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Veterinaria Italiana

Valter Bellucci, Stefano Lucci, Pietro Bianco, Alessando Ubaldi, Antonio Felicioli, Claudio Porrini, Franco Mutinelli, Sabrina Battisti, Valentina Spallucci, Antonella Cersini, Marco Pietropaoli, Giovanni Formato
The health status of the honey bee populations has attracted a great amount of interest in recent years. We investigated honey bee health in five natural protected areas in Italy from October 2009 to December 2010. Areas were selected to represent a wide range of bio‑geographical zones including alpine, continental, and Mediterranean. Within each of these natural protected areas, one apiary of 20 colonies near potential pollution sources (e.g., agricultural areas, industrial areas, or urban settlements) and another apiary of 20 colonies far from possible sources of pollutants have been placed...
March 6, 2019: Veterinaria Italiana
Francesco Cerutti, Claudio Caruso, Paola Modesto, Riccardo Orusa, Loretta Masoero, Pier Luigi Acutis, Simone Peletto
Border disease virus (BDV) is widespread both in domestic small ruminants and wildlife. Here we report the genome of BDV genotype 8 from chamois, strain Italy‑58987, obtained by next generation sequencing and the comparison with other pestiviruses. The sequence of 12,245 bp long was aligned to 22 pestivirus genomes and it showed a nt/aa similarity of 81.3/89.4% with BDV genotypes, and 65.9/67.8% with the other  pestiviruses. The genome showed a mean nt/aa similarity of 91.2/95.0% with three Swiss genomes closely related to the BDV‑8 5'‑UTR and Npro sequences...
February 21, 2019: Veterinaria Italiana
Giantonella Puggioni, Davide Pintus, Giorgio Meloni, Angela Maria Rocchigiani, Daniela Manunta, Giovanni Savini, Annalisa Oggiano, Ciriaco Ligios
This paper reports that Bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) infected blood collected during the 2006 Sardinia (Italy) epidemic from a ewe with clinical disease and stored at ~ 5°C for 10 years, caused Bluetongue (BT)-like clinical disease and death when inoculated into a susceptible Sarda breed ram. Anatomo-histopathological examination and Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR (Real-Time RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of BTV-1 in several tissues proving that the BTV-1 2006 isolate has maintained its infectivity and virulence...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Kamar Drif, Gert Venter, Mehdi El Harrak, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri, Chafiqa Loutfi, Nadia Touil, Bachir Harif
A  serosurvey  was  conducted  to  determine  the  value  of  camels  (Camelus  dromedaries)  as sentinel animals for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) in Morocco. Between 2010 and 2013, camels from various localities in Morocco were randomly tested for antibodies against BTV  serotypes‑1,  ‑4,  ‑6,  ‑8,  ‑11,  ‑14,  and  ‑16.  Antibodies  against  1  or  more  serotypes  were detected in 41.8% of 537 camels tested with a competitive enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay  (ELISA)  diagnostic  test...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Claudio Caruso, Nicoletta Vitale, Riccardo Prato, Maria Cristina Radaelli, Simona Zoppi, Rosaria Possidente, Alessandro Dondo, Laura Chiavacci, Ana Maria Moreno Martin, Loretta Masoero
Although  the  eradication  of  Pseudorabies  virus  (PrV)  in  domestic  pigs  is  ongoing,  the circulation  of  this  virus  in  wild  boars  remains  a  threat  in  the  currently  unprotected, 'low prevalence', pig population. In this study, we reported PrV prevalence data and the influence of  possible  risk  factors  in  2  North-West  Italian  wild  boar  populations  (free  and  enclosed) with the goal of supporting the implementation of a risk-based AD surveillance system...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Enrico Gabriele Piersanti, Luigi Sgattone, Luciano Di Stefano, Giacomo Migliorati
Radionuclides are increasingly used in hospitals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as functional research, diagnostic imaging, and in the performance of radioiodine therapy. Their use produces radioactive waste, and risks environmental contamination. The present study involves 486 samples of radioactive waste produced in hospitals in Abruzzo, Italy, during 2000 - 2015. Measurements were carried out with the gamma spectrometry technique: Germanium detector (PTG) with 8000 acquisition channels, power range 59 - 1836 keV, resolution 1 keV, overall efficiency 30%, measurement time 60000 Seconds...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Marta De Santis, Laura Contalbrigo, Martina Simonato, Mirko Ruzza, Marica Toson, Luca Farina
Animal assisted interventions (AAI) have become increasingly popular in Western countries during the last fifty years, attracting a lot of attention both from the general public and the scientific community. In Italy, similarly to other countries, this evolution has been accompanied by the diffusion of associations delivering AAI. What is the current state of AAI in Italy? How many realities are dealing with AAI? What professionals and animals are involved? The results of the questionnaire here reported have the objective to answer these questions, outlining a snapshot of the distribution and the main features of AAI within Italian territory...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Sarah Sconza, Angela Di Cesare, Raffaella Iorio, Roberto Bartolini, Barbara Paoletti, Donato Traversa
