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Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30851745/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
David C Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30851744/sialic-acids-in-nonenveloped-virus-infections
#2
Bärbel S Blaum, Thilo Stehle
Sialic acid-based glycoconjugates cover the surfaces of many different cell types, defining key properties of the cell surface such as overall charge or likely interaction partners. Because of this prominence, sialic acids play prominent roles in mediating attachment and entry to viruses belonging to many different families. In this review, we first describe how interactions between viruses and sialic acid-based glycan structures can be identified and characterized using a range of techniques. We then highlight interactions between sialic acids and virus capsid proteins in four different viruses, and discuss what these interactions have taught us about sialic acid engagement and opportunities to interfere with binding...
2019: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30851743/the-biology-of-gangliosides
#3
Ronald L Schnaar
Gangliosides comprise a varied family of glycosphingolipid structures bearing one or more sialic acid residues. They are found in all mammalian tissues but are most abundant in the brain, where they represent the quantitatively major class of sialoglycans. As prominent molecular determinants on cell surfaces, they function as molecular-recognition partners for diverse glycan-binding proteins ranging from bacterial toxins to endogenous cell-cell adhesion molecules. Gangliosides also regulate the activity of plasma membrane proteins, including protein tyrosine kinases, by lateral association in the same membranes in which they reside...
2019: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30851742/sialic-acids-in-neurology
#4
Chihiro Sato, Ken Kitajima
Sialic acid (Sia) is involved in many biological activities and commonly occurs as a monosialyl residue at the nonreducing terminal end of glycoconjugates. The loss of activity of UDP-GlcNAc2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase, which is a key enzyme in Sia biosynthesis, is lethal to the embryo, which clearly indicates the importance of Sia in embryogenesis. Occasionally, oligo/polymeric Sia structures such as disialic acid (diSia), oligosialic acid (oligoSia), and polysialic acid (polySia) occur in glycoconjugates. In particular, polySia, a well-known epitope that commonly occurs in neuroinvasive bacteria and vertebrate brains, is one of the most well-known and biologically/neurologically important glycotopes in vertebrates...
2019: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30509402/preface
#5
EDITORIAL
David C Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30509401/chemical-synthesis-of-glycosides-of-n-acetylneuraminic-acid
#6
Cristina De Meo, Bradley T Jones
Investigations of methodologies aimed on improving the stereoselective synthesis of sialosides and the efficient assembly of sialic acid glycoconjugates has been the mission of dedicated research groups from the late 1960s. This review presents major accomplishments in the field, with the emphasis on significant breakthroughs and influential synthetic strategies of the last decade.
2018: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30509400/exploration-of-the-sialic-acid-world
#7
Roland Schauer, Johannis P Kamerling
Sialic acids are cytoprotectors, mainly localized on the surface of cell membranes with multiple and outstanding cell biological functions. The history of their structural analysis, occurrence, and functions is fascinating and described in this review. Reports from different researchers on apparently similar substances from a variety of biological materials led to the identification of a 9-carbon monosaccharide, which in 1957 was designated "sialic acid." The most frequently occurring member of the sialic acid family is N-acetylneuraminic acid, followed by N-glycolylneuraminic acid and O-acetylated derivatives, and up to now over about 80 neuraminic acid derivatives have been described...
2018: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29173728/preface
#8
David C Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29173727/application-of-porous-materials-to-carbohydrate-chemistry-and-glycoscience
#9
REVIEW
Keith J Stine
There is a growing interest in using a range of porous materials to meet research needs in carbohydrate chemistry and glycoscience in general. Among the applications of porous materials reviewed in this chapter, enrichment of glycans from biological samples prior to separation and analysis by mass spectrometry is a major emphasis. Porous materials offer high surface area, adjustable pore sizes, and tunable surface chemistry for interacting with glycans, by boronate affinity, hydrophilic interactions, molecular imprinting, and polar interactions...
2017: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29173726/the-synthesis-and-biological-characterization-of-acetal-free-mimics-of-the-tumor-associated-carbohydrate-antigens
#10
REVIEW
Seyed I Sadraei, Michael R Reynolds, John F Trant
Carcinomas express unique carbohydrates, known as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs), on their surface. These are potential targets for anticancer vaccines; however, to date, no such vaccine has reached the clinic. One factor that may complicate the success of this effort is the lability of the glycosidic bond. Acetal-free carbohydrates are analogues that lack the glycosidic linkage by replacing either the endo or exo oxygen with a methylene. This chapter summarizes the seminal syntheses of the mucin TACAs, provides an overview of common techniques for the synthesis of carbasugars and C-glycosides, reviews the syntheses published to date of acetal-free TACA analogues, and provides an overview of their observed biological activity...
2017: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29173725/hyaluronan-and-hyaluronan-fragments
#11
REVIEW
Mary K Cowman
The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a key component of the microenvironment surrounding cells. In healthy tissues, HA molecules have extremely high molecular mass and consequently large hydrodynamic volumes. Tethered to the cell surface by clustered receptor proteins, HA molecules crowd each other, as well as other macromolecular species. This leads to severe nonideality in physical properties of the biomatrix, because steric exclusion leads to an increase in effective concentration of the macromolecules...
