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Cognitive Psychology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30826584/looking-for-mr-s-right-decision-bias-can-prevent-us-from-finding-the-most-attractive-face
#1
Nicholas Furl, Bruno B Averbeck, Ryan T McKay
In realistic and challenging decision contexts, people may show biases that prevent them from choosing their favored options. For example, astronomer Johannes Kepler famously interviewed several candidate fiancées sequentially, but was rejected when attempting to return to a previous candidate. Similarly, we examined human performance on searches for attractive faces through fixed-length sequences by adapting optimal stopping computational theory developed from behavioral ecology and economics. Although economics studies have repeatedly found that participants sample too few options before choosing the best-ranked number from a series, we instead found overlong searches with many sequences ending without choice...
February 28, 2019: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30798061/the-grammaticality-asymmetry-in-agreement-attraction-reflects-response-bias-experimental-and-modeling-evidence
#2
Christopher Hammerly, Adrian Staub, Brian Dillon
Memory access mechanisms such as cue-based retrieval have come to dominate theories of the processing of linguistic dependencies such as subject-verb agreement. One phenomenon that has been regarded as demonstrating the role of such mechanisms is the grammaticality asymmetry in agreement attraction, which is the observation that nouns other than the grammatical controller of agreement can influence the computation of subject-verb agreement in ungrammatical, but not grammatical, sentences. This asymmetry is most often accounted for via the dynamics of retrieval interference...
February 21, 2019: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782514/how-the-input-shapes-the-acquisition-of-verb-morphology-elicited-production-and-computational-modelling-in-two-highly-inflected-languages
#3
Felix Engelmann, Sonia Granlund, Joanna Kolak, Marta Szreder, Ben Ambridge, Julian Pine, Anna Theakston, Elena Lieven
The aim of the present work was to develop a computational model of how children acquire inflectional morphology for marking person and number; one of the central challenges in language development. First, in order to establish which putative learning phenomena are sufficiently robust to constitute a target for modelling, we ran large-scale elicited production studies with native learners of Finnish (N = 77; 35-63 months) and Polish (N = 81; 35-59 months), using a novel method that, unlike previous studies, allows for elicitation of all six person/number forms in the paradigm (first, second and third person; singular and plural)...
February 18, 2019: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735843/caution-in-decision-making-under-time-pressure-is-mediated-by-timing-ability
#4
Steven Miletić, Leendert van Maanen
The time available to inform decisions is often limited, for example because of a response deadline. In such circumstances, accurate knowledge of the amount of time available for a decision is crucial for optimal choice behavior. However, the relation between temporal cognition and decision-making under time pressure is poorly understood. Here, we test how the precision of the internal representation of time affects choice behavior when decision time is limited by a deadline. We show that participants with a precise internal representation of time respond more cautiously in decision-making...
February 5, 2019: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677631/is-the-most-representative-skunk-the-average-or-the-stinkiest-developmental-changes-in-representations-of-biological-categories
#5
Emily Foster-Hanson, Marjorie Rhodes
People often think of categories in terms of their most representative examples (e.g., robin for BIRD). Thus, determining which exemplars are most representative is a fundamental cognitive process that shapes how people use concepts to navigate the world. The present studies (N = 669; ages 5 years - adulthood) revealed developmental change in this important component of cognition. Studies 1-2 found that young children view exemplars with extreme values of characteristic features (e.g., the very fastest cheetah) as most representative of familiar biological categories; the tendency to view average exemplars in this manner (e...
January 21, 2019: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30616227/relations-between-numerical-spatial-and-executive-function-skills-and-mathematics-achievement-a-latent-variable-approach
#6
Zachary Hawes, Joan Moss, Beverly Caswell, Jisoo Seo, Daniel Ansari
Current evidence suggests that numerical, spatial, and executive function (EF) skills each play critical and independent roles in the learning and performance of mathematics. However, these conclusions are largely based on isolated bodies of research and without measurement at the latent variable level. Thus, questions remain regarding the latent structure and potentially shared and unique relations between numerical, spatial, EF, and mathematics abilities. The purpose of the current study was to (i) confirm the latent structure of the hypothesized constructs of numerical, spatial, and EF skills and mathematics achievement, (ii) measure their unique and shared relations with one another, and (iii) test a set of novel hypotheses aimed to more closely reveal the underlying nature of the oft reported space-math association...
