Marine Pollution Bulletin | Page 2

Kun Shi, Jinxian Weng, Guorong Li
Using the AIS data in 2017, this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of five ECA policies on pollutant emissions from merchant ships in Shanghai Port waters. Results show that the estimated annual emissions from merchant ships including cargo ships, container ships and tankers are 3.4029 × 104 tons for NOx , 2.1037 × 104 tons for SO2 , 2.291 × 103 tons for PM2.5 , and 2.921 × 103 tons for PM10 in 2017, respectively. Impact analysis results highlight the fact that effects of each ECA policy vary significantly among different merchant ship types and different water areas...
April 15, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Daniel Koske, Katharina Straumer, Nadine I Goldenstein, Reinhold Hanel, Thomas Lang, Ulrike Kammann
Corrosion and disintegration of munition shells from the World Wars increase the risk that explosives are released into the marine environment, exposing a variety of organisms. Only few studies investigated contamination of fish with explosives in the field under environmental conditions. Here we present a comprehensive study on the contamination status of dab (Limanda limanda) from a munition dumpsite and from reference sites in the Baltic Sea. Bile of 236 dab from four different study sites, including a dumpsite for conventional munitions, was investigated and explosive compounds were detected by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
April 15, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Brian Morton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Gil Gonçalves, Umberto Andriolo, Luís Pinto, Diogo Duarte
Recent works have shown the feasibility of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for monitoring marine pollution. We provide a comparison among techniques to detect and map marine litter objects on an UAS-derived orthophoto of a sandy beach-dune system. Manual image screening technique allowed a detailed description of marine litter categories. Random forest classifier returned the best-automated detection rate (F-score 70%), while convolutional neural network performed slightly worse (F-score 60%) due to a higher number of false positive detections...
April 13, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Ichiro Takeuchi, Daisuke Takaichi, Masakazu Katsumata, Hiroshi Ishibashi
We investigated coral bleaching by monitoring colour changes and measuring the delayed fluorescence (DF) of symbiotic dinoflagellates in the hermatypic coral Acropora tenuis, exposed to 1.0 μg/L Irgarol 1051 (photosystem II herbicide) for 14 d. The Irgarol concentration corresponded to those from international port regions of the world. The coral colour and DFs under the control treatment were stable throughout the experiment, whereas under the Irgarol treatment the corals showed gradual bleaching. The Irgarol treatment caused a rapid decrease in the slow decay DF component (10...
March 14, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
K Immaculate Jeyasanta, Narmatha Sathish, Jamila Patterson, J K Patterson Edward
This study investigates the mean concentration and characteristics of macroplastics (>2.5 cm), mesoplastics (5 mm - 2.5 cm) and microplastics (<5 mm) on eight sandy beaches along the shoreline of Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu. Prevalence of plastic litters varies among the study sites depending on the intensity of fishing and other human activities. Mean concentrations of macroplastics (1.38 ± 78 to 6.16 ± 94 items/m2 ), mesoplastics (2 ± 0.8 to 17 ± 0.11 items/m2 ) and microplastics (25 ± 1...
March 14, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Akbar Abbasi, Fatemeh Mirekhtiary
Heavy metal assessment and natural radioactivity determination in sediments of North Cyprus (Mediterranean coast) were carried out using different analysis methods. The average activity concentrations (range) of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K were found to be 20.1 (30.6-9.2) Bq kg-1 dry weight, 18.4 (26.9-12.4) Bq kg-1 dw, and 467.3 (619.9-147.6) Bq kg-1 dw, respectively. The average activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 232 Th in the sediment samples were less than the acceptable limits, whereas the average activity concentration of 40 K in the sediment samples was higher than the worldwide average concentration...