Cyathostomins,  or  'small  strongyles',  are  the  most  important  equine  helminths  because  of their  worldwide  distribution,  spread  of  anthelmintic‑resistant  populations,  and  pathogenic impact.  The  so‑called  'selective  treatment'  of  those  animals  exceeding  a  certain  faecal  egg  count  (FEC)  has  recently  been  proposed  to  implement  cyathostomin  control  programmes.  The present study evaluated the extent of egg shedding in 475 horses living in 12 farms from 3 regions of Italy...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Fausto Scoppetta, Massimo Chiovoloni, Guglielmo Spernanzoni, Giovanni Filippini, Marinella Capuccella
Veterinary  antimicrobial  use  could  lead  to  problems  such  as  the  spread  of  antimicrobial resistance or the presence of residues in animal-derived products for human consumption. Related  to  this,  data  on  drug  consumption  is  in  strong  demand.  The  aims  of  this  study are  therefore  to  evaluate  a  regional  Defined  Daily  Dose  (DDDvet_Umbria)  for  all  of  the antimicrobials  prescribed  in  Umbria  during  2014  and  to  analyse  prescriptions  for  cattle, swine,  small  ruminants,  poultry,  rainbow  trout,  and  food-producing  horses...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Giuseppe Aprea, Loredana Zocchi, Mariassunta Di Fabio, Sara De Santis, Vincenza Annunziata Prencipe, Giacomo Migliorati
Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. are foodborne pathogens responsible for outbreaks and disease in humans. The emerging problem of bacterial antibiotic resistance and the persistence of pathogens in the environment, especially where foods are processed, are some of the reasons that have led to a re‑emerging interest in bacteriophages and their lysins as potential candidates for bio‑control. This review focuses on the use of bacteriophages and their lysins as alternative strategies for controlling the foodborne pathogens L...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Aziz Ur Rehman, M Tariq Javed, Muhammad Sohaib Aslam, Muahammad Nisar Khan, Syed Misdaq Hussain, Khuram Ashfaq, Asim Rafique
The present study had the goal to assess the prevalence of paratuberculosis in 4 public livestock farms of the Punjab (Pakistan). It included 627 total animals of more than 2-year-old tested by Avian Tuberculin, i.e., Purified Protein Derivative. The results of the PPD test were confirmed by indirect ELISA and by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) test. An overall prevalence of 1.3% was recorded. The values were between 0.0% and 3.03%. The results of odds ratio suggested that there are 2.18 time's higher chances of disease when body weight of buffaloes is less than 500 kg; 1...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Angelo Peli, Mariana Roccaro
Catastrophic injuries in racehorses mostly involve the metacarpal region. Although many studies describe fractures of equine limbs, few examine the relationship between bone morphometrics and musculoskeletal problems in racing horses. And yet, according to the regulation of some Italian traditional races, the shin circumference represents a qualifying prerequisite for horses to be admitted to races. This study aims to evaluate the conformity of the shin circumference measurement in living animals and in post‑mortem examinations, in order to evaluate the forensic reliability of these measurements...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Andreana Pexara, Nikolaos Solomakos, Alexander Govaris
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular gram‑negative bacterium. Infection by C. burnetii has been demonstrated in many animal species, but ruminants are the major reservoirs and the main sources of human infection. In ruminants, C. burnetii infection is often asymptomatic, but it has been also associated with infertility and abortions. In humans, Q fever was considered predominately an occupational hazard due to close contact with infected ruminants by means of their contaminated birth products, urine, feces or milk...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Giorgia Della Rocca, Rodolfo Colpo, Jaqueline Reid, Alessandra Di Salvo, Marian Scott
Objective To validate the Italian translation of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale – Short Form (ICMPS-SF) in order to assess acute pain in dogs. The original English-version of the scale (the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale – Short Form - CMPS-SF) was translated into Italian according to a standard protocol to ensure linguistic and cultural validity. Nine Italian veterinary surgeons then recorded pain scores in dogs undergoing orthopaedic or soft tissue surgery using the ICMPS-SF at 2, 6, and 24 hours post-extubation...
