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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Shawn K Bishop, James W Moore, Evan H Dart, Keith Radley, Robyn Brewer, Laura-Katherine Barker, Laura Quintero, Sarah Litten, Angelina Gilfeather, BreAnna Newborne, Crystal Toche
We replicated and extended the findings of Gervarter et al. (2016) by using prompting and reinforcement to produce increased vocal speech with 3 young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who used a speech generating device (SGD). We extended Gervarter et al. by adopting a more robust experimental design, conducting session-by-session preference assessments, and measuring the emergence of novel vocalizations. The frequency of vocalizations increased for all 3 participants after the introduction of an echoic prompt...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mindy Scheithauer, Shannon M Schebell, Joanna Lomas Mevers, Clarissa P Martin, George Noell, Kerri C Suiter, Nathan A Call
It is common practice in research on the treatment of problem behavior to compare levels of targeted behaviors during treatment to levels when treatment is not in place. Some researchers use data collected as part of a multielement functional analysis as the initial baseline, whereas others collect new baseline data following completion of the functional analysis. We evaluated whether the source of baseline data influences the reliability and efficiency of decision-making. Results suggest that similar decisions are made in regard to treatment efficacy using the different sources of baseline data, but using data from a multielement functional analysis as baseline may save time...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tiffany Kodak, Mary Halbur, Samantha Bergmann, Dayna R Costello, Brittany Benitez, Miranda Olsen, Ella Gorgan, Terra Cliett
Previous studies on skill acquisition have taught targets in stimulus sets composed of different numbers of stimuli. Although the rationale for selection of a stimulus set size is not clear, the number of target stimuli trained within a set is a treatment decision for which there is limited empirical support. The current investigation compared the efficiency of tact training in 4 stimulus set sizes, each of which included 12 stimuli grouped into (a) 4 sets of 3 stimuli, (b) 3 sets of 4 stimuli, (c) 2 sets of 6 stimuli, and (d) 1 set of 12 stimuli...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Talia M Ennett, Kimberley L M Zonneveld, Kendra M Thomson, Tricia Vause, David Ditor
Teaching with acoustical guidance involves auditory feedback (e.g., a click sound when a desired behavior occurs) as part of a multicomponent intervention known as TAGteach. TAGteach has been found to improve performance in sport, dance, surgical technique, and walking. We compared the efficacy and efficiency of the standard TAGteach error-correction procedure and a modified TAGteach error-correction procedure to teach 4 novice adult yoga practitioners beginner yoga poses. Both error-correction procedures were effective for all participants; however, the relative efficiency of these error-correction procedures was unclear...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jessica A Sauter, Corey S Stocco, Kevin C Luczynski, Adam D Moline
Lying during childhood is a common concern for caregivers. Lee et al. (2014) showed that a moral story and instruction implying reinforcers for honesty produced statistically significant improvements in children admitting a transgression. We evaluated the influence of this moral story and instruction on the consistency of honest reports when reinforcement favored lying in the context of reporting answers to math problems. The moral story and instruction produced temporary, inconsistent, or null effects across participants...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Merritt J Schenk, Derek D Reed
Many recent nonlaboratory-based quantitative analyses of behavior have relied on archival competitive sporting data. However, the ratio-based reinforcement schedules in most athletic competitions and the correlational nature of archival data analyses raise concern over the contributions of such findings to the behavior analytic literature. The current experiment evaluated whether matching in a human operant paradigm would approximate matching observed in nonlaboratory-based sports data. To this end, we used in-game attributes to parametrically manipulate 2- and 3-point shooting in a commercially available basketball video game...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kelli E Hill, Kristin R Griffith, Caio F Miguel
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of equivalence-based instruction (EBI) on learning to play individual notes and simple songs on the piano. Participants were 4 typically developing children and 4 children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). They were exposed to a series of auditory-visual matching-to-sample procedures using musical stimuli. Following training, participants were tested on the emergence of novel untrained relations and generalization in the form of playing two songs on a keyboard...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Lorraine B Bloom, Tracy L Kettering, Diana Walker
We compared the effects of the effects of self-instructions in the form of prose or song lyrics in the acquisition of gross motor tasks in 4 third-grade children. We taught participants 4 pairs of gross motor tasks, with one task in each pair taught with prose self-instructions and the other taught with song lyric self-instructions. Both self-instruction procedures were effective for teaching tasks; however, acquisition was quicker with song lyric self-instruction for 4 task pairs, acquisition was quicker with prose self-instruction for 3 task pairs; and similar for 1 task pair...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Ashley L Matter, Katie M Wiskow, Jeanne M Donaldson
Using instructional strategies based on derived relational responding (DRR) to teach foreign-language targets may result in emergent, untrained foreign-language relations. One benefit of using DRR instructional strategies is the efficiency with which an individual acquires additional stimulus relations as a result of emergent responding following acquisition of one or a small number of relations. In the current study, we compared the efficiency of tact training alone to a traditional foreign-language teaching strategy (i...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Monique Peisley, T Mary Foster, Rebecca J Sargisson
