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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

Eric A Storch, Joseph F McGuire, Sophie C Schneider, Brent J Small, Tanya K Murphy, Sabine Wilhelm, Daniel A Geller
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study examined the occurrence of sudden gains (or reversal of gains) among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), as well as the association of sudden gains with treatment response, treatment group, and pre-treatment clinical characteristics. METHODS: The sample consisted of 136 youth (ages 7-17) with a primary diagnosis of OCD who were randomized in a double-blinded fashion to 10 sessions of CBT with augmentation of either d-cycloserine or placebo...
March 9, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Reuven Dar, Tal Eden, Michal van Dongen, Marit Hauschildt, Nira Liberman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Seeking Proxies for Internal States (SPIS) model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) postulates that obsessive-compulsive (OC) individuals have reduced access to their internal states and must therefore seek and rely on external proxies for these states. The present study extended this hypothesis to the feeling of understanding, which had not been examined previously in relation to OCD. METHODS: We presented 148 participants with a computerized task requiring them to read and understand a text on medieval architecture...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Kate E Tonta, Joel A Howell, Penelope A Hasking, Mark E Boyes, Patrick J F Clarke
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perfectionism is associated with the development and maintenance of several psychological disorders. Consequently, efforts to better understand perfectionism have potential transdiagnostic impact. One mechanism proposed to underlie perfectionism is an attention bias towards information signalling threats to perfectionism whereby people with elevated perfectionism selectively attend to threatening stimuli. METHOD: The present study assessed whether two core dimensions of perfectionism, perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, are characterised by a threat-related attention bias, and whether this bias was characterised by attention being more rapidly captured by the stimuli (engagement bias), or of greater difficulty to disengage attention (disengagement bias)...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Mary E Oglesby, Lauren A Stentz, Amberly K Portero, Savannah L King, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), or fear of the unknown, is as an important transdiagnostic risk factor across anxiety-related conditions, namely generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). IU is typically indexed using self-report measures. Given the importance of multi-method assessments and the shortcomings associated with existing behavioral indices of IU, additional methods of assessment are needed...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Jelle Sjoerd Vogel, Marte Swart, Mike Slade, Jojanneke Bruins, Mark van der Gaag, Stynke Castelein
OBJECTIVE: The HospitalitY (HY) intervention is a novel recovery oriented intervention for people with psychotic disorders in which peer support and home-based skill training are combined in an eating club. A feasibility study was conducted to inform a subsequent randomised trial. METHODS: This study evaluated three eating clubs consisting of nine participants and three nurses. Semi-structured interviews and pre- and post-intervention measures (18 weeks) of personal recovery, quality of life and functioning were used to evaluate the intervention...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Ryan J Jacoby, Jonathan S Abramowitz, Shannon M Blakey, Lillian Reuman
Although research suggests that introducing varying levels of fear during exposure enhances outcomes for some anxiety-related problems, this has not been examined in the context of obsessions. The current preliminary study tested the hypothesis that introducing variability in exposure intensity would improve long-term outcomes relative to traditional gradual (hierarchical) exposure METHODS: Adults (N = 40) with a moderately distressing unacceptable obsessional thought were randomly assigned in parallel to four twice-weekly sessions of: (a) gradual exposure (EXP-G; n = 19) emphasizing hierarchical exposure completion, or (b) variable exposure (EXP-V; n = 21) emphasizing variability in exposure intensity RESULTS: There were no significant differences in pre to post changes between groups using self-report, interview, or behavioral outcomes (as evaluated by an independent assessor blind to treatment condition)...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Karina Wahl, Thomas Ehring, Hanna Kley, Roselind Lieb, Andrea Meyer, Andreas Kordon, Carlotta V Heinzel, Martin Mazanec, Sabine Schönfeld
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transdiagnostic view of repetitive negative thinking (RNT) claims that different forms of RNT are characterized by identical processes that are applied to disorder-specific content. The purpose of the study was to test whether the processes of RNT differ across major depression disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: Forty-two individuals diagnosed with MDD, 35 individuals with GAD, 41 individuals with OCD, and 35 community controls were asked to think of a typical RNT episode and to rate its processes (core processes; use of mental capacity, unproductivity, abstractness, verbal quality, duration)...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Jill Lobbestael, Martijn van Teffelen, Roy F Baumeister
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sadistic pleasure - the enjoyment of harm-infliction to others - can have devastating interpersonal and societal consequences. The current knowledge on non-sexual, subclinical forms of sadistic pleasure is poor. The present study therefore focussed on the personality correlates of sadistic pleasure and investigated the relationship between the different subcomponents of psychopathy and both dispositional and state-level sadistic pleasure. METHOD: N = 120 males drawn from a community sample filled out questionnaires to assess their level of psychopathy and dispositional sadism...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sanne J E Bruijniks, Sander A Los, Marcus J H Huibers