January 4, 2019: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30611104/preference-accumulation-as-a-process-model-of-desirability-ratings
#7
Sudeep Bhatia, Timothy J Pleskac
In desirability rating tasks, decision makers evaluate objects on a continuous response scale. Despite their prominence, full process models of these rating tasks have not been developed. We investigated whether a preference accumulation process, a process often used to model discrete choice, might explain ratings as well. According to our model, attributes from each option are sampled and evaluated stochastically. The evaluations are integrated over time, forming a preference. Preferences for options compete with each other, and accumulated preferences can decay...
January 2, 2019: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30593995/cancellation-negation-and-rejection
#8
Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, Peter Collins, Karolina Krzyżanowska, Ulrike Hahn, Karl Christoph Klauer
In this paper, new evidence is presented for the assumption that the reason-relation reading of indicative conditionals ('if A, then C') reflects a conventional implicature. In four experiments, it is investigated whether relevance effects found for the probability assessment of indicative conditionals (Skovgaard-Olsen, Singmann, & Klauer, 2016a) can be classified as being produced by (a) a conversational implicature, (b) a (probabilistic) presupposition failure, or (c) a conventional implicature. After considering several alternative hypotheses, and the accumulating evidence from other studies as well, we conclude that the evidence is most consistent with the Relevance Effect being the outcome of a conventional implicature...
December 26, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30593889/subliminal-syntactic-priming
#9
Lucie Berkovitch, Stanislas Dehaene
Subliminally presented words have been shown to cause priming at orthographic and semantic levels. Here, we investigate whether subliminal priming can also occur at the syntactic level, and use such priming as a tool to probe the architecture for processing the syntactic features of written words. We studied the impact of masked and unmasked written word primes on response times to a subsequent visible target that shared or did not share syntactic features such as grammatical category and grammatical number...
December 26, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30544029/thinking-outside-of-the-box-ii-disrupting-the-cognitive-map
#10
Matthew G Buckley, Alastair D Smith, Mark Haselgrove
A number of influential spatial learning theories posit that organisms encode a viewpoint independent (i.e. allocentric) representation of the global boundary shape of their environment in order to support spatial reorientation and place learning. In contrast to the trial and error learning mechanisms that support domain-general processes, a representation of the global-shape of the environment is thought to be encoded automatically as part of a cognitive map, and without interference from other spatial cues...
December 10, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30543908/distinguishing-experts-from-novices-by-the-mind-s-hand-and-mind-s-eye
#11
John K Lindstedt, Wayne D Gray
Tetris is a complex task notable for the increasingly substantial demands it makes on perception, decision-making, and action as the game is played. To investigate these issues, we collected data on 39 features of Tetris play for each Tetris zoid (piece), for up to 16 levels of difficulty, as each of 240 players played an hour of Tetris under laboratory conditions. Using only early (level 1) data, we conducted a Principle Component Analysis which found intriguing differences among its three, statistically significant, principle components...
December 10, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30439563/dynamics-and-development-in-number-to-space-mapping
#12
Dan Kim, John E Opfer
Young children's estimates of numerical magnitude increase approximately logarithmically with actual magnitude. The conventional interpretation of this finding is that children's estimates reflect an innate logarithmic encoding of number. A recent set of findings, however, suggests that logarithmic number-line estimates emerge via a dynamic encoding mechanism that is sensitive to previously encountered stimuli. Here we examine trial-to-trial changes in logarithmicity of numerosity estimates to test an alternative dynamic model (D-MLLM) with both a strong logarithmic component and a weak response to previous stimuli...
