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Journal of Medical Microbiology

Justyna E Gołębiewska, Beata Krawczyk, Magdalena Wysocka, Aleksandra Ewiak, Jolanta Komarnicka, Marek Bronk, Bolesław Rutkowski, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień
PURPOSE: To analyse the role of virulence factors (VFs) and host in Klebsiella pneumoniae upper urinary tract infections (UTIs) in renal transplant (RTx) recipients. METHODOLOGY: Clinical and demographic data were registered prospectively. Phylogenetic background of K. pneumoniae isolates was analysed by PCR melting profiles (MP) and the following VFs genes: fimH-1, uge, kpn, ycfM, mrkD, rmpA, magA, hlyA, cnf-1, irp-1, irp-2, fyuA, entB, iutA, iroN by PCR. RESULTS: We studied urine cultures and clinical data from 61 episodes of K...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Paywast J Jalal, Richard A Urbanowicz, Emma Horncastle, Monika Pathak, Chun Goddard, Amanj Saeed, Christopher P Mason, Jonathan K Ball, William L Irving, C Patrick McClure, Barnabas J King, Alexander W Tarr
The liver-expressed pattern recognition receptors mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 contribute to the innate immune response by activating complement. Binding of soluble ficolin-2 to viral pathogens can directly neutralize virus entry. We observed that the human hepatoma cell line HuH7.5, which is routinely used for the study of hepatotropic viruses, is deficient in expression of MBL, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3. We generated a cell line that expressed and secreted ficolin-2. This cell line (HuH7...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Rinosh Mani, Raquel Vilela, Niesa Kettler, Martin I Chilvers, Leonel Mendoza
PURPOSE: Pythiosis is an infection of humans and other animals caused by the fungal-like pathogen Pythium insidiosum. This pathogen causes life-threatening infection in the infected hosts. Culture, histopathology, serology and molecular tools are used to diagnose its infections. Successful management of pythiosis is directly linked to an early diagnosis. Thus, a rapid identification of putative cultures developing submerged sparsely septate hyphae is of extreme importance. However, few laboratories are familiar with the culture identification of this unique pathogen and its differential diagnosis with similar filamentous fungi...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Xin Zhao, Juqing Ai, Haoping Mao, Xiumei Gao
PURPOSE: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively studied for its preventive and treatment properties toward osteoporosis (OP). Pharmacological studies have shown that TCM Eclipta prostrata induce anti-OP effects. Considering the growing evidence demonstrating that gut microbiota (GM) is related to OP, we aimed to study the GM-dependent function and mechanism of E. prostrata for preventing OP in mice. METHODOLOGY: Bone micro-structure was obtained using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and bone-relating factors were detected by molecular biological test...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Elvyra Staneviciute, Wasef Na'amnih, Povilas Kavaliauskas, Ruta Prakapaite, Martynas Ridziauskas, Lukas Kevlicius, Agne Kirkliauskiene, Vaidotas Zabulis, Jurgita Urboniene, Vytautas Triponis
PURPOSE: To develop a new in vitro model of prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI) and evaluate antimicrobial and biofilm-disrupting efficacy of 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride, 10% povidone-iodine and 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate against biofilm-producing Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). METHODOLOGY: The effect of antiseptics on the microscopic integrity and antimicrobial effect on S. aureus biofilms was tested by growing biofilms on glass coverslips, in the modified Lubbock chronic wound pathogenic biofilm (LCWPB) model and on the surface of vascular grafts using qualitive and quantitative methods as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
T Peremalo, P Madhavan, S Hamzah, L Than, E H Wong, M D Mohd Nasir, P P Chong, K P Ng
PURPOSE: Non-albicansCandida species have emerged as fungal pathogens that cause invasive infections, with many of these species displaying resistance to commonly used antifungal agents. This study was confined to studying the characteristics of clinical isolates of the C. rugosa complex and C. pararugosa species. METHODOLOGY: Seven isolates of the C. rugosa complex and one isolate of C. pararugosa were obtained from two tertiary referral hospitals in Malaysia. Their antifungal susceptibilities, biofilm, proteinase, phospholipase, esterase and haemolysin activities were characterized...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Bekir Kocazeybek, Merve Kutlu Sakli, Pelin Yuksel, Mehmet Demirci, Reyhan Caliskan, Tevhide Ziver Sarp, Suat Saribas, Suleyman Demiryas, Fatma Kalayci, Huseyin Cakan, Hayriye Kirkoyun Uysal, Nesrin Gareayaghi, Sevgi Ergin, Yusuf Ziya Erzin, Kadir Bal, İhsan Tascı, Hrisi Bahar Tokman
