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Behavior Genetics

Kasey D Fowler-Finn, Brian Boutwell
Better characterization of the sources of phenotypic variation in human behavioural traits-stemming from genetic and environmental influences-will allow for more informed decisions about how to approach a range of challenges arising from variation, ranging from societal issues to the treatment of diseases. In particular, understanding how the environment moderates genetic influence on phenotypes (i.e., genotype-environment interactions, or G × E) is a central component of the behavioral sciences. Yet, understanding of this phenomenon is lagging somewhat, due in part to the difficulties of detecting G × E...
February 8, 2019: Behavior Genetics
Oleg N Tikhodeyev, Оlga V Shcherbakova
The role of non-shared environment (NSE) in the development of psychological traits is usually comparable with that of the genotype. However, no specific factors of NSE with significant impact on such traits have been discovered so far. We propose that the current failures in understanding the origin of NSE are at least partly due to the fact that behavioral genetics has left out one of the key sources of phenotypic variation. This source is the intrinsic stochasticity of molecular processes underlying individual development...
February 6, 2019: Behavior Genetics
Elizabeth B Brown, Emily Rayens, Stephanie M Rollmann
Chemosensory systems mediate some of the most vital animal behaviors. However, our knowledge of the genetic mechanisms that underlie behavioral responses to olfactory cues remains fragmented. Genome-wide association mapping has greatly advanced our ability to identify candidate loci associated with variation in olfactory behavior, but functional validation of these candidates remain a necessary next step in understanding the mechanisms by which these genes influence chemoreception. In previous genome-wide association analyses, a genomic region that spans multiple polymorphic loci on the left arm of the third chromosome was found to be significantly associated with variation in olfactory behavioral responses to the odorant 2,3-butanedione, a volatile compound present in fermenting fruit...
February 1, 2019: Behavior Genetics
A Arias-Vásquez, A J Groffen, S Spijker, K G Ouwens, M Klein, D Vojinovic, T E Galesloot, J Bralten, J J Hottenga, P J van der Most, V M Kattenberg, R Pool, I M Nolte, B W J H Penninx, I O Fedko, C V Dolan, M G Nivard, A den Braber, C M van Duijn, P J Hoekstra, J K Buitelaar, L A Kiemeney, M Hoogman, C M Middeldorp, H H M Draisma, S H Vermeulen, C Sánchez-Mora, J A Ramos-Quiroga, M Ribasés, C A Hartman, J J S Kooij, N Amin, A B Smit, B Franke, D I Boomsma
We aimed to detect Attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) risk-conferring genes in adults. In children, ADHD is characterized by age-inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity and may persists into adulthood. Childhood and adulthood ADHD are heritable, and are thought to represent the clinical extreme of a continuous distribution of ADHD symptoms in the general population. We aimed to leverage the power of studies of quantitative ADHD symptoms in adults who were genotyped. Within the SAGA (Study of ADHD trait genetics in adults) consortium, we estimated the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability of quantitative self-reported ADHD symptoms and carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis in nine adult population-based and case-only cohorts of adults...
January 18, 2019: Behavior Genetics
Sarah L Lukowski, Jack DiTrapani, Nicholas J Rockwood, Minjeong Jeon, Lee A Thompson, Stephen A Petrill
Analyses have suggested math anxiety is a multidimensional construct. However, previous behavioral genetic work examining math anxiety was unidimensional. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine different approaches for specifying behavioral genetic models of math anxiety as a multidimensional construct. Three models were compared: a unidimensional model, a three dimension multidimensional model, and a bi-factor model, which partitioned variance into one common factor shared across three dimensions of math anxiety and examined residual variance in each dimension...
January 18, 2019: Behavior Genetics
Amanda M Ramos, Amanda M Griffin, Jenae M Neiderhiser, David Reiss
Virtuous character development in children is correlated with parenting behavior, but the role of genetic influences in this association has not been examined. Using a longitudinal twin/sibling study (N = 720; Time 1 (T1) Mage  = 12-14 years, Time 3 (T3) Mage  = 25-27 years), the current report examines associations among parental negativity/positivity and offspring responsibility during adolescence, and subsequent young adult conscientiousness. Findings indicate that associations among parental negativity and offspring virtuous character during adolescence and young adulthood are due primarily to heritable influences...
January 17, 2019: Behavior Genetics
Kaja Faßbender, Annika Wiebe, Timothy C Bates
Generativity-showing concern to establish and guide future generations-has been argued to be a biological adaptation central to cumulative culture and survival, but also, in turn, to be a cultural adaptation dependent on norms. From the perspective of human agency, concern for the future has played a key role in raising agency for generations that follow by creating infrastructure and cultural inheritance. Here, in a population-representative sample of 756 twin-pairs, we present the first test of the genetic and environmental structure of generativity using the Loyola Generativity Scale (short)...
January 16, 2019: Behavior Genetics
Gunn-Helen Moen, Gibran Hemani, Nicole M Warrington, David M Evans
Offspring outcomes are a function of maternal genetics operating on the intrauterine and postnatal environment, offspring genetics and environmental factors. Partitioning genetic effects into maternal and offspring components requires genotyped mother-offspring pairs or genotyped individuals with phenotypic information on themselves and their offspring. We performed asymptotic power calculations and data simulations to estimate power to detect maternal and offspring genetic effects under a range of different study designs and models...
January 2, 2019: Behavior Genetics
Brad Verhulst, Elizabeth Prom-Wormley, Matthew Keller, Sarah Medland, Michael C Neale
For many multivariate twin models, the numerical Type I error rates are lower than theoretically expected rates using a likelihood ratio test (LRT), which implies that the significance threshold for statistical hypothesis tests is more conservative than most twin researchers realize. This makes the numerical Type II error rates higher than theoretically expected. Furthermore, the discrepancy between the observed and expected error rates increases as more variables are included in the analysis and can have profound implications for hypothesis testing and statistical inference...
