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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

Sebastián Llanos-Soto, Maria Ignacia Najle, Miguel Salgado, Daniel González-Acuña
We found evidence of infection and shedding of Leptospira serovars Ballum and Canicola in the Andean fox ( Lycalopex culpaeus) in Chile. We used PCR to demonstrate the presence of Leptospira DNA and microagglutination tests to identify serovars.
March 11, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
María J Forzán, Joseph Okoniewski, Manigandan Lejeune, Sandra Morrissey, William Zitek, Nicholas Hollingshead, Elizabeth M Bunting
Increased mortalities of adult Eastern Bluebirds, Sialia sialis, breeding in artificial nesting boxes were recorded in New York State, USA. A total of 46 dead bluebirds were reported from 23 sites between early April and mid-August 2017. The maximum distance between sites was over 600 km. A total of 27 carcasses were available for postmortem examination. The most common cause of death was necrotizing enteritis, found in 56% (9/16) of birds that could be examined histopathologically. Lesions consisted of foci of hypereosinophilic debris and inflammation rich in Gram-negative bacteria...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jennifer K Yee, Christine M Liu, Mary Platter-Rieger, Juanita K Jellyman, Luan Nguyen, Hassan Ghani, Karen L Herbst
We explored differences between the adipose tissue fatty acid profiles of Great Blue Herons ( Ardea herodias) with and without steatitis. Adipose tissue from birds with steatitis exhibited inflammatory cell infiltration, low abundance of oleic acid, and a lower oleic/stearic desaturation index compared with tissue from birds without steatitis.
March 11, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jennifer N Niemuth, Craig A Harms, Michael K Stoskopf
We investigated a method for collecting and processing tear samples from loggerhead ( Caretta caretta), green ( Chelonia mydas), and Kemp's ridley ( Lepidochelys kempii) sea turtles and to identify tear biomarkers and potential differences between unaffected sea turtles and those affected by cold stun syndrome. Tear samples from unaffected and cold-stunned loggerhead, green, and Kemp's ridley sea turtles were collected with sterile, cellulose, latex-free ophthalmic eye spears. We pooled spears to achieve acceptable concentrations, which we extracted and analyzed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Clint N Morgan, Andrés M López-Perez, Paola Martínez-Duque, Felix R Jackson, Gerardo Suzán, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero
The distribution of orthopoxviruses (OPXVs) across the North American continent is suggested to be widespread in a wide range of mammalian hosts on the basis of serosurveillance studies. To address the question of whether carnivores in northwestern Mexico are exposed to naturally circulating OPXVs, wild carnivores were collected by live trapping within four different habitat types during fall of 2013 and spring of 2014 within the Janos Biosphere Reserve in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. A total of 51 blood samples was collected for testing...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Franziska C Sandmeier, Rachel Ruiz, Kendra Leonard, Brandon Bayer, Connor Dowd, Taylor Urban
We evaluated cause of injury and quantified levels of three potential mycoplasmal pathogens ( Mycoplasma agassizii, Mycoplasma testudineum, and an emydid mycoplasma) in three-toed box turtles ( Terrapene carolina triunguis) from the greater St. Louis, Missouri, USA area, brought to and housed at the Wildlife Rescue Center (Ballwin, Missouri, USA) in 2015 and 2016. We created a probe-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the emydid mycoplasma, with a similar specificity and sensitivity as the existing qPCR assays for M...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Anne Justice-Allen, Matthew J Clement
Mexican wolves ( Canis lupus baileyi), classified as probably extinct in the wild in Mexico and endangered in the US, were reintroduced into Arizona in 1998. We combined annual serologic testing results from samples collected between 2003 and 2016 from 108 wolves and known survival data from 118 wolves born in the recovery area from 2003 to 2014 to evaluate whether exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) or canine parvovirus (CPV) was associated with a greater risk of mortality before 2 yr of age. We used mixed-effects logistic regression to estimate the effect of CDV and CPV on the probability of mortality...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Andrea Balboni, Carmela Musto, Elisa Kaehler, Ranieri Verin, Romolo Caniglia, Elena Fabbri, Elena Carra, Claudia Cotti, Mara Battilani, Mauro Delogu
We report the detection of canine adenovirus type 1 DNA by real-time PCR technique in an oral sample of an Italian wolf ( Canis lupus italicus). Genetic characterization of the virus revealed a strict relationship with viruses detected in dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris), wolves, and red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes), suggesting that transmission between wild animals and dogs had occurred.
February 21, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Felipe Hernández, Claudio Verdugo, Francisca Cárdenas, Rodrigo Sandoval, Nelly Morales, Pablo Olmedo, Andrea Bahamonde, Dennis Aldridge, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease associated with Echinococcus granulosus. The parasite is maintained by domestic and wild canids as definitive hosts with several ungulate species as intermediate hosts in domestic and peridomestic transmission cycles. In Chile, CE is endemic, and the role of livestock and dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris) in the cycle and the accidental infection of humans are widely documented at rural sites. However, the role of wild herbivores in wild cycles or the potential transmission of CE from livestock is still unknown in Chile and the rest of South America...
February 21, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Rachel M Goodman, Joseph A Tyler, Dakota M Reinartz, Amber N Wright
Ranaviruses and the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis are globally important emerging infectious diseases of amphibians. Amphibians on Oahu, the Hawaiian Island with the greatest potential for disease introduction through the movement of goods and people, have never been surveyed for ranaviruses or B. dendrobatidis. We surveyed all five species of frogs on Oahu, Hawaii for these pathogens. Of 325 individuals sampled from six sites, none were positive for ranavirus. However, we found B. dendrobatidis in a total of four individuals of three species, the cane toad ( Bufo marinus), the American bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana), and the greenhouse frog ( Eleutherodactylus planirostris), but not in the green and black poison dart frog ( Dendrobates auratus) or the Japanese wrinkled frog ( Rana rugosa)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Emma R Rovani, Kimberlee B Beckmen, Margaret A Highland
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae has been reported in association with respiratory disease only in members of the subfamily Caprinae of the family Bovidae. We identified Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in a cervid: a free-ranging barren ground caribou ( Rangifer tarandus granti) yearling with polymicrobial bronchopneumonia.
