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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Remya Mohanraj, S Subha
The secondary metabolite, 4-Ipomeanol from Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for cancer. This study presents an efficient protocol for bioproduction of 4-ipomeanol, in large quantities without disturbing the natural biodiversity of I. batatas. Friable Calli from the root tubers of I. batatas were used to establish cell suspension cultures in liquid media under agitated conditions and the growth and production kinetics of the same were monitored. The presence of 4-ipomeanol was confirmed by NMR and IR spectroscopy and quantification was done using HPLC...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
J B Mythili, P R Rajeev, G Vinay, A Nayeem
Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) ranks among the most important vegetable crop belonging to the family Solanaceae that is consumed both as vegetable and spice throughout the world. C. annuum, as crop, in order to meet the target yield, demands improved variety that could overcome environmental challenges viz., biotic and abiotic stress. Cultivar improvement essentially requires an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol. In the present study, we investigated the influence of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and coconut water, individually as well in combination, on in vitro shoot elongation and plant regeneration from cotyledon explants of C...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
M Modgil, S Parmar, N Prabha Negi
Apple is the most dominating fruit crop of Himachal Pradesh, constituting about 40 per cent of total area under fruit crops and about 90 per cent of the total fruit production. Plant tissue culture has encouraged production of quality planting material which is disease free and true to type. Due to current trends in favour of high density apple plantations and to fulfill the requirement of planting material from the farmers, commercially viable in vitro propagation method of semidwarf clonal apple rootstock Malling 7 (M7) was developed by axillary branching, initially developed from shoot tip explants...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Rama Sisodia, I Usha Rao
Bamboo [Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss (Syn. Bambusa arundinacea Retz.)] is an important arborescent grass with immense socio economic implications. The plant exhibits unique biological and growth characteristics including a distinct monocarpic gregarious flowering behavior. Studies on in vitro flowering in bamboo are not uncommon. The present study focuses on effect of different growth regulators on in vitro flowering in B. bambos and analyzes the morphological and developmental changes accompanying the process...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Ramachandran Muthukumarasamy, Gopalakrishnan Revathi, Muthiayan Vadivelu, Kannan Arun
Inorganic nitrogen (N), phosphate (P) and potash (K) are the most influencing macro-nutrients for plant growth and microbial supplementation of these minerals through N2-fixation, P- and K-solubilization is gaining importance. In the present study, a macronutrient deficient (MD), N-free novel medium, supplemented with tri calcium phosphate (TCP as P- source) and Mica (as K- source) was used for isolation of microbes possessing nitrogen fixing, P- & K solubilizing abilities. Samples of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, roots and leaves of sugarcane varieties (viz...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Hari Prasanna Deka Boruah
North East region of India suffers from high sulphur coal mine overburden (OB) and plants those survive under such condition have adopted to such harsh environment. Here, we have investigated the effect of coal mine OB substrate on biochemical, physiological and growth of two shrubs Cassia (Cassia sofera L.) and Dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata L.); two tree species Gomari (Gmelina arborea L.) and Sisso (Dalbergia sisso L.); and two monocots Citronella Grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) and Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus L)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Natarajan Saravanan, Madhoosudhan Ananth Patil, Puthcha Uday Kumar, Palla Suryanarayana, Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy
The rapid increase in global diabetes burden with its associated morbidity and mortality is a major health concern for humans. Prediabetes is a condition which predispose a person not only to diabetes but also to the associated complications including morbidity even in the absence of an apparant hyperglycemia. However, appropriate dietary intervention may not only prevent but also improve one’s condition as diet is the major contributor to such metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the markers of insulin resistance and pathophysiology in a diet-induced prediabetic rat model...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
P H Paradkar, L S Mishra, J V Joshi, S P Dandekar, R A Vaidya, A B Vaidya
Macrophage activation plays a significant role in homeostasis of organisms. Various internal and external stress factors may affect their function, leading to adverse effects on the body. ‘In vitro macrophage activation techniques provide us with a window to understand the mechanisms of inflammation and response of macrophages to the modulating interventions. Apart from infectious diseases, inflammation is also the major culprit in pathogenesis of many noncommunicable diseases such as arthritis, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease etc...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Sarita Singh, Amit Rai, Siddhartha Maity, Srimanta Sarkar, Sutanu Maji, Sudipta Saha
Quisqualis indica L., Syn. Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps., known as Rangoon creeper or Chinese Honeysuckle, is an abundant source of phenols and flavonoids thathave crucial role in free radical scavenging. Therefore, here we investigated whether extract of Q. indica flower has any role against esophagitis through scavenging of free radical oxygen species. In this study, we elucidated the effect of ethanolic flower extract of Q. indica on experimental esophagitis in albino Wister rats. The fasted animals divided into six groups and received carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (0...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Prabhat Kumar, Ramesh Chand, Vineeta Singh, Chhattar Pal
Mungbean or Green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] is an arid/semiarid pulse crop, native to India, grown mostly as a rotational crop with cereals like wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, etc. It is an affordable source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals preferred for its nutrient digestibility, food processing properties and bioavailability. India accounts for 65% of mungbean’s world acreage and 54% of its world production. Various pests, diseases and environmental stresses have kept mungbean yield quite unstable over decades and researcher’s worldover are looking for resistant varieties to overcome these challenges...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Susheel Kumar Raina