December 20, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
While a standard part of twin modeling, the magnitude of shared environment (c2 ) is rarely examined by comparing estimates obtained using other methods. To clarify these effects on familial resemblance, we estimated c2 for 20 diverse phenotypes in: (i) monozygotic and dizygotic twins, (ii) all step-siblings, and (iii) reared together and apart half-siblings, ascertained from the Swedish general population. The mean c2 estimates (± 95% CIs) differed across methods and were higher from twins (0.18; 0.13-0...
December 8, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Tom Rosenström, Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski, Eivind Ystrom, Robert F Krueger, Steven H Aggen, Nathan A Gillespie, Espen Eilertsen, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Fartein Ask Torvik
A statistical mediation model was developed within a twin design to investigate the etiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unlike conventional statistical mediation models, this biometric mediation model can detect unobserved confounding. Using a sample of 1410 pairs of Norwegian twins, we investigated specific hypotheses that DSM-IV personality-disorder (PD) traits mediate effects of childhood stressful life events (SLEs) on AUD, and that adulthood SLEs mediate effects of PDs on AUD. Models including borderline PD traits indicated unobserved confounding in phenotypic path coefficients, whereas models including antisocial and impulsive traits did not...
December 7, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Wendy Johnson, Elisabeth Hahn, Juliana Gottschling, Franziska Lenau, Frank M Spinath, Matt McGue
Increasing obesity is a world-wide health concern. Its most commonly used indicator, body mass index (BMI), consistently shows considerable genetic and shared environmental variance throughout life, the latter particularly in youth. Several adult studies have observed less total and genetically influenced variance with higher attained SES. These studies offer clues about sources of the 'obesity epidemic' but analogous youth studies of SES-of-origin are needed. Genetic and environmental influences and moderating effects of SES may vary in countries with different health policies, lifestyles, and degrees/sources of social inequality, offering further clues to the sources of the obesity epidemic...
November 29, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Daniel A Briley, Jonathan Livengood, Jaime Derringer, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, R Chris Fraley, Brent W Roberts
Behavior genetic findings figure in debates ranging from urgent public policy matters to perennial questions about the nature of human agency. Despite a common set of methodological tools, behavior genetic studies approach scientific questions with potentially divergent goals. Some studies may be interested in identifying a complete model of how individual differences come to be (e.g., identifying causal pathways among genotypes, environments, and phenotypes across development). Other studies place primary importance on developing models with predictive utility, in which case understanding of underlying causal processes is not necessarily required...
November 22, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Daniela I Schneider, Lee Ehrman, Tobias Engl, Martin Kaltenpoth, Aurélie Hua-Van, Arnaud Le Rouzic, Wolfgang J Miller
Microbial symbionts are ubiquitous associates of living organisms but their role in mediating reproductive isolation (RI) remains controversial. We addressed this knowledge gap by employing the Drosophila paulistorum-Wolbachia model system. Semispecies in the D. paulistorum species complex exhibit strong RI between each other and knockdown of obligate mutualistic Wolbachia bacteria in female D. paulistorum flies triggers loss of assortative mating behavior against males carrying incompatible Wolbachia strains...
November 19, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Mark A Reimers, Carl Craver, Mikhail Dozmorov, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Kenneth S Kendler
Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders have inspired both confident optimism and withering criticism. Although many recent findings from well powered GWAS have been replicated in independent data sets, the genes identified have pinned down few if any underlying causal mechanisms. Therefore, a key issue is whether or not the genes implicated by GWAS form a coherent story on their own and thus could in principle lead to insight into the biological mechanisms underlying the trait or disorder...
November 16, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Lachlan T Strike, Katie L McMahon, Greig I de Zubicaray, Paul M Thompson, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Margaret J Wright
In GWAS of imaging phenotypes (e.g., by the ENIGMA and CHARGE consortia), the growing number of phenotypes considered presents a statistical challenge that other fields are not experiencing (e.g. psychiatry and the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium). However, the multivariate nature of MRI measurements may also be an advantage as many of the MRI phenotypes are correlated and multivariate methods could be considered. Here, we compared the statistical power of a multivariate GWAS versus the current univariate approach, which consists of multiple univariate analyses...
November 15, 2018: Behavior Genetics
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November 2018: Behavior Genetics
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Behavior Genetics
Megan Flom, Manjie Wang, Kendra J Uccello, Kimberly J Saudino
The sources of individual differences in both observed and parent-rated positive affect (PA) were examined in a sample of 304 3-year-old twin pairs (140 MZ, 164 DZ). Based on model-fitting analyses, individual differences in observed PA were attributed to moderate genetic and high nonshared environmental factors, but not shared environmental factors. In contrast, shared environmental effects accounted for over half of the variance in parent-rated PA and genetic and nonshared environmental effects were more modest...
November 2018: Behavior Genetics
Meridith L Eastman, Brad Verhulst, Lance M Rappaport, Melanie Dirks, Chelsea Sawyers, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman, John M Hettema, Roxann Roberson-Nay
The goal of the present investigation was to clarify and compare the structure of genetic and environmental influences on different types (e.g., physical, verbal) of peer victimization experienced by youth in pre-/early adolescence and mid-/late adolescence. Physical, verbal, social, and property-related peer victimization experiences were assessed in two twin samples (306 pairs, ages 9-14 and 294 pairs, ages 15-20). Cholesky decompositions of individual differences in victimization were conducted, and independent pathway (IP) and common pathway (CP) twin models were tested in each sample...
November 2018: Behavior Genetics
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