September 30, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Cipriano Foxi, Giantonella Puggioni, Giorgio Meloni, Renata Rossi, Angela Maria Rocchigiani, Luigi Vento, Antonio Collovà, Giuseppe Satta
Zika Virus (ZIKV) is a RNA virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. This virus is transmitted through bite of Aedes mosquitoes, in particular Ae. aegypti. On February 1st 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared ZIKV a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Successively, considering the establishment of Ae. albopictus, WHO has classified Italy as having a moderate likelihood of local transmission of ZIKV, preceded in Europe only by France. For this reason an entomological surveillance plan was been activated in Sardinia in 2016...
September 30, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Manuela Gizzarelli, Valentina Foglia Manzillo, Eleonora Fiorentino, Aldo Scalone, Gaetano Oliva
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a systemic zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania, an intracellular macrophage parasite, transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sandflies. In dogs, the clinical disease is mostly characterised by symptoms associated with viscerocutaneous lesions such as lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, skin lesions, and renal and ocular disease caused by the deposition of immune complexes. The parasite may provoke mucosal lesions which cause atypical clinical signs. The aim of this study is to describe an atypical nostril mass in a dog infected by Leishmania...
September 30, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Francesco Mira, Giuseppa Purpari, Santina Di Bella, Domenico Vicari, Giorgia Schirò, Patrizia Di Marco, Giusi Macaluso, Mara Battilani, Annalisa Guercio
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the etiologic agent of distemper in dogs. It exhibits an elevated potential of crossing species barriers, infecting a wide range of wild and domestic carnivores. Of its encoding genes, hemagglutinin (H) shows high heterogeneity, and it was used to determine the relationship between CDV strains due to its variability and key role in determining cell tropism, host shift, and in eliciting a protective immune response. This study analysed the full-length H gene sequence of Arctic-like CDV strains collected from dogs in Italy during a period in which an increased activity of CDV diffusion was observed...
September 30, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Ewelina Barbara Czyżewska-Dors, Arkadiusz Dors, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Katarzyna Podgórska, Zygmunt Pejsak
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on the levels of viremia, the number of viremic-positive pigs, and production performance [i.e. nursery mortality, post-weaning mortality, and average daily weight gain (ADWG)] under field conditions. There were 140 farrow-to-finish pig herds involved in this study. The vaccination of piglets was implemented in 82 of the 140 herds. In each herd blood samples were collected from sows and pigs in different age category...
September 30, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Marta Giergiel, Jacek Wawrzykowski, Marta Kankofer
The protein profile of each tissue depends on the expression of genes that are regulated, among others, by sex steroids. Comparing the profiles of sexually immature and mature females should therefore define markers of age-related changes. The aim of this study is to compare the pattern of proteins in the endometrium of heifers and pre-pubertal female calves by using difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE), and to identify the presence and amount of similar or significantly different proteins. Endometrial samples were collected in slaughterhouse from heifers aged between 14-27 months (n = 6; sexually mature) and calves between 0...
September 30, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Afshin Hajizadeh, Rainak Ghaderi, Roger D Ayling
Contagious agalactia (CA) is a serious disease of small ruminants that occurs in many countries, and is usually characterized by mastitis, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, pleuropneumonia, and septicemia. Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is the main causative agent in sheep and goats but other pathogens including Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc, which incorporates the former M. mycoides subsp. mycoides Large Colony type), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc), and Mycoplasma putrefaciens (Mp) might be involved...
September 30, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
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