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AJS; American Journal of Sociology

John R Logan, Matthew Martinez
Studies of residential segregation typically focus on its degree without questioning its scale and configuration. We study Southern cities in 1880 to emphasize the salience of these spatial dimensions. Distance-based and sequence indices can reflect spatial patterns but with some limitations, while geocoded 100% population data make possible more informative measures. One improvement is flexibility in spatial scale, ranging from adjacent buildings to whole districts of the city. Another is the ability to map patterns in fine detail...
January 2018: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Christopher R Browning, Catherine A Calder, Brian Soller, Aubrey L Jackson, Jonathan Dirlam
Drawing on the social disorganization tradition and the social ecological perspective of Jane Jacobs, the authors hypothesize that neighborhoods composed of residents who intersect in space more frequently as a result of routine activities will exhibit higher levels of collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social network interaction and exchange. They develop this approach employing the concept of ecological networks-two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through spatial overlap in routine activities...
May 2017: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Rourke L O'Brien
States redistribute wealth through two mechanisms: spending and taxation. Yet studies of the social determinants of redistribution typically focus exclusively on government spending. This article explores how one determinant of social spending-racial composition-influences preferences for, and the structure of, tax systems. First, analyses of state and local tax burden data indicate that an increasing proportion of Latinos within states is associated with more regressive tax systems. Second, evidence from a nationally representative survey experiment suggests that individual preferences for taxation may be influenced by changes in the racial composition of communities...
January 2017: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Paul Ingram, Brian S Silverman
The economic effects of social structure are dependent on culture and must be understood in their cultural context. The authors demonstrate this with an analysis of the Liverpool slave trade. They show that as abolitionism became more salient in British culture, connections in a coinvestment network to both slavers and nonslavers mattered much more for predicting entry into the slave trade. As abolitionism rose, nonslavers in that public network gained relatively more influence than slavers, but the reverse was true in the private network of an elite social club...
November 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Jennifer Glass, Robin W Simon, Matthew A Andersson
The recent proliferation of studies examining cross-national variation in the association between parenthood and happiness reveal accumulating evidence of lower levels of happiness among parents than nonparents in most advanced industrialized societies. Conceptualizing parenting as a stressor buffered by institutional support, we hypothesize that parental status differences in happiness are smaller in countries providing more resources and support to families. Our analyses of the European Social Surveys (ESS) and International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) reveal considerable variation in the parenthood gap in happiness across countries, with the U...
November 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Matthew Lawrence, Richard Breen
Conventional analyses of social mobility and status reproduction retrospectively compare an outcome of individuals to a characteristic of their parents. By ignoring the mechanisms of family formation and excluding childless individuals, conventional approaches introduce selection bias into estimates of how characteristics in one generation affect an outcome in the next. The prospective approach introduced here integrates the effects of college on marriage and fertility into the reproduction of educational outcomes...
September 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Aliya Saperstein, Andrew M Penner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Richard Alba, Noura E Insolera, Scarlett Lindeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Rory Kramer, Robert Defina, Lance Hannon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
David Melamed, Scott V Savage
With two experiments the authors test and find support for the argument that in small, collectively oriented task groups, status affects social influence the most when the distribution of opinions reduces the least uncertainty. Moreover, they demonstrate that people use the distribution of both status and opinions to reduce uncertainty about the task on which they are working and that this, in turn, promotes social influence. Experiment 1 illustrates that, regardless of the group's sex composition, basis for status differentiation, or size of the group, uncertainty reduction mediates a significant share of the effect of status and opinions on social influence...
July 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Yaojun Li, Anthony Heath
This article asks whether standard accounts of class reproduction apply among migrants and their descendants as among the majority group, whether there is a process of assimilation across generations toward the overall (British) pattern of class reproduction, whether the trends over time in absolute and relative mobility among the majority population are mirrored among migrants and their descendants, and whether trends in class reproduction are mirrored in trends in ethnic stratification. Using national representative surveys covering four decades, the authors find a major generational shift, with the first generation experiencing a notable social decline but the second generation having a clear advancement...
July 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Joscha Legewie, Merlin Schaeffer
Concerns about neighborhood erosion and conflict in ethnically di- verse settings occupy scholars, policy makers, and pundits alike; but the empirical evidence is inconclusive. This article proposes the contested boundaries hypothesis as a refined contextual explanation focused on poorly defined boundaries between ethnic and racial groups. The authors argue that neighborhood conflict is more likely to occur at fuzzy boundaries defined as interstitial or transitional areas sandwiched between two homogeneous communities...
