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Journal of Applied Psychology

Ying Zhou, Min Zou, Stephen A Woods, Chia-Huei Wu
Previous research shows that unemployment has lasting detrimental effects on individuals' subjective well-being. However, the issue of how well-being evolves after individuals switch back into the labor force has received little theoretical and empirical attention. This study examines the extent to which reemployment restores individuals' subjective well-being following a period of unemployment. Applying fixed effects models to the large-scale longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey, we find that recovery of subjective well-being upon reemployment is fast, complete and enduring, even when individuals take less favorable employment options to return to work...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Thomas W H Ng, Kai Chi Yam
Drawing on self-enhancement theory, we propose that, intraindividually, employees tend to give themselves credit when they engage in creativity. Perceived creative credit, in turn, activates multiple psychological motives that ultimately affect deviance. On the one hand, perceived creative credit is associated with greater creativity-driven norm-breaking motives and greater entitlement motives, which in turn should increase deviance. On the other hand, perceived creative credit is associated with greater image preservation motives, which in turn should decrease deviance...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Lindsey M Greco, Jennifer A Whitson, Ernest H O'Boyle, Cynthia S Wang, Joongseo Kim
Most models of negative workplace behaviors (NWB) are individual in nature, focusing on individual attitudes (e.g., satisfaction) and general workplace perceptions (e.g., procedural justice) that motivate NWB. Less commonly considered are explorations of relationally based negative workplace behaviors-how NWB from Party A is related to reciprocation of NWB from Party B. Based on 2 competing conceptualizations in the literature, that behavior is reciprocated "in-kind" in an eye for an eye exchange or that behavior tends to escalate or spiral over time, we develop a framework for negative reciprocity that considers NWB in terms of severity, activity, and target...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Jonathan B Evans, Jerel E Slaughter, Aleksander P J Ellis, Jessi M Rivin
Although research has added to our understanding of the positive and negative effects of the use of humor at work, scholars have paid little attention to characteristics of the humor source. We argue that this is an important oversight, particularly in terms of gender. Guided by parallel-constraint-satisfaction theory (PCST), we propose that gender plays an important role in understanding when using humor at work can have costs for the humor source. Humor has the potential to be interpreted as either a functional or disruptive work behavior...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Kan Ouyang, Bonnie Hayden Cheng, Wing Lam, Sharon K Parker
Drawing on conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989) and the model of proactive motivation (Parker, Bindl, & Strauss, 2010), this research employs experience sampling methods to examine how employees' off-job experiences during the evening relate to their proactive behavior at work the next day. A multilevel path analysis of data from 183 employees across 10 workdays indicated that various types of off-job experiences in the evening had differential effects on daily proactive behavior during the subsequent workday, and the psychological mechanisms underlying these varied relationships were distinct...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Robert Eisenberger, Thomas Rockstuhl, Mindy K Shoss, Xueqi Wen, James Dulebohn
There is controversy concerning whether, in recent years, organizational failures to act benevolently toward employees have lessened employees' social-exchange relationship (SER) with their work organization or whether, on the contrary, organizations' more favorable treatment of employees has strengthened the SER. With samples of U.S. employees, we examined changes over the past 3 decades in three key elements of the SER: perceived organizational support (POS: 317 samples, including 121,469 individuals), leader-member exchange (LMX: 191 samples, including 216,975 individuals), and affective organizational commitment (383 samples, including 116,766 individuals)...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
David M Mayer, Madeline Ong, Scott Sonenshein, Susan J Ashford
We examine the effectiveness of economic and moral language used by employees when selling social issues to management. In contrast to prior work finding that employees believe it is best to use economic language to influence management to address social issues, we draw on the issue selling, persuasion, and behavioral ethics literatures to demonstrate that moral language is actually most influential-especially when the language is framed to align with the organization's values and/or mission. The results from a combination of 3 field survey studies and 1 experimental vignette study provide support for this hypothesis...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Katrina Jia Lin, Krishna Savani, Remus Ilies
Drawing on self-determination theory, this research investigates whether the motivation behind employees' helping behaviors is associated with their positive affect and their subsequent help provision, and whether citizenship pressure moderates these relationships. A recall-based experiment and an experience-sampling study capturing helping episodes among fulltime employees found that when employees helped coworkers because of higher autonomous (controlled) motivation in a helping episode, they experienced higher (lower) positive affect, and they had stronger (weaker) helping intentions and helped coworkers more (less) subsequently...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Samantha C Paustian-Underdahl, Asia A Eaton, Ashley Mandeville, Laura M Little
In light of recent research suggesting mothers are more likely to withdraw from work than fathers are, we assess the relative contributions of popular "pushed-out" and "opting-out" perspectives over the course of their pregnancies. As pregnancy is a pivotal time for the reevaluation of work and life roles, we investigate the degree to which gender differences in changes in turnover intentions and intentions to return to the workforce are explained by changes in perceived career encouragement from organizational members (a pushed-out factor), as well as changes in the employees' own career motivation (an opting-out factor), throughout pregnancy...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Deidra J Schleicher, Heidi M Baumann, David W Sullivan, Junhyok Yim
This integrative conceptual review is based on a critical need in the area of performance management (PM), where there remain important unanswered questions about the effectiveness of PM that affect both research and practice. In response, we create a theoretically grounded, comprehensive, and integrative model for understanding and measuring PM effectiveness, comprising multiple categories of evaluative criteria and the underlying mechanisms that link them. We then review more than 30 years (1984-2018) of empirical PM research vis-à-vis this model, leading to conclusions about what the literature has studied and what we do and do not know about PM effectiveness as a result...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
