journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38776176/direct-assessment-of-leukocyte-signalling-and-cytokine-secretion-reveals-exercise-intensity-dependent-reductions-in-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-action
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hashim Islam, Shun-Hsi Tsai, Caíque Figueiredo, Garett S Jackson, Alexis Marcotte-Chénard, Johannes Bosak, Alfonso Moreno-Cabañas, Fabio S Lira, Jonathan P Little
Circulating interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 concentrations are widely used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise but do not capture cytokine action at the cellular level. Whether and how acute exercise impacts anti-inflammatory cytokine action in humans is unknown. To determine how exercise intensity and pattern impact IL-6 and IL-10 action in blood leukocytes, 16 active adults (eight males/eight females; age: 30 ± 3 years; body mass index: 22.8 ± 2.3 kg/m2 ; <mml:math xmlns:mml="https://www...
May 22, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38776074/the-rhoa-guanine-exchange-factor-abr-a-glucose-sensitive-mediator-of-actin-reorganization-in-feto-placental-arterial-endothelial-cells-altered-by-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Silvija Tokic, Boris Novakovic, Barbara Leopold-Posch, Magdalena Mühlberger, Denise Hoch, Jelena Lögl, Eva M Bernhart, Richard Saffery, Gernot Desoye, Ursula Hiden
In utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) programs the fetus, increasing offspring risk for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease later in life. Hyperglycaemia is widely recognized as the driving force of diabetes-induced programming. We have previously shown that GDM exposure alters DNA methylation and gene expression associated with actin remodelling in primary feto-placental arterial endothelial cells (fpEC). Thus, we hypothesized that hyperglycaemic insults underlie programmed changes in fpEC morphology and actin organization by GDM...
May 22, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38775160/efficiency-of-cycling-exercise-misunderstandings-of-physiology
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
George A Brooks, Glenn A Gaesser, David C Poole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38769692/impact-of-nocturnal-hypoxia-on-glycaemic-control-appetite-gut-microbiota-and-inflammation-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-single-blind-cross-over-trial
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anthony I Shepherd, Thomas J James, Alex A M Gould, Harry Mayes, Rebecca Neal, Janis Shute, Michael J Tipton, Heather Massey, Zoe L Saynor, Maria Perissiou, Hugh Montgomery, Connie Sturgess, Janine Makaronidis, Andrew J Murray, Michael P W Grocott, Michael Cummings, Steven Young-Min, Janet Rennell-Smyth, Melitta A McNarry, Kelly A Mackintosh, Hannah Dent, Samuel C Robson, Jo Corbett
High altitude residents have a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, we examined the effect of repeated overnight normobaric hypoxic exposure on glycaemic control, appetite, gut microbiota and inflammation in adults with T2DM. Thirteen adults with T2DM [glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ): 61.1 ± 14.1 mmol mol-1 ; aged 64.2 ± 9.4 years; four female] completed a single-blind, randomised, sham-controlled, cross-over study for 10 nights, sleeping when exposed to hypoxia (fractional inspired O2 [ <mml:math xmlns:mml="https://www...
May 20, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38766932/bed-rest-impairs-the-vestibular-control-of-balance
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Stuart W Mackenzie, Craig P Smith, Malcom F Tremblay, Brian L Day, Raymond F Reynolds
Prolonged bed rest impairs standing balance but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Previous research suggests strength loss is not the cause, leaving impaired sensorimotor control as an alternative. Here we examine vestibular control of posture in 18 male volunteers before and after 60 days of bed rest. Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) was used to evoke sway responses before, 1 and 6 days after bed rest under different head yaw orientations. The directional accuracy and precision of these responses were calculated from ground reaction force vectors...
May 20, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38762879/piperine-enhances-contractile-force-in-slow-and-fast-twitch-muscle
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jon Herskind, Niels Ørtenblad, Arthur J Cheng, Peter Pedersen, Kristian Overgaard
Piperine has been shown to bind to myosin and shift the distribution of conformational states of myosin molecules from the super-relaxed state to the disordered relaxed state. However, little is known about the implications for muscle force production and potential underlying mechanisms. Muscle contractility experiments were performed using isolated muscles and single fibres from rats and mice. The dose-response effect of piperine on muscle force was assessed at several stimulation frequencies. The potentiation of muscle force was also tested in muscles fatigued by eccentric contractions...
