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Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology

Martin Bennett, Clarke Thuys, Simon Augustin, Brad Schultz, Steve Bottrell, Alison Horton, Andrzej Bednarz, Steve Horton
Low cardiac output syndrome and the systemic inflammatory response are consequences of the cardiac surgical perioperative course. The mechanisms responsible are multifactorial, but recent studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) may be a key component in mitigating some of these processes. Following on from literature reports detailing the use of inhaled NO added to the gas phase of the extracorporeal circuit, we set about developing a technique to perform this addition safely and efficiently. In the setting of cardiopulmonary bypass, the technique was validated in a randomized prospective trial looking at 198 children...
December 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Adrien Koeltz, Nicolas Gendron, Nadine Ajzenberg, Dan Longrois
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is increasingly used as a rescue therapy in patients with refractory cardiac/respiratory failure for temporary support or bridge to decision-making in both adult and pediatric patients. Complications such as bleeding and thrombosis remain major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients treated with ECLS. Hemostatic complications related to ECLS are multifactorial in patients with multiple organ dysfunctions and are incompletely characterized. Persisting thrombocytopenia and/or platelet dysfunction is the most frequent one...
December 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Erik Dong, Robert Fellin, Danny Ramzy, Joshua S Chung, Francisco A Arabia, Alice Chan, David Ng, Nicola D'Attellis, Michael Nurok
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) affects pharmacokinetics/dynamics of drugs in unpredictable ways. Anecdotally, ECMO patients require high doses of opioids and sedatives, leading to concerns of tolerance. Methadone is a long-acting synthetic opioid with antagonist properties at the n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. It has been shown to improve spontaneous breathing trials and weaning from mechanical ventilation; however, there is no literature describing its use in ECMO. We describe two patients from the cardiac surgery intensive care unit at Cedars Sinai (Los Angeles, CA) on ECMO for over 30 days maintained on methadone...
December 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Charles McDonald, Daniel Dallimore, Mathew Oates, Kiran Shekar, Bruce Thomson
Cardiac autotransplantation is a rare technique typically reserved for the treatment of malignant tumors of the left atrium and left ventricle. Even when well planned, it conveys a high risk to the patient. This report discusses the intraoperative progression to an unplanned autotransplant for mitral valve repair while considering some decision making processes that cardiac surgeons make.
December 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Brian C Forsberg, William M Novick, Cynthia Cervantes, Jorge Lopez, Marcelo Cardarelli
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become a powerful tool in the race to reverse failure to rescue events. Rapid implementation set the stage for the advent of the 30-day wet-priming storage as a standard practice. A recent alert regarding methylene blue (MB) unidirectional leach from patient's circulation through the oxygenator thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) heat-exchanger membrane into the heater-cooler unit (HCU) water bath led us to believe that despite reassurances, the reverse process might be possible...
December 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Andrea M Matuska, Marina K Klimovich, John R Chapman
Thrombin is a coagulation protein of central importance to hemostasis and wound healing that can be sourced from human blood, bovine blood, and engineered cell lines. Only autologous thrombin lacks the risks of transmitting emergent pathogens or eliciting an immunogenic response. Previous commercial autologous thrombin devices require the use of high concentrations of ethanol to achieve thrombin stability, introducing cytotoxicity risks. A new point of care device for preparing an ethanol-free autologous thrombin serum was investigated...
December 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Chihiro Saito, Tetsuya Kamei, Shoji Kubota, Kiyoshi Yoshida, Makoto Hibiya, Shuji Hashimoto
It is important to avoid unnecessary blood cell transfusion. However, the associations of hemodilution and retrograde autologous priming with red blood cell transfusion during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in cardiac surgery in Japan are currently unclear. We analyzed these associations using data for 3,090 adults from the Perfusion Case Database of the Japanese Society of Extra-Corporeal Technology in Medicine. Percent hemodilution was calculated by total priming volume and weight. Logistic regression models were used to adjust for covariates including type of surgery, gender, age, hemoglobin concentration before CPB, CPB time, urine volume during CPB, and institution...
December 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Donald S Likosky, Robert A Baker, Richard F Newland, Theron A Paugh, Timothy A Dickinson, David Fitzgerald, Joshua B Goldberg, Nicholas B Mellas, Alan F Merry, Paul S Myles, Gaetano Paone, Kenneth G Shann, Jane Ottens, Timothy W Willcox
Although recent trials comparing on vs. off-pump revascularization techniques describe cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) as "conventional," inadequate description and evaluation of how CPB is managed often exist in the peer-reviewed literature. We identify and subsequently describe regional and center-level differences in the techniques and equipment used for conducting CPB in the setting of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We accessed prospectively collected data among isolated CABG procedures submitted to either the Australian and New Zealand Collaborative Perfusion Registry (ANZCPR) or Perfusion Measures and outcomes (PERForm) Registry between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2015...
December 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Santiago Borasino, Yuvraj Kalra, Ashley R Elam, Lawrence Carlisle O'Meara, Joseph G Timpa, Kellen G Goldberg, J Leslie Collins Gaddis, Jeffrey A Alten
Intravascular hemolysis with elevated plasma-free hemoglobin (PFH) complicates extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In 50 consecutive pediatric cardiac patients requiring ECMO, we sought to describe the relationship between PFH and clinical outcomes; primary outcomes were acute kidney injury (AKI) and prolonged (>14 days) renal replacement therapy (RRT). Median age was 35 days, median weight 3.9 kg, and median ECMO duration 4.2 days. Seventy-eight percent (39/50) weaned off ECMO; survival to discharge was 50% (25/50)...