March 14, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
R Rajaram, S Rameshkumar, A Anandkumar
Bioaccumulation of metals in ten species of green seaweeds collected along the Palk Bay was assessed in the present study. The accumulation of metals in all the ten species were in the order of Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd. Cd was recorded above the permissible level, and Pb, Cu and Zn were below the permissible level of CEQG. The metal concentration in seaweeds was above the WHO standards. The permissible levels of metals were compared with the standards of human health risk assessment, which shows that the exposure of metals from seaweeds has moderate hazard risk to humans...
March 14, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
J García-Garay, A Franco-Herera, F Machuca-Martínez
Ballast water (BW) is a dead weight used by ships to provide stability in their journeys. It poses health, economic and ecological problems. Since 2017, the International Maritime Organization-IMO mandated management of BW. This research compares plankton mortality and microorganism inactivation in different BW treatments to identify possible decay models. Treatments include solar radiation (Srad), UV, H2 O2 and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In the wild populations, the disinfection capacity was measured in natural seawater pumped from the Santa Marta port zone in Colombia...
March 13, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Heather R Smith, Daniel P Zitterbart, Thomas F Norris, Michael Flau, Elizabeth L Ferguson, Colin G Jones, Olaf Boebel, Valerie D Moulton
Impulsive sounds generated during seismic surveys have elicited behavioral responses in marine mammals and could cause hearing impairment or injury. Mitigating exposure to seismic sound often relies on real-time marine mammal detection. Detection performance is influenced by detection method, environmental conditions, and observer experience. We conducted a field comparison of real-time detections made by marine mammal observers (MMOs), a rotating infrared (IR) camera, and via passive acoustic monitoring (PAM)...
March 13, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Veronica van der Schyff, Nee Sun Choong Kwet Yive, Anuschka Polder, Nik C Cole, Hindrik Bouwman
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are anthropogenic fluorinated compounds of concern for human and environmental health. There is no data on PFAS concentrations in marine bird eggs from the Western Indian Ocean. We analysed eight PFAS in eggs of fairy terns (Gygis alba), sooty terns (Onychoprion fuscatus), and common noddies (Anous stolidus) from St. Brandon's Atoll. Fairy tern eggs contained the highest concentrations, followed by sooty terns and common noddies. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) had the highest mean concentration (2...
March 12, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Vanessa Zago, Laura Veschetti, Cristina Patuzzo, Giovanni Malerba, Maria M Lleo
The aquatic environment can represent a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes. In the present study, phenotypical, biochemical and molecular techniques were used to screen a collection of marine strains isolated in Italian aquaculture farms to investigate their beta-lactam resistance profiles. The genome of 12 carbapenemase and/or beta-lactamase producing strains was sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis of the beta-lactamases found in their chromosomes was performed. Gene annotation and prediction revealed the presence of blaAmpC and blaOXA-55-like in all the Shewanella algae isolates whereas in Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, blaAmpC and blaCARB-19 were found, respectively...
March 12, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Hyun Je Park, Jung Hyun Kwak, Hee Yoon Kang, Kee-Young Kwon, Weolae Lim, Chang-Keun Kang
Harmful algal blooms involving the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides occur every summer off the Korean peninsula's central southern coast. To determine whether Cochlodinium bloom-derived organic carbon is incorporated into the subtidal macrobenthic food web, we compared the δ13 C and δ15 N values of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) and sedimentary organic matter, and macrobenthic consumers between bloom and non-bloom seasons. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Cochlodinium blooms in summer and a predominance of diatoms in autumn...
March 12, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
S M Al-Salem, Saif Uddin, Brett Lyons
Microplastics (MP), the debris that collectively refers to plastic fragments and particles of <5 mm in size within marine environments, has been the subject of interest within the past decade. Evidence of its occurrence and abundance, has been recorded in this communication after examining gastrointestinal specimens of eight commercially available fish species common to the Arabian (Persian) Gulf acquired locally from the State of Kuwait. The species studied belonged to different trophic levels, and the specimens were subjected to Micro Raman and Micro Fourier Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in Attenuated Reflective Mode (ATR) to determine the presence and type of polymer of the MP...