May 19, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38761133/differential-impact-of-sex-on-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-and-protein-homeostasis-by-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-in-normoxia
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nicole Welch, Saurabh Mishra, Annette Bellar, Pugazhendhi Kannan, Amrit Gopan, Maryam Goudarzi, Jasmine King, Mathew Luknis, Ryan Musich, Vandana Agrawal, James Bena, Cameron J Koch, Ling Li, Belinda Willard, Yatrik M Shah, Srinivasan Dasarathy
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is continuously synthesized and degraded in normoxia. During hypoxia, HIF1α stabilization restricts cellular/mitochondrial oxygen utilization. Cellular stressors can stabilize HIF1α even during normoxia. However, less is known about HIF1α function(s) and sex-specific effects during normoxia in the basal state. Since skeletal muscle is the largest protein store in mammals and protein homeostasis has high energy demands, we determined HIF1α function at baseline during normoxia in skeletal muscle...
May 18, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38758592/neuromodulatory-effects-of-parietal-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-network-level-activity-serving-fluid-intelligence
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Tara D Erker, Yasra Arif, Jason A John, Christine M Embury, Kennedy A Kress, Seth D Springer, Hannah J Okelberry, Kellen M McDonald, Giorgia Picci, Alex I Wiesman, Tony W Wilson
Fluid intelligence (Gf) involves rational thinking skills and requires the integration of information from different cortical regions to resolve novel complex problems. The effects of non-invasive brain stimulation on Gf have been studied in attempts to improve Gf, but such studies are rare and the few existing have reached conflicting conclusions. The parieto-frontal integration theory of intelligence (P-FIT) postulates that the parietal and frontal lobes play a critical role in Gf. To investigate the suggested role of parietal cortices, we applied high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) to the left and right parietal cortices of 39 healthy adults (age 19-33 years) for 20 min in three separate sessions (left active, right active and sham)...
May 17, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38758348/metformin-and-exercise-prescription-time-for-evidence-based-guidance
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kellie Hoehing, Adrianna Keener-Denoia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38758005/timing-dependent-synergies-between-motor-cortex-and-posterior-spinal-stimulation-in-humans
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
James R McIntosh, Evan F Joiner, Jacob L Goldberg, Phoebe Greenwald, Alexandra C Dionne, Lynda M Murray, Earl Thuet, Oleg Modik, Evgeny Shelkov, Joseph M Lombardi, Zeeshan M Sardar, Ronald A Lehman, Andrew K Chan, K Daniel Riew, Noam Y Harel, Michael S Virk, Christopher Mandigo, Jason B Carmel
Volitional movement requires descending input from the motor cortex and sensory feedback through the spinal cord. We previously developed a paired brain and spinal electrical stimulation approach in rats that relies on convergence of the descending motor and spinal sensory stimuli in the cervical cord. This approach strengthened sensorimotor circuits and improved volitional movement through associative plasticity. In humans, it is not known whether posterior epidural spinal cord stimulation targeted at the sensorimotor interface or anterior epidural spinal cord stimulation targeted within the motor system is effective at facilitating brain evoked responses...
May 17, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38748778/lack-of-compensatory-mitophagy-in-skeletal-muscles-during-sepsis
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sami Sedraoui, Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet, Dominique Mayaki, Alaa Moamer, Laurent Huck, Gilles Gouspillou, Basil J Petrof, Sabah Hussain
Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a major problem in critically ill patients suffering from sepsis. This condition is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased autophagy in skeletal muscles. Autophagy is a proteolytic mechanism involved in eliminating dysfunctional cellular components, including mitochondria. The latter process, referred to as mitophagy, is essential for maintaining mitochondrial quality and skeletal muscle health. Recently, a fluorescent reporter system called mito-QC (i.e. mitochondrial quality control) was developed to specifically quantify mitophagy levels...
May 15, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38748517/myostatin-gene-invalidation-does-not-prevent-skeletal-muscle-mass-loss-during-experimental-sepsis-in-mice
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jérome Morel, Anne Sophie Pignard, Josiane Castells, Valentine Allibert, Lahcène Hatimi, Benjamin Buhot, Mathias Velarde, Anne Cécile Durieux, Damien Freyssenet
Loss of muscle mass and function induced by sepsis contributes to physical inactivity and disability in intensive care unit patients. Limiting skeletal muscle deconditioning may thus be helpful in reducing the long-term effect of muscle wasting in patients. We tested the hypothesis that invalidation of the myostatin gene, which encodes a powerful negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, could prevent or attenuate skeletal muscle wasting and improve survival of septic mice. Sepsis was induced by caecal ligature and puncture (CLP) in 13-week-old C57BL/6J wild-type and myostatin knock-out male mice...
May 15, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38747052/exercise-induced-cortical-disinhibition-mediates-the-relationship-between-fitness-and-memory-in-older-adults
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Claire J Cadwallader, Dylan Curtin, Eleanor M Taylor, Tamar de Moel, Huw Jarvis, Christopher Hutchison, Joshua Hendrikse, Trevor T-J Chong, James P Coxon
Regular exercise benefits learning and memory in older adults, but the neural mechanisms mediating these effects remain unclear. Evidence in young adults indicates that acute exercise creates a favourable environment for synaptic plasticity by enhancing cortical disinhibition. As such, we investigated whether plasticity-related disinhibition mediated the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and memory function in healthy older adults (n = 16, mean age = 66.06). Participants completed a graded maximal exercise test and assessments of visual and verbal memory, followed by two counterbalanced sessions involving 20 min of either high-intensity interval training exercise or rest...