Experimental studies that manipulate treatment procedures to investigate their direct effects on treatment processes and outcomes are necessary to find out the effective elements and improve the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. The present study randomized mildly to severely depressed participants into a procedure focused on cognitive therapy skill acquisition (CTSA; n = 27) or a control procedure focused on being exposed to theories of automatic thinking (n = 25) and investigated the direct effects on cognitive therapy (CT) skill use, credibility of idiosyncratic dysfunctional beliefs and strength of emotions...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Dianne M Hezel, S Evelyn Stewart, Bradley C Riemann, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Researchers have identified intolerance of uncertainty (IU) as a dysfunctional thought that contributes to OCD. Case examples of OCD suggest that uncertainty and anxiety persist despite low likelihoods of feared outcomes. In this study we examined how people with OCD react to minimal amounts of uncertainty relative to non-anxious individuals and a clinical comparison group of people with social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: We created a questionnaire to measure the distress people feel when there is only minimal uncertainty regarding a given outcome and if they prefer situations with the certainty of negative outcomes in the present versus living with uncertainty...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Keisuke Takano, Julie Van Grieken, Filip Raes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depressed people hold positive beliefs about negative cognition (e.g., rumination is useful to find a solution), which may motivate those individuals to engage in sustained negative thinking. However, in reality, rumination often leads to unfavorable outcomes. Thus, such beliefs create a large discrepancy between one's expectations and the actual outcome. Therefore, we hypothesized that this prediction error would be associated with increased depressed mood...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Ryan Thibodeau, Gabrielle L Amberger
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Biomedical explanations of psychiatric problems, compared to psychosocial explanations, may amplify psychiatric stigma. One limitation of existing research is the measurement of almost exclusively self-reported stigma. This study evaluated the stigma-related effects of biomedical versus psychosocial explanations of schizophrenia using conventional self-report and two other measurement approaches that may tap more deeply held attitudes. METHODS: One hundred three undergraduates listened to a vignette describing a man with (1) schizophrenia of biomedical origin, (2) schizophrenia of psychosocial origin, or (3) diabetes...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Ghislaine Schyns, Karolien van den Akker, Anne Roefs, Katrijn Houben, Anita Jansen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Learning models of overeating predict that exposure therapy is effective in reducing food cue reactivity and overeating. This pilot study tested an eight-session exposure therapy aimed at inhibitory learning vs. an active control condition aimed at lifestyle improvement for obesity (treatment-as-usual). Main outcomes are snacking behavior, eating psychopathology, food cue reactivity, and weight loss. Change in overeating expectancies was assessed as mediator for outcomes, and the associations between habituation of eating desires and outcomes were investigated in the exposure condition...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Laura Anne Grigutsch, Gesa Lewe, Klaus Rothermund, Nicolas Koranyi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to incentive-sensitization theory (IST), addiction is characterized by the decoupling of two subconsciously operating psychological processes 'wanting' (i.e., incentive salience) and 'liking' (i.e., sensory pleasure). The present study set out to test predictions derived from IST in the context of smoking addiction with two variants of the Implicit Association Test (IAT): a Liking-IAT and a Wanting-IAT. In line with IST, we hypothesized that smokers differ from nonsmokers with regard to 'wanting' but not 'liking'...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Antonia Brühl, Nina Heinrichs, Emily E Bernstein, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Efficacious interventions soon after trauma exposure to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are scarce. Evidence suggests that post-trauma, reminder cues to reactivate trauma memory followed by a cognitive visuospatial task, such as Tetris, reduce later intrusive images. Furthermore, studies indicate that aerobic exercise may reduce PTSD symptoms. The present study aimed to test whether playing Tetris, without prior reminder cues, after an experimental trauma limits the development of analogue symptoms and to compare Tetris to aerobic exercise, which could plausibly alter cognitive-affective processing of the trauma as well...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Stephanie A Houle-Johnson, Bronwyn O'Brien, Andrea R Ashbaugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Self-referent information is critical for navigating the social realm, as we constantly use both verbal and non-verbal feedback in our interactions to understand ourselves and the world. In non-clinical samples, a memory bias for positive self-referent information has been observed, while a negativity bias has been observed among those with depression and anxiety. While research suggests that visual and auditory information is processed differently, no study has yet examined if memory biases persist for self-referent information presented by either means...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Pauline Dibbets
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most people are exposed to a violent or life-threatening situation during their lives, but only a minority develops a stress-related disorder. To examine risk factors for the development of stress-related symptoms, such as intrusions and avoidance, analogue trauma studies are necessary. The often-used trauma film paradigm has proven to be valuable to examine intrusions, but inherently to its technique is less suitable for assessing behavioral avoidance, a core symptom of stress-related disorders...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Spencer K Lynn, Eric Bui, Susanne S Hoeppner, Emily B O'Day, Sophie A Palitz, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Naomi M Simon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
S Miles, G Brown, A Corfe, C Hallett, J Wingrove, J Wheatley, D Veale
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is the second leading cause of disability, worldwide, and increasing access to its effective/preferred treatment requires more attention. Behavioural activation and time-intensive treatment delivery both show promise in this regard, yet research into their combination is limited. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility, effectiveness, and acceptability of time-intensive behavioural activation (BA) for depression METHODS: Eight adults with major depressive disorder were recruited from three outpatient IAPT services in London...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Hannah DeJong, Elaine Fox, Alan Stein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that impaired attentional control (AC) promotes the use of maladaptive emotional regulation strategies, such as rumination, with subsequent increase in risk of depression. METHOD: This study examined this hypothesis in a healthy community sample. Questionnaire measures of depression, anxiety, rumination and self-reported AC (shifting and focusing) were used, as well as an attention performance task (Attention Network Task; ANT)...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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