using HMWCNTs than for non-helical ones. Principle component analysis (PCA) as well as providing structural parameters and interaction energies for adsorption processes (PAH + CNT → PAH-CNT) have been used for this purpose...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Piotr Świątczak, Agnieszka Cydzik-Kwiatkowska
Digestate produced by cofermentation of agricultural waste and manure can be difficult to dispose of because its high ammonium content impedes its use in agriculture due to generation of odor and overfertilization. This study investigated the possibility of treating such nitrogen-rich digestate with aerobic granular sludge depending on the nitrogen load in the reactor. At nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 g TN/(L·day), the nitrogen removal efficiency was high (64.9 ± 9.8%), ammonium nitrogen was completely oxidized, and nitrate was the main nitrification product...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Lucia Sochuliaková, Elwira Sienkiewicz, Ladislav Hamerlík, Marek Svitok, Dana Fidlerová, Peter Bitušík
Diatom analysis was undertaken on a 200-year sediment record in an alpine lake (Popradské pleso, Tatra Mountains, Central Europe). Due to its remote character and well-documented human influence since the mid-nineteenth century, it allows a study of the relationship between anthropogenic pressures and diatom assemblages. Altogether, 122 diatom taxa of 40 genera were identified, and two major taxonomic shifts were revealed in the stratigraphic record. The timing of the first significant shift in ~ 1850 precludes the possibility of being caused by direct human activities, since according to historic documents there was neither continuous human presence nor grazing in the valley before that time...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Katarzyna Kowalczewska-Madura, Renata Dondajewska, Ryszard Gołdyn, Anna Kozak, Beata Messyasz
The ribbon type Lake Durowskie (Western Poland) is currently undergoing a sustainable restoration process due to water quality deterioration, manifested in water blooms, low transparency, and oxygen deficits near the bottom sediments. Three restoration methods were applied: (i) hypolimnion aeration using two wind-driven pulverizing aerators installed at the deepest places, (ii) phosphorus inactivation using small doses of iron sulfate and magnesium chloride several times a year, and (iii) biomanipulation using pike fry stocking...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Albert Ebo Duncan, Nanne de Vries, Kwabena Biritwum Nyarko
An investigative study was conducted to determine the heavy metal pollution in the sediment in the Pra Basin of Ghana from 27 sampling points during the dry and wet seasons using the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF), and pollution load index (PLI). Sediments were acid digested and analyzed for the following selected metals: arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), total chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and iron (Fe) using the dual atomizer and hydride generator atomic absorption spectrophotometer (model ASC-7000 No A309654, Shimadzu, Japan)...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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