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. is an important medicinal plant (Fam. Apocynaceae) known for its alkaloids that are accumulated in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses including wounding. Mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases are important components of cellular signaling system transducing these stress stimuli into intracellular responses by phosphorylation of downstream transcription factors, regulators or inhibitors leading to expression of stress responsive genes. Here, we report the activation of a 47 kDa MAP Kinase in C...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Sirvan Karimzadeh, Mohammad Reza Farahpour
Salvia officinalis L. (common sage) is a popular herb in the mint family, Lamiaceae. To our knowledge, literature regarding the wound healing properties hydroethanolic extract of Salvia officinalis is scarce. Here, we tried to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant properties and in vivo wound healing activity of the hydroethanolic extract of S. officinalis. About 105 healthy Wistar rats were inflicted with wound by excision and incisionand were randomly divided into five experimental groups: Group I, as control; Group II, received placebo; groups III-V treated with 1, 3 and 5% S...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Mousumi Chakraborty, Sourav Bhattacharya, Madhura Bose, Saumya Kanti Sasmal, Mradu Gupta, Roshnara Mishra
Aqueous extract of freshwater mussel, Lamellidens marginalis is known to possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we have made an attempt to purify anti-inflammatory protein from Lamellidens marginalis extract (LME). Aqueous LME was prepared, and total protein was precipitated by 60% ammonium sulfate followed by purification through ion exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were studied for anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Active fractions were characterized by SDS PAGE and HPLC...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
A R Ninu, Swapan Kumar Maiti, Sandeep Kumar, Sangeetha P, Deepika Kritaniya, Saurabh Gupta, Abhisek Saxena, Naveen Kumar
Information on isolation, characterization of rabbit MSC and its evaluation in critical bone defect (CSD) is scarcely available. Here, we attempted to isolate, proliferate, differentiate, characterize and evaluate the in vivo osteogenic potential of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) collected from New Zealand White rabbits. They were isolated and proliferated in antibiotic supplemented DMEM (Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s media). Osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) was induced by osteogenic supplements and evaluated by alizarin red staining and alkaline phosphatase activity assay and characterized by specific CD surface antigen markers through FACS (Fluorescent activated cell shorting) and RT-PCR...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Mishra Suman, Mishra Rajnikant
Arginase, that regulates metabolism of arginine, is widely distributed in organisms. The two major isoforms, cytosolic Arginase-I, and mitochondrial Arginase-II have been characterized well. However, reports also suggest another mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase which is extracted by washing the mitochondria with KCl. Here, we studied this mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase among vertebrates. Our observations support that arginase activity is predominant in cytosol which is designated as Arginase-I. The mitochondrial membrane-bound Arginase (mbArg) which resembles Arginase-II seems independent of nitrogen excretion pattern because of its presence both in ureogenic and non-ureogenic vertebrates...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Anil Kumar, Arti Singh, Archi Aggarwal
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a well known progressive neurodegenerative disorder having complex pathophysiology. Currently, drugs that are used symptomatically in the treatment of AD include acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) (rivastigmine, galantamine, donepezil) and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (memantine). Limited bioavailability of these drugs stresses continuity of search for novel therapeutics for this slow growing but complex disease. Herbal drugs are being used to treat memory related problems, including Alzheimer’s from time immemorial...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Neetu Sachan, Phool Chandra, Dilipkumar Pal
Delonix regia, commonly called Flame Tree or Flamboyant (locally, Gul Mohor) is a common tree traditionally used to treat various diseases like gastric problems, body pain, rheumatic pains of joints and wound healing. Here, we carried out biological profiling of Delonix regia as antiulcer agent. Antiulcer activity of the ethanol extract from stem bark was evaluated on pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. Ethanol extract from stem bark of D.regia was administered at the doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day, p...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Naseer Mohammad, Shashank Mahesh, Yogesh Kumar Jain, S A Ansari
Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.), a paragon timber tree of tropical deciduous forests of Central and Peninsular India, is highly prized for its wood colour, decorative grains, durability and lightness. An experiment was carried out to compare the genetic variation detected and genetic relationships inferred in five teak populations via 10 genomic DNA samples per population each of either single seed or bulk of 3- or 5- seeds with the help of ISSR markers. The genomic DNA of single seed exhibited higher number of polymorphic loci, per cent polymorphism, nei’s genetic diversity and shannon Information Index than the bulk genomic DNA of 3- or 5- seeds...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
M K Naik, G Chennappa, Y S Amaresh, S Sudha, P Chowdappa, Suresh Patil
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), is an important oilseed crop in the tropics and subtropics, referred as “Queen of Oilseeds” owing to its high cooking quality and medicinal value. Sesame production, particularly in India, has been declining since last decade and ‘Leaf blight’ caused by Alternaria spp. is reported to cause yield loss up to 30-40%. Here, we investigated the fungal toxin produced by Alternaria and its pathogenicity. A total of 164 Alternaria strainswere isolated on potato dextrose agar media from the infected sesame leaves showing circular concentric rings with dark brown spots symptoms...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Dipak Biswas, Deepak Kumar, Suresh Kumar
Actaea acuminata Wall. ex Royle, synonym of Actaea spicata var. acuminata (Wall. ex Royle) H.Hara, commonly called the Himalayan Baneberry ( Ranunculaceae) has been investigated for various pharmacological activities, based on its traditional claims. Properly identified A. acuminata roots were defatted by extracting with petroleum ether. The marc was then extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with methanol. Various pharmacological activities such as antianxiety (Elevated plus maze, Hole board and Light/Dark tests), anticonvulsant (Maximum electroshock test), antidepressant (Despair swim test), sedative (Actophotometer), antistress (Cold swim test), analgesic (Tail immersion test) and anti-inflammatory (Carrageenin-induced paw edema model) were evaluated after administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, p...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
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