July 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Ryan D King, Brian D Johnson
Two related lines of research have gained traction in the social sciences during the past three decades. One examines the association between race and punishment, while a second investigates stratification and colorism, defined as discrimination based on skin tone. Yet rarely do scholars examine these issues together. The current study uses new data to investigate the association between offender's skin tone, Afrocentric facial features, and criminal punishment. More than 850 booking photos of black and white male offenders in two Minnesota counties were coded and then matched to detailed sentencing records...
July 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Catherine J Taylor
Women in male-dominated occupations report negative workplace social climates, whereas most men in female-dominated occupations report positive workplace social climates. Using a laboratory experiment mimicking the negative workplace social climates experienced by these token women, the author examines whether women are more sensitive to negative workplace social climates than men are or if, instead, men and women react similarly. Using salivary cortisol, the author finds that token men and token women are equally likely to exhibit a physiological stress response to social exclusion on the basis of gender...
July 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Brea L Perry
Evidence that social and biological processes are intertwined in producing health and human behavior is rapidly accumulating. Using a feminist approach, this research explores how gender moderates the interaction between biological processes and men's and women's behavioral and emotional responses to similar social environments. Using data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, the influence of gender, social integration, and genetic risk on nicotine and alcohol dependence is examined. Three-way interaction models reveal gender-specific moderation of interactions between genetic risk score and social integration...
May 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Douglas S Massey, Jorge Durand, Karen A Pren
In this article we undertake a systematic analysis of why border enforcement backfired as a strategy of immigration control in the United States. We argue theoretically that border enforcement emerged as a policy response to a moral panic about the perceived threat of Latino immigration to the United States propounded by self-interested bureaucrats, politicians, and pundits who sought to mobilize political and material resources for their own benefit. The end result was a self-perpetuating cycle of rising enforcement and increased apprehensions that resulted in the militarization of the border in a way that was disconnected from the actual size of the undocumented flow...
March 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Daniel Navon, Gil Eyal
This article builds on Hacking's framework of "dynamic nominalism" to show how knowledge about biological etiology can interact with the "kinds of people" delineated by diagnostic categories in ways that "loop" or modify both over time. The authors use historical materials to show how "geneticization" played a crucial role in binding together autism as a biosocial community and how evidence from genetics research later made an important contribution to the diagnostic expansion of autism. In the second part of the article, the authors draw on quantitative and qualitative analyses of autism rates over time in several rare conditions that are delineated strictly according to genomic mutations in order to demonstrate that these changes in diagnostic practice helped to both increase autism's prevalence and create its enormous genetic heterogeneity...
March 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Mattias Smångs
This article presents a theoretical framework of how intergroup violence may figure into the activation and maintenance of group categories, boundaries, and identities, as well as the mediating role played by organizations in such processes. The framework's analytical advantages are demonstrated in an application to southern lynchings. Findings from event- and community-level analyses suggest that "public" lynchings, carried out by larger mobs with ceremonial violence, but not "private" ones, perpetrated by smaller bands without public or ceremonial violence, fed off and into the racial group boundaries, categories, and identities promoted by the southern Democratic Party at the turn of the 20th century and on which the emerging Jim Crow system rested...
March 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Geoffrey T Wodtke
This study outlines a theory of social class based on workplace ownership and authority relations, and it investigates the link between social class and growth in personal income inequality since the 1980s. Inequality trends are governed by changes in between-class income differences, changes in the relative size of different classes, and changes in within-class income dispersion. Data from the General Social Survey are used to investigate each of these changes in turn and to evaluate their impact on growth in inequality at the population level...
March 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Sanne Smith, Frank Van Tubergen, Ineke Maas, Daniel A McFarland
Ethnically diverse settings provide opportunities for interethnic friendship but can also increase the preference for same-ethnic friendship. Therefore, same-ethnic friendship preferences, or ethnic homophily, can work at cross-purposes with policy recommendations to diversify ethnic representation in social settings. In order to effectively overcome ethnic segregation, we need to identify those factors within diverse settings that exacerbate the tendency toward ethnic homophily. Using unique data and multiple network analyses, the authors examine 529 adolescent friendship networks in English, German, Dutch, and Swedish schools and find that the ethnic composition of school classes relates differently to immigrant and native homophily...
January 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
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