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the presence of three recently identified point mutations (A2115G, G2141A and A2144T) of the 23 S rRNA gene and compare them with the three most frequently encountered point mutations (A2142G, A2142C and A2143G) in Helicobacter pylori strains in Turkey. METHODOLOGY: A total of 63 patients (mean 47.08±12.27) were included. The E-test method (for clarithromycin) was used for the clarithromycin antimicrobial susceptibility test of isolated H...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Phil-Dong Moon, Jin Soo Lee, Hee-Yun Kim, Na-Ra Han, Inyeong Kang, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
PURPOSE: Recently, Lactobacillus plantarum (nF1) has been reported to have immune-enhancing effects in an immunosuppressed-animal model. Natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages play important roles in the immune responses. However, immunomodulatory effects of heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum-nF1 (hLp-nF1) on the activation of NK cells and macrophages have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY: We assessed whether hLp-nF1 could elevate the activation of NK cells and macrophages using cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunosuppressed BALB/c mice and RAW 264...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Remya Nambiar, Nabila Bereksi, Richard Gonzalez, Anthony de Cozar, Marissa Loubet, Anjali Shetty, Alex van Belkum, Camilla Rodrigues
PURPOSE: Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium used for cultivating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is marketed in glass packaging. Breakage of glass slope is a major biosafety risk, especially during processing and storage, which gets magnified in large laboratories. We evaluated the performance of new bioMérieux (bMx) LJ slopes in plastic packaging, compared to bMx glass LJ medium and Becton Dickinson Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), for MTB recovery. METHODOLOGY: Consecutive pulmonary/extra-pulmonary samples (n=240) were processed using routine methods of decontamination, inoculation and incubation...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jonas Fernandes Maciel, Letícia Beatriz Matter, Caiane Tasca, Daniela Alessandra Rambo Scheid, Letícia Trevisan Gressler, Rosângela Estel Ziech, Agueda Castagna de Vargas
PURPOSE: To address more information about changes in commensal Escherichia coli during virus intestinal infection, we characterized 30 faecal E. coli isolates from calves (21 to 60 days old) with diarrhea due to rotavirus and coronavirus, which received, before diagnosis, tetracycline, gentamicin and enrofloxacin drugs. METHODOLOGY: Clermont's phylogenetic classification; presence of genes for curli, cellulose, fimbriae (F4, F5, F6, F18, F41); and antimicrobial susceptibility were used to characterize the isolates...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Hussein Abdelaziz, Götz von Förster, Klaus-Dieter Kühn, Thorsten Gehrke, Mustafa Citak
PURPOSE: Due to numerous advantages of the combination of clindamycin and gentamicin in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement, promising preliminary results have been reported. However, there are no data that analyse mid-term outcomes. METHODOLOGY: This pilot study included patients who experienced 5 years of follow-up and who were treated with gentamicin- and clindamycin-loaded (G+C) PMMA cement. They were divided into two groups: (1) the periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) comprising patients who underwent a one-stage exchange, and (2) aseptic group comprising patients who underwent aseptic revision or primary arthroplasty procedures, but were considered to be high-risk patients for infection...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Sophie Octavia, Siti Zulaina, Swee Kai Seet, Wee Siong Tien, Minn Thu, Peng Lim Ooi, Lin Cui, Raymond T P Lin
Field investigations were conducted after a small cluster of food poisoning involving six cases was reported. While no stool samples were available from the cases for microbiological testing, Salmonella species was found to be present in the stools of food handlers with gastroenteritis symptoms. Four Salmonella isolates recovered from the food handlers were retrospectively investigated at the genome level using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). WGS showed that S. Anfo (antigenic formulae 39:y:1,2), a rarely isolated serovar, caused infections in the food handlers...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Kaoru Umeda, Atsushi Hase, Masashi Matsuo, Tomoaki Horimoto, Jun Ogasawara
PURPOSE: The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, especially cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, is a major concern for human and animal health. We investigated the prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among sheltered dogs and cats with various backgrounds. METHOD: Faecal samples or rectal swabs were collected from 151 dogs and 182 cats, and screened for the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Isolates were characterized phenotypically and genotypically by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multi-locus sequence typing and phylogenetic grouping...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Sina Mobasherizadeh, Hasan Shojaei, Davood Azadi, Seyed Asghar Havaei, Soodabeh Rostami
