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Physiological Reviews

Pei Xiong Liew, Paul Kubes
Neutrophils have always been considered as uncomplicated front-line troopers of the innate immune system equipped with limited proinflammatory duties. Yet recently, the role of the neutrophil has been undergoing a rejuvenation of sorts. Neutrophils are now considered complex cells capable of a significant array of specialized functions, and as an effector of the innate immune response, they are able to regulate many processes such as acute injury and repair, cancer, autoimmunity, and chronic inflammatory processes...
April 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Robyn Meech, Dong Gui Hu, Ross A McKinnon, Siti Nurul Mubarokah, Alex Z Haines, Pramod C Nair, Andrew Rowland, Peter I Mackenzie
UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the covalent addition of sugars to a broad range of lipophilic molecules. This biotransformation plays a critical role in elimination of a broad range of exogenous chemicals and by-products of endogenous metabolism, and also controls the levels and distribution of many endogenous signaling molecules. In mammals, the superfamily comprises four families: UGT1, UGT2, UGT3, and UGT8. UGT1 and UGT2 enzymes have important roles in pharmacology and toxicology including contributing to interindividual differences in drug disposition as well as to cancer risk...
April 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
David L Bennett, Alex J Clark, Jianying Huang, Stephen G Waxman, Sulayman D Dib-Hajj
Acute pain signaling has a key protective role and is highly evolutionarily conserved. Chronic pain, however, is maladaptive, occurring as a consequence of injury and disease, and is associated with sensitization of the somatosensory nervous system. Primary sensory neurons are involved in both of these processes, and the recent advances in understanding sensory transduction and human genetics are the focus of this review. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are important determinants of sensory neuron excitability: they are essential for the initial transduction of sensory stimuli, the electrogenesis of the action potential, and neurotransmitter release from sensory neuron terminals...
April 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Arianna Calcinotto, Jaskaren Kohli, Elena Zagato, Laura Pellegrini, Marco Demaria, Andrea Alimonti
Cellular senescence is a permanent state of cell cycle arrest that occurs in proliferating cells subjected to different stresses. Senescence is, therefore, a cellular defense mechanism that prevents the cells to acquire an unnecessary damage. The senescent state is accompanied by a failure to re-enter the cell cycle in response to mitogenic stimuli, an enhanced secretory phenotype and resistance to cell death. Senescence takes place in several tissues during different physiological and pathological processes such as tissue remodeling, injury, cancer, and aging...
April 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Meng Xu, Peter P Liu, Hongliang Li
The innate immune system is an evolutionarily conserved system that senses and defends against infection and irritation. Innate immune signaling is a complex cascade that quickly recognizes infectious threats through multiple germline-encoded cell surface or cytoplasmic receptors and transmits signals for the deployment of proper countermeasures through adaptors, kinases, and transcription factors, resulting in the production of cytokines. As the first response of the innate immune system to pathogenic signals, inflammatory responses must be rapid and specific to establish a physical barrier against the spread of infection and must subsequently be terminated once the pathogens have been cleared...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Gerald A Dienel
Glucose is the long-established, obligatory fuel for brain that fulfills many critical functions, including ATP production, oxidative stress management, and synthesis of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and structural components. Neuronal glucose oxidation exceeds that in astrocytes, but both rates increase in direct proportion to excitatory neurotransmission; signaling and metabolism are closely coupled at the local level. Exact details of neuron-astrocyte glutamate-glutamine cycling remain to be established, and the specific roles of glucose and lactate in the cellular energetics of these processes are debated...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Enrrico Bloise, Pasquapina Ciarmela, Cynthia Dela Cruz, Stefano Luisi, Felice Petraglia, Fernando M Reis
Activins are dimeric glycoproteins belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and resulting from the assembly of two beta subunits, which may also be combined with alpha subunits to form inhibins. Activins were discovered in 1986 following the isolation of inhibins from porcine follicular fluid, and were characterized as ovarian hormones that stimulate follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release by the pituitary gland. In particular, activin A was shown to be the isoform of greater physiological importance in humans...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Dorit Naot, David S Musson, Jillian Cornish
Calcitonin was discovered over 50 yr ago as a new hormone that rapidly lowers circulating calcium levels. This effect is caused by the inhibition of calcium efflux from bone, as calcitonin is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption. Calcitonin has been in clinical use for conditions of accelerated bone turnover, including Paget's disease and osteoporosis; although in recent years, with the development of drugs that are more potent inhibitors of bone resorption, its use has declined. A number of peptides that are structurally similar to calcitonin form the calcitonin family, which currently includes calcitonin gene-related peptides (αCGRP and βCGRP), amylin, adrenomedullin, and intermedin...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Åsa B Gustafsson, Gerald W Dorn
The central functions fulfilled by mitochondria as both energy generators essential for tissue homeostasis and gateways to programmed apoptotic and necrotic cell death mandate tight control over the quality and quantity of these ubiquitous endosymbiotic organelles. Mitophagy, the targeted engulfment and destruction of mitochondria by the cellular autophagy apparatus, has conventionally been considered as the mechanism primarily responsible for mitochondrial quality control. However, our understanding of how, why, and under what specific conditions mitophagy is activated has grown tremendously over the past decade...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Nandu Goswami, Andrew Philip Blaber, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Victor A Convertino
This review presents lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a unique tool to investigate the physiology of integrated systemic compensatory responses to altered hemodynamic patterns during conditions of central hypovolemia in humans. An early review published in Physiological Reviews over 40 yr ago (Wolthuis et al. Physiol Rev 54: 566-595, 1974) focused on the use of LBNP as a tool to study effects of central hypovolemia, while more than a decade ago a review appeared that focused on LBNP as a model of hemorrhagic shock (Cooke et al...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
László Csanády, Paola Vergani, David C Gadsby