2017: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27816109/preface
#12
EDITORIAL
David C Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27816108/endoglycosidases-for-the-synthesis-of-polysaccharides-and-glycoconjugates
#13
REVIEW
Chao Li, Lai-Xi Wang
Recent advances in glycobiology have implicated essential roles of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in many important biological recognition processes, including intracellular signaling, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, cancer progression, host-pathogen interactions, and immune responses. A detailed understanding of the biological functions, as well as the development of carbohydrate-based therapeutics, often requires structurally well-defined oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates, which are usually difficult to isolate in pure form from natural sources...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27816107/carbohydrate-processing-enzymes-of-the-lysosome-diseases-caused-by-misfolded-mutants-and-sugar-mimetics-as-correcting-pharmacological-chaperones
#14
REVIEW
Arnold E Stütz, Tanja M Wrodnigg
Lysosomal storage diseases are hereditary disorders caused by mutations on genes encoding for one of the more than fifty lysosomal enzymes involved in the highly ordered degradation cascades of glycans, glycoconjugates, and other complex biomolecules in the lysosome. Several of these metabolic disorders are associated with the absence or the lack of activity of carbohydrate-processing enzymes in this cell compartment. In a recently introduced therapy concept, for susceptible mutants, small substrate-related molecules (so-called pharmacological chaperones), such as reversible inhibitors of these enzymes, may serve as templates for the correct folding and transport of the respective protein mutant, thus improving its concentration and, consequently, its enzymatic activity in the lysosome...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27816106/recent-advances-toward-robust-n-protecting-groups-for-glucosamine-as-required-for-glycosylation-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Mohamed Ramadan El Sayed Aly, El Sayed H El Ashry
2-Amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose (d-glucosamine) is among the most abundant monosaccharides found in natural products. This constituent, recognized for its ubiquity, is presented in most instances as its N-acetyl derivative 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose (N-acetylglucosamine, GlcNAc, NAG). It occurs as the β-linked pyranosyl group in polysaccharides and oligosaccharides, and sometimes as the monosaccharide itself, either in its native state or as a glycoconjugate. The compound's acylation profile and other aspects of its structure are important elements in determining the variety of reactivities and functions of the molecule as a whole...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27816105/stevia-glycosides-chemical-and-enzymatic-modifications-of-their-carbohydrate-moieties-to-improve-the-sweet-tasting-quality
#16
REVIEW
Gerrit J Gerwig, Evelien M Te Poele, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Johannis P Kamerling
Stevia glycosides, extracted from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, display an amazing high degree of sweetness. As processed plant products, they are considered as excellent bio-alternatives for sucrose and artificial sweeteners. Being noncaloric and having beneficial properties for human health, they are the subject of an increasing number of studies for applications in food and pharmacy. However, one of the main obstacles for the successful commercialization of Stevia sweeteners, especially in food, is their slight bitter aftertaste and astringency...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26613817/preface
#17
EDITORIAL
David C Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26613816/human-milk-oligosaccharides-hmos-structure-function-and-enzyme-catalyzed-synthesis
#18
REVIEW
Xi Chen
The important roles played by human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS), the third major component of human milk, in the health of breast-fed infants have been increasingly recognized, as the structures of more than 100 different HMOS have now been elucidated. Despite the recognition of the various functions of HMOS as prebiotics, antiadhesive antimicrobials, and immunomodulators, the roles and the applications of individual HMOS species are less clear. This is mainly due to the limited accessibility to large amounts of individual HMOS in their pure forms...
2015: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26613815/glycosylation-of-cellulases-engineering-better-enzymes-for-biofuels
#19
REVIEW
Eric R Greene, Michael E Himmel, Gregg T Beckham, Zhongping Tan
Cellulose in plant cell walls is the largest reservoir of renewable carbon on Earth. The saccharification of cellulose from plant biomass into soluble sugars can be achieved using fungal and bacterial cellulolytic enzymes, cellulases, and further converted into fuels and chemicals. Most fungal cellulases are both N- and O-glycosylated in their native form, yet the consequences of glycosylation on activity and structure are not fully understood. Studying protein glycosylation is challenging as glycans are extremely heterogeneous, stereochemically complex, and glycosylation is not under direct genetic control...
2015: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26613814/synthetic-approaches-to-l-iduronic-acid-and-l-idose-key-building-blocks-for-the-preparation-of-glycosaminoglycan-oligosaccharides
#20
REVIEW
Shifaza Mohamed, Vito Ferro
L-Iduronic acid (IdoA) is an important monosaccharide component of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin, heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate. GAGs are complex, highly sulfated polysaccharides that mediate a multitude of physiological and pathological processes via their interactions with a range of diverse proteins. The main challenge in the synthesis of GAG oligosaccharides is the efficient gram-scale preparation of IdoA building blocks since neither IdoA nor L-idose is commercially available or readily accessible from natural sources...
2015: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
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