March 12, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jessica Bianchi, Tommaso Valente, Umberto Scacco, Roberta Cimmaruta, Alice Sbrana, Cecilia Silvestri, Marco Matiddi
Microplastic presence in the marine environment has generated considerable concern. Many procedures for microplastics detection in fish gastrointestinal tract have been recently developed. In this study, we compared efficiencies of two common procedures applied for the digestion of organic matter (10% KOH; 15% H2 O2 ) with a new proposal (mixture of 5% HNO3 and 15% H2 O2 ). We considered ecological diversity among species and differences in their diet compositions as factors that could affect the efficiency and feasibility of analytical approaches...
March 12, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jose M Andrade, Borja Ferreiro, Purificación López-Mahía, Soledad Muniategui-Lorenzo
Infrared spectrometry (IR) became a workhorse to characterize microplastics (MPs) worldwide. However, reports on the experimental conditions to measure them decreased alarmingly. As complete, relevant information on the instrumental setup determining IR spectra is crucial for scientific reproducibility, ca. 50% of the papers that reported FTIR to measure MPs were evaluated and it was found that most studies cannot be replicated due to missing experimental details. To ameliorate this, the most critical parameters influencing IR spectra are depicted, their impact when matching a spectrum against databases exemplified, and, following efforts from other scientific fields, a minimum information for publication of IR-related data on MPs characterization (MIPIR-MP) is proposed, along with a brief, simple paragraph to resume the most critical information to be reported...
March 12, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Rajendran Shalini, Geevaretnam Jeyasekaran, Robinson Jeya Shakila, Ulaganathan Arisekar, Sundhar S, Paulraj Jawahar, Samraj Aanand, Asha HemaMalini
Concentrations of trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead) in tissues (muscle, gills, and digestive gland) of three commercially exploited crustaceans (Portunus sanguinolentus, Charybdis natator, and Penaeus semisulcatus) and three cephalopods (Doryteuthis sibogae, Sepia pharaonis, and Cistopus indicus) were examined. The animals were captured in the waters of Thoothukudi, and the tissues of six individuals of each species were analyzed using ICP-MS. The highest concentrations of arsenic (16.5 μg/g) and mercury (0...
March 11, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Gerson Fernandino, Carla I Elliff, Heitor Francischini, Paula Dentzien-Dias
Plastic, as a "flagship species", represents how deeply humans impact the environment. Although scarce, the presence of plastic and other anthropogenic materials in rocks has already been reported in the literature, however, so far, not in the Southern Hemisphere. Thus, the objective of the present study was to report and describe samples of sedimentary rocks containing anthropogenic items cemented with biogenic and siliciclastic material - anthropoquinas - and to discuss implications to the establishment of the Anthropocene and geodiversity conservation...
March 10, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yu Zhang, Changsheng Chen, Pengfei Xue, Robert C Beardsley, Peter J S Franks
Physical dynamics of Harmful Algal Blooms in Massachusetts Bay in May 2005 and 2008 were examined by the simulated results. Reverse particle-tracking experiments suggest that the toxic phytoplankton mainly originated from the Bay of Fundy in 2005 and the western Maine coastal region and its local rivers in 2008. Mechanism studies suggest that the phytoplankton were advected by the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current (GMCC). In 2005, Nor'easters increased the cross-shelf surface elevation gradient over the northwestern shelf...
March 9, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Xin Zhong, Baochao Qiu, Xiaoshou Liu
Functional diversity can reflect the overall differences in functional traits and indicate their response to environmental disturbance. Macrofaunal feeding functional groups and functional diversity were studied in the adjacent waters of the Yangtze River Estuary. The detritivorous group had the highest species number, abundance and secondary productivity while the canivorous group had the highest biomass. Pearson correlation analysis showed that functional evenness was negatively correlated with species number and Shannon-Wiener index...
March 9, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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