December 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Julie Wegner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Michael G Katz, Anthony S Fargnoli, Charles Yarnall, Angel Perez, Alice Isidro, Roger J Hajjar, Charles R Bridges
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) featuring complete heart isolation and continuous cardiac perfusion is a very promising approach for solving the problem of efficient gene delivery. In the technique presented here, separate pumps are used for the systemic and cardiac circuits. This system permits continuous isolated arrested heart perfusion through optimizing a number of delivery parameters including temperature, flow rate, driving pressure, ionic composition, and exposure time to the cardiac vessels. During complete cardiac isolation, the blood vector concentration trended from 11...
September 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Mukund Das, Anil Rathi, Ashwad Afzal, Kumudha Ramasubbu
Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a potentially life-threatening cause of heart failure (HF) that affects women toward the end of pregnancy or in months after delivery. Treatment is similar to the treatment for HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF). Most women make full myocardial function recovery within 6 months on conventional HF therapy. In rare instances, catastrophic presentations may occur with hemodynamic instability requiring the use of mechanical support. Because of the small patient population, limited information is available regarding the recovery of myocardial function in women who received mechanical support...
September 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Michael Rosenbloom, Michael Hancock, Perry Weinstock, Allyson Paterek, Richard Highbloom, Frank Bowen, Kinjal Patel
A patient with known cold agglutinins requiring an aortic valve replacement was referred for surgery. Asanguinous, Del Nido cardioplegia was used for myocardial protection. Warm induction followed by cold infusion prevented any agglutination and eliminated the need for subsequent cardioplegia doses. Following the cross-clamp period, the heart returned to normal sinus rhythm without need for defibrillation. Postoperative ejection fraction and systolic function were normal.
September 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Gary Plancher, Bharat Datt, Moui Nguyen, Hamish Munro, William M DeCampli, Kamal Pourmoghadam
Bloodless pediatric cardiac surgery is the intent of most surgical centers especially in the Jehovah's Witness population where it is a desire not to administer blood products because of religious belief. It is a tremendous feat, considering that most pediatric cardiovascular prime volumes are more than 20% of the patient's estimated blood volume (EBV). We report on our bloodless strategy for a 2-year old Jehovah's Witness with trisomy 21 and complete atrioventricular canal repair, who underwent atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect patch closure, pulmonary artery debanding, and pulmonary arterioplasty...
September 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Bharat Datt, Hamish M Munro, William M DeCampli
Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is used in neonates and infants to reduce volume overload and increase oxygen-carrying capacity post cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In addition, it decreases edema, attenuates complementation activation and immunogenic response to CPB. Hemodilution in the pediatric patient has always been a challenge, countered in part by miniaturization of CPB circuits. We describe a case in which we maintained an acceptable hematocrit level greater than 24%, considered the nadir below which the adverse effects of hemodilution can become evident...
September 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Jennifer Bezaire, Dorothy Thomson, Erick McNair
Patients with hemophilia A (Hem A) requiring cardiopulmonary bypass-supported cardiac surgery pose unique challenges for perioperative hemostatic management. This report describes a staged perioperative approach to clinical hematologic management as applied to an 80-year-old male of O-positive blood type with mild Hem A, who underwent successful, uncomplicated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Hematologic management primarily consisted of normalization of plasma factor VIII levels followed by standard care...
September 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Hadrien Winiszewski, Andrea Perrotti, Sidney Chocron, Gilles Capellier, Gaël Piton
We report a case of a refractory cardiogenic shock secondary to myocardial infarction in a 70-year-old patient requiring femoral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). At initial transesophageal echocardiography, the venous cannula tip was seen in the inferior vena cava (IVC), but not in right atrium. On day 8, ultrasonic examination identified that the end of the venous cannula was in the hepatic vein (HV). Despite such malposition, no disturbance in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) venous return was observed...
September 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Jared Netley, James Roy, Joseph Greenlee, Shaun Hart, Michael Todt, Bryan Statz
Anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is common, but alternative agents are being evaluated for safety and efficacy. The objective of this analysis was to assess if a comprehensive bivalirudin dosing and monitoring protocol effectively guides dose adjustments and monitoring of bivalirudin in patients during ECMO. Our analysis included 11 patients who received bivalirudin during ECMO therapy and had dosing managed using our hospital derived protocol. Patients treated over a 1-year period were included in this retrospective analysis...
September 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Adham Elmously, Thomas Bobka, Sandi Khin, Ashwad Afzal, Andreas R de Biasi, William J DeBois, T Sloane Guy, Marcus D'ayala, Iosif Gulkarov, Arash Salemi, Berhane Worku
The utility of distal perfusion cannula (DPC) placement for the prevention of limb complications in patients undergoing femoral venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is poorly characterized. Patients undergoing femoral VA ECMO cannulation at two institutions were retrospectively assessed. Patients were grouped into those who did and those who did not receive a DPC at the time of primary cannulation. The primary outcome was any limb complication. Secondary outcomes included successfully weaning ECMO and in-hospital mortality...
September 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Natalie Henderson, Janice E Sullivan, John Myers, Terri Wells, Aaron Calhoun, John Berkenbosch, Deanna Todd Tzanetos
The objectives of this study were to investigate the correlation between thromboelastography (TEG) and conventional measures of anticoagulation, and to determine optimum values for citrated kaolin TEG R time (TEG RCK) and anti-Xa activity that would minimize both bleeding and thrombotic complications in pediatric and neonatal patients requiring extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO). A retrospective chart review of patients requiring veno-venous (VV) and venoarterial (VA) ECMO was performed. Combined medical and cardiac ICU within a single-center, tertiary care, freestanding, children's hospital...
September 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
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