James M Diefendorff, Allison S Gabriel, Megan T Nolan, Jixia Yang
Variable-centered views of emotional labor suggest that high customer incivility and employee-felt negative affect should co-occur with high employee emotion regulation. Similarly, low customer incivility and employee positive affect should be accompanied by low emotion regulation. We theorize that these theory-based configurations of emotional labor variables represent only a subset of the possible ways that emotional labor events unfold. We propose that there are distinct subpopulations of emotional labor events, some of which conform to this standard view of emotional labor and some of which deviate from this model and that these distinct configurations suggest different underlying theoretical processes with implications for employee well-being...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Burak Oc, Michael R Bashshur, Celia Moore
Research on power often treats the recipients of powerholders' decisions (i.e., subordinates) as an undifferentiated group, overlooking how their responses to powerholders' decisions might vary and how those responses might affect powerholders' later decisions. In this article, we examine the role of lone dissenting subordinates (individuals whose feedback differs from that expressed by other group members) in shaping powerholders' allocation decisions, and explore the consequences those subordinates face for their dissent...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Trevor A Foulk, Klodiana Lanaj, Satish Krishnan
We extend the theory of purposeful work behavior (TPWB, Barrick, Mount, & Li, 2013) by conceptualizing three key motivational strivings (communion striving, accomplishment striving, and status striving) as dynamic constructs that have implications for how employees act and feel each day at work. Building on TPWB, we propose that morning communion striving, accomplishment striving, and status striving will motivate unique behaviors at work that day-specifically helping, task-performance, and enacted power, respectively...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Stephanie M Lee, Crystal I C Farh
Integrating functional leadership theory with models of the team creativity and innovation, we present a dynamic model of leadership emergence where leadership emergence is shaped by (a) the type of contributions members express (constructive contributions proposing new ideas, or supportive contributions affirming ideas with merit), (b) when those contributions are expressed (i.e., in the idea generation or idea enactment phase), and (c) the extent fellow teammates themselves are contributing in constructive or supportive ways in those phases...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Nathan P Podsakoff, Trevor M Spoelma, Nitya Chawla, Allison S Gabriel
The attention paid to intraindividual phenomena in applied psychology has rapidly increased during the last two decades. However, the design characteristics of studies using daily experience sampling methods and the proportion of within-person variance in the measures employed in these studies vary substantially. This raises a critical question yet to be addressed: are differences in the proportion of variance attributable to within- versus between-person factors dependent on construct-, measure-, design-, and/or sample-related characteristics? A multilevel analysis based on 1,051,808 within-person observations reported in 222 intraindividual empirical studies indicated that decisions about what to study (construct type), how to study it (measurement and design characteristics), and from whom to obtain the data (sample characteristics) predicted the proportion of variance attributable to within-person factors...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Donald H Kluemper, Shannon G Taylor, W Matthew Bowler, Mark N Bing, Jonathon R B Halbesleben
Drawing from theories of attribution and perception, we posit that employees who are victims of rudeness are themselves (inappropriately) evaluated by leaders as being interpersonally deviant. We further theorize that employees who are themselves rude to others at work are evaluated negatively, but not when they have high-quality relationships with leaders or are seen as high performers. We tested our predictions across 4 studies. Our first study included 372 leader-follower pairs. Our second study extended to dyadic interactions among employees by using an employee roster method, resulting in paired data from 149 employees (2,184 dyads) across 5 restaurant locations...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Kang Yang Trevor Yu
This paper investigates how employers influence the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of potential talent as part of a process of Organizational Impression Management (OIM) during the recruitment process. Several studies were conducted seeking to address the lack of empirical research on what recruiters do to manage organizational images. Study 1 developed and validated an empirical measure of OIM. Study 2 demonstrated that OIM tactics were distinct from other phenomena encountered by job seekers as part of the recruitment process...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Eean R Crawford, Cody J Reeves, Greg L Stewart, Stacy L Astrove
Multiple team membership is common in today's team-based organizations, but little is known about its relationship with collective effectiveness across teams. We adopted a microfoundations framework utilizing existing individual- and team-level research to develop a higher-level perspective on multiple team membership's relationship with performance of entire units of teams. We tested our predictions with data collected from 849 primary care units of the Veterans Health Administration serving over 4.2 million patients...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Sharon K Parker, Daniela M Andrei, Anja Van den Broeck
Few studies have systematically considered how individuals design work. In a replication study ( N = 211, Study 1), we showed that students naturally tend to develop simplified, low variety work. In 2 further simulation studies, we quantitatively assessed participants' work design behaviors via 2 new measures ("enriching task allocation" and "enriching work strategy selection"). As a comparison measure, we assessed individuals' tendency to choose individualistic rather than work design strategies ("person-focused strategy selection")...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Jeffrey A Dahlke, Paul R Sackett, Nathan R Kuncel
We illustrate the effects of range restriction and a form of criterion contamination (individual differences in course-taking patterns) on the validity of SAT scores for predicting college academic performance. College data facilitate exploration of differential validity's determinants because they (a) permit the use multivariate range-restriction corrections to more accurately account for differential range restriction across subgroups and (b) allow for separate examinations of composite performance and specific performance episodes, the latter of which controls for ecological contamination of composite performance due to individuals' choices of performance opportunities...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
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