May 15, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38747042/single-cell-ionic-current-phenotyping-elucidates-non-canonical-features-and-predictive-potential-of-cardiomyocytes-during-automated-drug-experiments
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alexander P Clark, Siyu Wei, David J Christini, Trine Krogh-Madsen
All new drugs must go through preclinical screening tests to determine their proarrhythmic potential. While these assays effectively filter out dangerous drugs, they are too conservative, often misclassifying safe compounds as proarrhythmic. In this study, we attempt to address this shortcoming with a novel, medium-throughput drug-screening approach: we use an automated patch-clamp system to acquire optimized voltage clamp (VC) and action potential (AP) data from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) at several drug concentrations (baseline, 3×, 10× and 20× the effective free plasma concentrations)...
May 15, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38743485/role-of-na-v-1-7-in-postganglionic-sympathetic-nerve-function-in-human-and-guinea-pig-arteries
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Joyce S Kim, Sonya Meeker, Fei Ru, Minh Tran, Tanja S Zabka, David Hackos, Bradley J Undem
NaV 1.7 plays a crucial role in inducing and conducting action potentials in pain-transducing sensory nociceptor fibres, suggesting that NaV 1.7 blockers could be effective non-opioid analgesics. While SCN9A is expressed in both sensory and autonomic neurons, its functional role in the autonomic system remains less established. Our single neuron rt-PCR analysis revealed that 82% of sympathetic neurons isolated from guinea-pig stellate ganglia expressed NaV 1.7 mRNA, with NaV 1.3 being the only other tetrodotoxin-sensitive channel expressed in approximately 50% of neurons...
May 14, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38743350/mitochondrial-respiration-is-lower-in-the-intrauterine-growth-restricted-fetal-sheep-heart
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Eileen I Chang, Jane Stremming, Leslie A Knaub, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Paul J Rozance, Carmen C Sucharov, Jane E B Reusch, Laura D Brown
Fetuses affected by intrauterine growth restriction have an increased risk of developing heart disease and failure in adulthood. Compared with controls, late gestation intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetal sheep have fewer binucleated cardiomyocytes, reflecting a more immature heart, which may reduce mitochondrial capacity to oxidize substrates. We hypothesized that the late gestation IUGR fetal heart has a lower capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles from IUGR and control (CON) fetal sheep at 90% gestation were harvested...
May 14, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38739005/cutting-through-dogma-a-novel-tool-to-dissect-lactate-biology
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Niclas Rausch, Rebecca L McIntyre, Fabian Finger, Jens Lund
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38734987/how-we-perceive-the-width-of-grasped-objects-insights-into-the-central-processes-that-govern-proprioceptive-judgements
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Martin E Héroux, Georgia Fisher, Lovisa H Axelson, Annie A Butler, Simon C Gandevia
Low-level proprioceptive judgements involve a single frame of reference, whereas high-level proprioceptive judgements are made across different frames of reference. The present study systematically compared low-level (grasp <mml:math xmlns:mml="https://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mml:semantics><mml:mo>→</mml:mo> <mml:annotation>$\rightarrow$</mml:annotation></mml:semantics> </mml:math> grasp) and high-level (vision <mml:math xmlns:mml="https://www.w3...
May 12, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38733166/the-complementary-dominance-hypothesis-a-model-for-remediating-the-good-hand-in-stroke-survivors
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nick M Kitchen, Brooke Dexheimer, Jisung Yuk, Candice Maenza, Paul R Ruelos, Taewon Kim, Robert L Sainburg
The complementary dominance hypothesis is a novel model of motor lateralization substantiated by decades of research examining interlimb differences in the control of upper extremity movements in neurotypical adults and hemisphere-specific motor deficits in stroke survivors. In contrast to earlier ideas that attribute handedness to the specialization of one hemisphere, our model proposes complementary motor control specializations in each hemisphere. The dominant hemisphere mediates optimal control of limb dynamics as required for smooth and efficient movements, whereas the non-dominant hemisphere mediates impedance control, important for countering unexpected mechanical conditions and achieving steady-state limb positions...
May 11, 2024: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38733161/workin-on-our-night-moves-leveraging-the-timing-of-aerobic-exercise-to-enhance-cardiovascular-autonomic-control-in-hypertensive-older-adults
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
John R M Renwick, Stuart P S Mladen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2024: Journal of Physiology
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