PURPOSE: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a considerable public health concern in both developed and developing countries due to the rapid spread of this bacterium around the world, also the epidemiology of MRSA has changed, as the isolation of MRSA strains is not limited to health-care settings or patients with predisposing risk factors. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profile of CA-MRSA nasal carriage in Iranian children...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jennifer L McCurtain, Adam J Gilbertsen, Clayton Evert, Bryan J Williams, Ryan C Hunter
PURPOSE: In the cystic fibrosis (CF) airways, Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes diverse physiological changes in response to inflammation, antibiotic pressure, oxidative stress and a dynamic bioavailable nutrient pool. These include loss-of-function mutations that result in reduced virulence, altered metabolism and other phenotypes that are thought to confer a selective advantage for long-term persistence. Recently, clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa that hyperproduce agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) were cultured from individuals with CF...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Konstantina Kontopoulou, Elias Iosifidis, Eleni Antoniadou, Polychronis Tasioudis, Efthymia Petinaki, Ergina Malli, Symeon Metallidis, Alkiviadis Vatopoulos, Nicolaos Malisiovas
PURPOSE: To highlight the clinical significance of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) rectal colonization by examining the risk factors for CRKP rectal colonization and subsequent bloodstream infection (BSI) in critically ill patients. METHODOLOGY: Prospective study of CRKP rectal colonization in an intensive care unit (ICU) during a 39-month period. CRKP strains isolated from both the blood cultures and corresponding rectal specimens (n=96) of patients were screened by PCR for the presence of antibiotic resistance-associated genes...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Amy E Bryant, Sumiko Gomi, Eva Katahira, David B Huang, Dennis L Stevens
PURPOSE: Extracellular protein toxins contribute to the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The present study compared the effects of iclaprim and trimethoprim - two folic acid synthesis inhibitors - with nafcillin and vancomycin on production of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), alpha haemolysin (AH) and toxic-shock syndrome toxin I (TSST-1) in methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (MRSA and VISA, respectively). METHODOLOGY: Northern blotting and RT-PCR were used to assess gene transcription; toxin-specific bioassays were used to measure protein toxin production...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Bela Kocsis, Akos Toth, Daniel Gulyas, Balazs Ligeti, Katalin Katona, Laszlo Rokusz, Dora Szabo
A multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1 isolated from urine clinical sample was investigated in this study. The strain exhibited resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, ceftazidime but it was susceptible to colistin. Analysis of whole-genome sequencing data by ResFinder detected various resistance determinants including qnrVC1 and blaNDM-1. The multiresistant P. aeruginosa isolate belonged to ST773 high-risk clone. The qnrVC1 and blaNDM-1 determinants were incorporated into different integrons...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Thierry Delorme, Duyen Dang, Alexander Garcia, Payman Nasr
PURPOSE: The epidemiological shift in MRSA distribution from healthcare-related facilities to the general population is distressing and requires continuous monitoring to manage and control the rate of incidences. METHOD: The retrospective relationship between genetic and phenotypic variability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates was determined in respect to the specimen source, patient location, sex and age. A total of 521 MRSA isolates were classified based on SCCmec, mec, agr, pvl and spa genetic markers using three different multiplex PCRs...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Danielle Rosani Shinohara, Thatiany Cevallos Menegucci, Nayara Helisandra Fedrigo, Letícia Busato Migliorini, Floristher Elaine Carrara-Marroni, Márcia Maria Dos Anjos, Celso Luiz Cardoso, Sheila Alexandra Belini Nishiyama, Maria Cristina Bronharo Tognim
PURPOSE: The effect of a combination of polymyxin B (PMB) and vancomycin (VAN) was assessed against six Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates belonging to six different clusters (three PMB-susceptible and three PMB-resistant). METHODOLOGY: The synergistic effect of the PMB-VAN combination was determined with the checkerboard, time-kill, disk-diffusion and M.I.C.Evaluator assays. PMB-resistance was investigated with mcr-1 gene amplification and a mutant frequency assay...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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