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) belongs to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily but functions as an anion channel crucial for salt and water transport across epithelial cells. CFTR dysfunction, because of mutations, causes cystic fibrosis (CF). The anion-selective pore of the CFTR protein is formed by its two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and regulated by its cytosolic domains: two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) and a regulatory (R) domain. Channel activation requires phosphorylation of the R domain by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and pore opening and closing (gating) of phosphorylated channels is driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis at the NBDs...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Lindsey A Schier, Alan C Spector
The gustatory system serves as a critical line of defense against ingesting harmful substances. Technological advances have fostered the characterization of peripheral receptors and have created opportunities for more selective manipulations of the nervous system, yet the neurobiological mechanisms underlying taste-based avoidance and aversion remain poorly understood. One conceptual obstacle stems from a lack of recognition that taste signals subserve several behavioral and physiological functions which likely engage partially segregated neural circuits...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Melanie Rodrigues, Nina Kosaric, Clark A Bonham, Geoffrey C Gurtner
Wound healing is one of the most complex processes in the human body. It involves the spatial and temporal synchronization of a variety of cell types with distinct roles in the phases of hemostasis, inflammation, growth, re-epithelialization, and remodeling. With the evolution of single cell technologies, it has been possible to uncover phenotypic and functional heterogeneity within several of these cell types. There have also been discoveries of rare, stem cell subsets within the skin, which are unipotent in the uninjured state, but become multipotent following skin injury...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Lars Larsson, Hans Degens, Meishan Li, Leonardo Salviati, Young Il Lee, Wesley Thompson, James L Kirkland, Marco Sandri
Sarcopenia is a loss of muscle mass and function in the elderly that reduces mobility, diminishes quality of life, and can lead to fall-related injuries, which require costly hospitalization and extended rehabilitation. This review focuses on the aging-related structural changes and mechanisms at cellular and subcellular levels underlying changes in the individual motor unit: specifically, the perikaryon of the α-motoneuron, its neuromuscular junction(s), and the muscle fibers that it innervates. Loss of muscle mass with aging, which is largely due to the progressive loss of motoneurons, is associated with reduced muscle fiber number and size...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Jeffrey A Whitsett, Tanya V Kalin, Yan Xu, Vladimir V Kalinichenko
The unique architecture of the mammalian lung is required for adaptation to air breathing at birth and thereafter. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling its morphogenesis provides the framework for understanding the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung diseases. Recent single-cell RNA sequencing data and high-resolution imaging identify the remarkable heterogeneity of pulmonary cell types and provides cell selective gene expression underlying lung development. We will address fundamental issues related to the diversity of pulmonary cells, to the formation and function of the mammalian lung, and will review recent advances regarding the cellular and molecular pathways involved in lung organogenesis...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Hieronim Jakubowski
Epidemiological studies established that elevated homocysteine, an important intermediate in folate, vitamin B12 , and one carbon metabolism, is associated with poor health, including heart and brain diseases. Earlier studies show that patients with severe hyperhomocysteinemia, first identified in the 1960s, exhibit neurological and cardiovascular abnormalities and premature death due to vascular complications. Although homocysteine is considered to be a nonprotein amino acid, studies over the past 2 decades have led to discoveries of protein-related homocysteine metabolism and mechanisms by which homocysteine can become a component of proteins...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Jesús Tejero, Sruti Shiva, Mark T Gladwin
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free radical with critical signaling roles in physiology and pathophysiology. The generation of sufficient NO levels to regulate the resistance of the blood vessels and hence the maintenance of adequate blood flow is critical to the healthy performance of the vasculature. A novel paradigm indicates that classical NO synthesis by dedicated NO synthases is supplemented by nitrite reduction pathways under hypoxia. At the same time, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which include superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, are produced in the vascular system for signaling purposes, as effectors of the immune response, or as byproducts of cellular metabolism...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Jolanda van der Velden, Ger J M Stienen
The sarcomeric proteins represent the structural building blocks of heart muscle, which are essential for contraction and relaxation. During recent years, it has become evident that posttranslational modifications of sarcomeric proteins, in particular phosphorylation, tune cardiac pump function at rest and during exercise. This delicate, orchestrated interaction is also influenced by mutations, predominantly in sarcomeric proteins, which cause hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy. In this review, we follow a bottom-up approach starting from a description of the basic components of cardiac muscle at the molecular level up to the various forms of cardiac disorders at the organ level...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Fara Saez, Casandra M Monzon, Jessica Asirwatham, Jeffrey L Garvin
The thick ascending limb plays a key role in maintaining water and electrolyte balance. The importance of this segment in regulating blood pressure is evidenced by the effect of loop diuretics or local genetic defects on this parameter. Hormones and factors produced by thick ascending limbs have both autocrine and paracrine effects, which can extend prohypertensive signaling to other structures of the nephron. In this review, we discuss the role of the thick ascending limb in the development of hypertension, not as a sole participant, but one that works within the rich biological context of the renal medulla...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Thomas P Keeley, Giovanni E Mann
The extensive oxygen gradient between the air we breathe (Po2 ~21 kPa) and its ultimate distribution within mitochondria (as low as ~0.5-1 kPa) is testament to the efforts expended in limiting its inherent toxicity. It has long been recognized that cell culture undertaken under room air conditions falls short of replicating this protection in vitro. Despite this, difficulty in accurately determining the appropriate O2 levels in which to culture cells, coupled with a lack of the technology to replicate and maintain a physiological O2 environment in vitro, has hindered addressing this issue thus far...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
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