February 15, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Norbert van de Velde, Douglas J Demetrick, Pádraig J Duignan
An adult female North American river otter ( Lontra canadensis) presented with multiple intrathoracic masses identified histologically as squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining patterns for high- molecular-weight keratin, p40, p63, calretinin, and TTF-1, along with the gross and histologic findings, indicated a primary pleural squamous cell carcinoma as the most likely diagnosis.
January 31, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Annette Roug, William Lance, Tiana Vroom, Russel Gardner, Darren DeBloois, Heather Talley
Thirty-two American beavers ( Castor canadensis) were immobilized with a mixture of nalbuphine, medetomidine, and azaperone (NalMedA) for tail transmitter placement and health assessments prior to translocation. Inductions and reversals were very smooth, but regardless of the dose administered, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.06 mL/kg, many beavers reacted to mild stimuli such as being lifted out of the cage, drawing blood from the tail, expressing anal glands for sex determination, and turning on isoflurane to deepen anesthesia before placement of tail transmitters...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Caroline A Efstathion, Nathan D Burkett-Cadena, William H Kern
Mosquito-bornediseases can have disastrous effects on avian populations; therefore, most studies of bird and mosquito interactions have focused on the mortality and morbidity associated with the diseases. However, the effect of mosquitoes feeding on birds, independent of disease, has not been well studied. We studied Barn Owls ( Tyto alba) nesting in artificial nest boxes in sugarcane ( Saccharum officinarum) fields in Florida. To reduce mosquito effects on nestlings, we used an insecticide spray in half of the nest boxes...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jesús Sotomayor-Bonilla, Andrés Moreira-Soto, Daniel Mendizabal, Mariano Soley-Guardia, José Daniel Ramírez-Fernández, David Villalobos-Chaves, Carmen Niehaus, Gustavo Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Oscar Rico-Chávez, Janet Foley, Gerardo Suzán, Andrea Chaves-Friedlander
Neotropical wild rodents from Costa Rica were analyzed for the presence of herpesviruses (order Herpesvirales, family Herpesviridae). Using a broadly generic PCR, herpesvirus sequences were detected in 5% (8/160) of liver and heart samples: seven putative gammaherpesviruses in samples from Talamancan oryzomys ( Nephelomys devius), sprightly colilargo ( Oligoryzomys vegetus), Mexican deer mouse ( Peromyscus nudipes), and Chiriqui harvest mouse ( Reithrodontomys creper) and one putative betaherpesvirus in long-tailed singing mouse ( Scotinomys xerampelinus)...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lori S H Westmoreland, Michael K Stoskopf, Erica Sheppard, Christopher S DePerno, Nicholas P Gould, Colleen Olfenbuttel, Ricardo G Maggi
Blood samples collected from American black bears ( Ursus americanus) in eastern and western North Carolina, US, were analyzed for piroplasms. Piroplasmids were detected in 17% (23/132) of the animals surveyed. We detected a Babesia spp. previously identified in North American raccoons ( Procyon lotor) and a maned wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus); prevalence was 22% (14/64) and 13% (9/68) in the mountain and coastal black bear populations, respectively. The presence of the same Babesia species in black bears, raccoons, and a maned wolf suggests piroplasms may not be host specific...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Ai-Mei Chang, Chen-Chih Chen, Michael A Huffman
Entamoeba is a genus of gastrointestinal protozoon that is transmitted through contaminated food and water. This protozoon is commonly found in human and nonhuman primates. Contact between humans and Formosan rock macaques ( Macaca cyclopis) has become more frequent due to food provisioning; accordingly, concerns regarding zoonotic pathogen transmission through the fecal-oral route have increased. For example, surveillance of intestinal parasites in wild Formosan rock macaques indicated that Entamoeba infection was the most prevalent type of intestinal parasite infection...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Talita Gomes da Silva Batista, Felipe Fornazari, Sâmea Fernandes Joaquim, Giulia Soares Latosinski, Carlos Roberto Teixeira, Helio Langoni
Antibodies against smooth Brucella were investigated in serum samples of 526 free-ranging mammals (21 species) in Brazil. All animals were seronegative, which indicated low-level exposure to these bacteria.
January 25, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Amelia Vazquez, Kyle D Gustafson, Benjamin Harmeling, Holly B Ernest
The appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) coincided with declines in California bird populations beginning in 2004, and particularly affected corvid populations, including Yellow-billed Magpies ( Pica nutalli), an endemic species to California. Our objective was to determine if the timing of the WNV epidemic correlated with changes in the genetic diversity or population structure of magpies. We hypothesized the declines in magpie abundance from WNV would lead to genetic bottlenecks and reduced genetic diversity, but not to changes in population genetic structure...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Andreia Garcês, Patrícia Poeta, Vanessa Soeiro, Sara Lóio, Anicia Cardoso-Gomes, Carmén Torres, Isabel Pires
A severely debilitated, free-living adult female European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus) was presented for rehabilitation. It died overnight, and postmortem examination revealed a closed pyometra. Histopathology confirmed metritis with endometrial hyperplasia, and Staphylococcus lentus was isolated from the purulent uterine material. Staphylococcus lentus has not been previously reported to cause infections in European hedgehogs.
January 10, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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