December 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30292953/does-articulatory-rehearsal-help-immediate-serial-recall
#13
Alessandra S Souza, Klaus Oberauer
Articulatory rehearsal is assumed to benefit verbal working memory. Yet, there is no experimental evidence supporting a causal link between rehearsal and serial-order memory, which is one of the hallmarks of working memory functioning. Across four experiments, we tested the hypothesis that rehearsal improves working memory by asking participants to rehearse overtly and by instructing different rehearsal schedules. In Experiments 1a, 1b, and 2, we compared an instructed cumulative-rehearsal condition against a free-rehearsal condition...
December 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30453099/how-language-and-event-recall-can-shape-memory-for-time
#14
Yaqi Wang, Silvia P Gennari
How do we represent the duration of past events that we have conceptualized through language? Prior research suggests that memory for duration depends on the segmental structure perceived at encoding. However, it remains unclear why duration memory displays characteristic distortions and whether language-mediated encoding can further distort duration memory. Here we examine these questions and specifically ask whether the amount of event information recalled relative to the stimulus duration explains temporal distortions...
November 16, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30401499/corrigendum-to-clear-evidence-for-item-limits-in-visual-working-memory-cogn-psychol-97-2017-79-97
#15
Kirsten C S Adam, Edward K Vogel, Edward Awh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30189296/how-deep-do-we-dig-formal-explanations-as-placeholders-for-inherent-explanations
#16
Susan A Gelman, Andrei Cimpian, Steven O Roberts
Formal explanations (e.g., "Mittens has whiskers because she's a cat") pose an intriguing puzzle in human cognition: they seem like little more than tautologies, yet they are surprisingly commonplace and natural-sounding. To resolve this puzzle, we hypothesized that formal explanations constitute an implicit appeal to a category's inherent features rather than simply to the category itself (as their explicit content would suggest); the latter is just a placeholder. We conducted a series of eight experiments with 951 participants that supported four predictions that followed from this hypothesis: First, formal explanations-though natural-sounding-were not particularly satisfying...
November 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30165241/cross-dimensional-magnitude-interactions-arise-from-memory-interference
#17
Zhenguang G Cai, Ruiming Wang, Manqiong Shen, Maarten Speekenbrink
Magnitudes from different dimensions (e.g., space and time) interact with each other in perception, but how these interactions occur remains unclear. In four experiments, we investigated whether cross-dimensional magnitude interactions arise from memory interference. In Experiment 1, participants perceived a constant-length line consisting of two line segments of complementary lengths and presented for a variable stimulus duration; then they received a cue about which of the two segment lengths to later reproduce...
November 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30121306/how-who-is-talking-matters-as-much-as-what-they-say-to-infant-language-learners
#18
Kalim Gonzales, LouAnn Gerken, Rebecca L Gómez
Human vocalizations contain both voice characteristics that convey who is talking and sophisticated linguistic structure. Inter-talker variation in voice characteristics is traditionally seen as posing a challenge for infant language learners, who must disregard this variation when the task is to detect talkers' shared linguistic conventions. However, talkers often differ markedly in their pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. This is true even in monolingual environments, given factors like gender, dialect, and proficiency...
November 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30317031/structure-function-fit-underlies-the-evaluation-of-teleological-explanations
#19
Emily G Liquin, Tania Lombrozo
Teleological explanations, which appeal to a function or purpose (e.g., "kangaroos have long tails for balance"), seem to play a special role within the biological domain. We propose that such explanations are compelling because they are evaluated on the basis of a salient cue: structure-function fit, or the correspondence between a biological feature's form (e.g., tail length) and its function (e.g., balance). Across five studies with 852 participants in total, we find support for three predictions that follow from this proposal...
October 12, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30032063/models-of-lineup-memory
#20
John T Wixted, Edward Vul, Laura Mickes, Brent M Wilson
Face recognition memory is often tested by the police using a photo lineup, which consists of one suspect, who is either innocent or guilty, and five or more physically similar fillers, all of whom are known to be innocent. For many years, lineups were investigated in lab studies without guidance from standard models of recognition memory. More recently, signal detection theory has been used to conceptualize lineup memory and to motivate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of lineup performance...
September 2018: Cognitive Psychology
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