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Journal of Motor Behavior

Stefan Maksimovic, Kristin-Marie Neville, Erin K Cressman
Reaching to targets in a virtual reality environment with misaligned visual feedback of the hand results in changes in movements (visuomotor adaptation) and sense of felt hand position (proprioceptive recalibration). We asked if proprioceptive recalibration arises even when the misalignment between visual and proprioceptive estimates of hand position is only experienced during movement. Participants performed a "shooting task" through the targets with a cursor that was rotated 30° clockwise relative to hand motion...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Daniel Niederer, Kristin Kalo, Johanna Vogel, Jan Wilke, Florian Giesche, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
We tested if ACL-reconstructed participants show a decreased quadriceps torque, a lower muscle endurance capacity and a higher peak torque variability compared to unimpaired control participants prior to and following local muscle fatigue. Participants (n = 19, 10 women; 25 ± 5yrs.) with unilateral hamstrings autograft ACL-reconstruction and a matched unimpaired control group were recruited. Participants performed two maximal isometric voluntary force (MIVF) contractions of the knee extensors. In between, standardized local muscle fatigue was induced...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Jaclyn A Stephens, Patricia L Davies, William J Gavin, Stewart H Mostofsky, Beth S Slomine, Stacy J Suskauer
Disrupted motor performance is increasingly recognized as a critical sequela of concussion which may have relevance for diagnosis and treatment. In 17 adolescents with recent concussion and 20 never-concussed controls, we evaluated the discriminant ability of a commonly used neurocognitive measure compared to a motor subtle sign exam, which evaluates gait, balance, and fine and gross motor control. We found that the motor subtle sign exam had better discriminant ability than the neurocognitive measure, but combining both measures was superior to analyses with individual measures (Wilks' ƛ = ...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Patrick A Cabe
Information associated with the inertia tensor is the preeminent explanation for haptic perception of object properties, notably wielded rod length. Critics counter that tensorial-based information requires non-tensorial supplementation (mass, torque). However, those critiques omit important constraints. With relevant constraints included, the inertia tensor alone completely specifies rod length. I list constraints inherent (but tacit) in haptic rod length perception, and show that object properties associated with the inertia tensor are invariant, even with constraints removed, by involving (a) longitudinal moment equivalents for rod mass and (b) derivatives of moments with respect to varying rotation axes...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Felipe B Santinelli, Fabio A Barbieri, Carina F Pinheiro, Avelino C Amado, Emerson Sebastião, Richard E A van Emmerik
This study investigated changes in postural control complexity in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) before and after a fatigue protocol. Thirteen minimally affected PwMS (1.53 ± 1.03- Expanded Disability Status Scale) and 12 non-MS controls. Postural test included quiet stance on a force platform under two visual conditions (saccades and fixation) before and after a fatigue protocol. Postural complexity was assessed through the multiscale entropy. A three-way ANOVA showed a main effect of fatigue in the medial-lateral direction (p <0...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Fernanda Lopes Magre, Thais Delamuta Ayres da Costa, Ana Clara de Souza Paiva, Renato Moraes, Eliane Mauerberg-deCastro
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the contribution of bimanual light touch varies according to the difficulty level of postural tasks (e.g., vision occlusion, height of support surface). Fourteen healthy young adults each were asked to stand in a tandem position, on a 20-cm height balance beam. Postural tasks included light touch and no touch conditions in two vision conditions, nonvision and full vision. The root mean square of amplitude of oscillation (mediolateral), mean velocity, ellipse area, and path length of the center of pressure revealed that touch conditions reduced sway to a greater extent in the elevated support surface, nonvision condition...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Rania Almajid, Emily Keshner
Gender plays a role in cognitive performance (Van Hooren et al.). Yet the selection of a secondary task, an important paradigm in studies of posture control, has not considered gender as a variable. We explored whether different cognitive tasks differentially influence performance during the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in men and women. Twenty young adults performed five cognitive tasks while seated and during the TUG test. Men exhibited a slower normalized cadence than women. When seated, women recalled more items than men and men were more accurate in mental calculation task...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Sergio L Molina, Tim S Bott, David F Stodden
Bridging the gap between innovative research and teaching is a fundamental necessity for physical education practitioners to promote motor skill development and competency. This requires practitioners to understand, synthesize, and appropriately apply relevant research from different academic domains in their instructional environments. Ballistic motor skills such as kicking, throwing, and striking are fundamentally integrated into many games and sports and provide a foundation for physical activity and fitness for children and adults...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Peter Jensen, Rasmus Frisk, Meaghan Elizabeth Spedden, Svend Sparre Geertsen, Laurent J Bouyer, David M Halliday, Jens Bo Nielsen
The present study used coherence and directionality analyses to explore whether the motor cortex contributes to plantar flexor muscle activity during the stance phase and push-off phase during gait. Subjects walked on a treadmill, while EEG over the leg motorcortex area and EMG from the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was recorded. Corticomuscular and intermuscular coherence were calculated from pair-wise recordings. Significant EEG-EMG and EMG-EMG coherence in the beta and gamma frequency bands was found throughout the stance phase with the largest coherence towards push-off...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Ryo Watanabe, Jeffrey B Wagman, Takahiro Higuchi
We investigated perception of the extent of an object held in the hand or attached to the head during walking. Participants wielded an occluded, weighted rod by hand and by head and reported the perceived location of the rod end (relative to a virtual vertical line) while walking and while standing. There was an unexpected effect of body part on perceived location of the rod end. In particular, participants stood or walked so that the rod end was farther away from the vertical line when wielding with the head than wielding with the hand...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Laura Mumic de Melo, Juliana Hotta Ansai, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale, Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros Takahashi, Larissa Pires de Andrade
In clinical practice, older people with cognitive impairment may have difficulties to understand the instructions of the Timed Up-and-Go (TUGT) test and present a bad performance. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the TUGT performance, in an adapted version, between older adults with preserved cognition (PC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to identify the association between the adapted TUGT performance and cognition among groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 118 community-dwelling older adults divided in three groups: PC (n = 40), MCI (n = 40) and AD (n = 38)...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Bianca P Cunha, Sandra M S F Freitas, Georgia F O Gomes, Paulo B de Freitas
Object manipulation depends on a refined control of grip force (GF) and load force (LF). After a brain injury, the GF control is altered in the paretic hand but what happens with the non-paretic hand is still unclear. In this study, we compared the GF control and GF-LF coordination of the non-paretic hand of 10 stroke individuals who suffered right brain damage (RBD) and 10 who suffered left brain damage (LBD), with 20 healthy individuals during lifting and oscillation task, using an instrumented object. GF was recorded with a force transducer, and LF was estimated from the object weight and acceleration...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Takahito Nakamura, Takahiro Higuchi, Toyo Kikumoto, Takanori Takeda, Hideyuki Tashiro, Fumihiko Hoshi
We examined the behavioral characteristics of reactive turning in hemiplegic stroke patients when they were informed of the turning direction just before turning was required at an unpredictable time. Eleven stroke patients and 20 healthy elderly control people were asked to initiate a turn as soon as a visual cue to inform them of the turning direction was activated unpredictably using a foot switch. Both the segmental reorientation and stepping type when turning 90° while walking were measured. The results indicated preserved segmental reorientation of the head and pelvis in stroke patients...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Patrice R Rougier, Jeanne Marsande, Max James, Manu Brachet
Postural strategies of healthy young adults to control tandem stance were investigated through the calculation of the relative contribution of the two loading-unloading (LU) and pressure-distribution (PD) mechanisms and the two legs for controlling the resultant center-of-pressure (CPRes ) displacements. Weight-bearing asymmetry and limb dominance were also studied. For antero-posterior and medio-lateral CPRes displacements, LU and PD mechanisms mainly contribute, respectively. A significant LU contribution is nonetheless observed for medio-lateral control, due to a lateral gap between the CP positions under each foot despite a strict sagittal alignment for the two feet...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Milena Staneva, Valentina Grigorova, Otmar Bock
We examined the effects of semantic priming of attention on two sequentially presented visuomotor tasks, traffic judgments and saccadic adaptation. Priming was accomplished with the scrambled sentence task: participants formed meaningful sentences from a list of words where a word denoting wide attention focus was involved. The results showed that semantic priming influenced positively saccade adaptation (its' benefit increased) while it attenuated visuomotor performance in the traffic task (RT of hand movements increased)...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Keith R Cole, Richard K Shields
This study examined motor skill learning using a weight-bearing and cognitive-motor dual-task that incorporated unexpected perturbations and measurements of cognitive function. Forty young and 24 older adults performed a single-limb weight bearing task with novel speed, resistance, and cognitive dual task conditions to assess motor skill acquisition, retention and transfer. Subjects performed a cognitive dual task: summing letters in one color/orientation (simple) or two colors/orientations (complex). Increased cognitive load diminished the rate of skill acquisition, decreased transfer to new conditions, and increased error rate during an unexpected perturbation; however, young adults had a dual-task benefit from cognitive load...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yu Wu, Anmin Liu, Ke-Rong Dai, Dong-Yun Gu
Backward slope walking was considered as a practical rehabilitation and training skill. However, its gait stability has been hardly studied, resulting in its limited application as a rehabilitation tool. In this study, the effect of walking direction and slope grade were investigated on the local dynamic stability of the motion of lower extremity joints and trunk segment during backward and forward upslope walking (BUW/FUW). The local divergence exponents (λS ) of 16 adults were calculated during their BUW and FUW at grades of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Natalie Richer, Nadia Polskaia, Benjamin Raymond, Brigit Desjardins, Yves Lajoie
Attentional requirements of walking at various speeds in older adults were examined. Twenty healthy older adults (69.9 ± 2.77 years; 8 males) were asked to walk a distance of 10 m at a self-selected speed as well as 30% quicker and 30% slower. Concurrently, reaction time (RT) was evaluated by having participants respond as fast as possible to randomly presented auditory stimuli. Results reveal that an accelerated walking speed generated faster RT than slow and self-selected speeds, while no difference was found between the latter...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Shaghayegh Modaberi, Soomaayeh Heysieattalab, Mehdi Shahbazi, Nasser Naghdi
Basal ganglia (BG) lesions cause impairments of different mammalian's movement and cognition behaviors. Motor circuit impairment has a dominant role in the movement disorders. An inhibitory factor in BG is GABA neurotransmitter, which is released from striatum. Lesions in GABAergic neurons could trigger movement and cognition disorders. Previous evidence showed that GABAB receptor agonist (Baclofen) administration in human improves movement disorders and exercise can improve neurodegenerative and cognitive decline; however, the effects of both Baclofen and mild forced treadmill exercise on movement disorders are not well known...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Rafaela B S C Garbus, Sandra R Alouche, Janina M Prado-Rico, Camila M Aquino, Sandra M S F Freitas
The postural control is improved by implicit somatosensory information from lightly touching a rigid bar or explicit visual information about the postural sway. Whether these two additional sources provided at the same time further reduce the postural sway is still unknown. Participants stood on a force plate as quiet as possible lightly touching the bar while received or not visual feedback of the center of pressure position on a monitor screen. Postural sway reduced similarly with the light touch regardless of the additional visual feedback...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
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