Prospective memory is remembering to carry out a behavior on a particular occasion or at a specific time in the future. This form of remembering is critical for the daily functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their functional independence from caregivers. We used a single-subject design to investigate whether reinforcement increased the accuracy of prospective remembering in the context of a computerized board game, Virtual Week, of four 6- to 7-year-old children diagnosed with ASD...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Joshua Jessel, Rachel Metras, Gregory P Hanley, Catherine Jessel, Einar T Ingvarsson
We conducted this study to determine if the efficiency of the functional analysis could be improved without detrimental effects on control. In Experiment 1, we reanalyzed functional analyses conducted for the problem behavior of 18 children. We analyzed rates of problem behavior during the first 5 min and first 3 min of the original 10-min sessions and evaluated if changes in the level of control over problem behavior by the programmed contingency were evident from the analyses of shorter session duration...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Bethany P Contreras, Alison J Cooper, SungWoo Kahng
The traditional recommendation for sequencing speaker and listener instruction has been to teach listener skills prior to teaching speaker skills. In a review of the research literature prior to 2011, Petursdottir and Carr (2011) concluded that research did not support this recommendation. We reviewed the most recent research on the efficiency of skill acquisition during speaker and listener instruction and found similar results to Petursdottir and Carr. Recommendations for future research and practice are provided...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jordan Belisle, Mark R Dixon, Kyle E Rowsey
Thirty-six participants were given three social discounting surveys, and each survey was preceded by one of three contrived hypothetical scenarios. In each scenario, the participant was asked to consider situations in which either the participant (SELF), a hypothetical other (OTHER), or both the participant and the hypothetical other (BOTH) were experiencing economic hardship (i.e., needed money to avoid a negative outcome). Results replicate previous research suggesting that the probability of participants foregoing the money decreased across social distance in the BOTH and OTHER conditions; however, no discounting was observed for median responses in the SELF condition...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Megan E Jones, R Allan Allday, Ashante' Givens
The purpose of this study was to test the effects of an interdependent group contingency on cell phone usage in an alternative high school classroom. We used an ABAB reversal design to test the effects of the contingency on the cell phone usage of the entire class and an individual student. Results showed a reduction in the cell phone use of the class and the individual when the group contingency was in effect, demonstrating a functional relation between the contingency and student cell phone usage. These findings suggest that group contingencies may be efficacious for teachers to use within their classrooms to curb cell phone usage...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sean J Davidson, Rollanda E O'Connor
Many English language learners (ELL) experience academic and reading difficulties compared to native English speakers (NES). Lack of vocabulary knowledge is a contributing factor for these difficulties. Teaching students to analyze words into their constituent morphemes (meaningful word units) in order to determine the meaning of words may be an avenue to increase vocabulary knowledge. This study investigated potential benefits of morphological instruction for learning vocabulary words and generalizing taught words to untaught words containing these morphemes...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Michele R Traub, Timothy R Vollmer
Elopement is a common form of problem behavior but is relatively underrepresented in the functional analysis literature. One barrier to assessing elopement experimentally is the need to retrieve the subject following an instance of elopement. This retrieval confounds programmed session contingencies when the goal is to obtain repeated measurement of free-operant behavior. The current study evaluated latency to elopement as an alternative to free-operant measurement. We first compared response latency to allocation in 5-min sessions and then measured latency alone in a trial-based format...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Candice L Colón, William H Ahearn
Response interruption and redirection has been shown to effectively decrease stereotypy, but its application outside an experimental setting has not been well studied. In Experiment 1, decreases in automatically maintained vocal stereotypy were obtained following treatment in a controlled setting for 3 participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Descriptive data on the consistency and accuracy of response interruption and redirection were then collected in the classroom setting. Results showed that the consistency of treatment implementation varied across participants and staff members...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Rutvi R Patel, Matthew P Normand, Carolynn S Kohn
We combined several single-subject designs to assess the effects of contingent and noncontingent token reinforcement on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) exhibited by 4 preschool-aged children. Higher overall levels and longer bouts of MVPA reliably occurred when tokens were delivered contingent on MVPA for 3 of the 4 children when compared to baseline (no token) and for 2 of the 4 children when compared to noncontingent-token conditions. The present study demonstrated that the delivery of tokens contingent on MVPA can increase and maintain MVPA exhibited by preschool-aged children, resulting in more MVPA than in baseline conditions and conditions in which tokens are awarded without respect to MVPA...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Aaron D Lesser, Kevin C Luczynski, Stephanie A Hood
Information obtained via direct observation of children's sleep disturbance throughout the night in their home can guide the assessment and treatment process, but watching live or via recorded video might be impractical in terms of time expenditures. In Experiment 1, we assessed the accuracy and reliability of a motion-detection camera with human motor movements. In Experiment 2, we tested the system's generality by using it to obtain in-home measures of sleep disturbance for three children with autism spectrum disorder and compared the accuracy to a continuous measurement system...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
James W Moore, Laura M Quintero
The popularity of Olympic-style weightlifting in fitness routines is growing, but participating in these exercises with improper technique places lifters at increased risk for injury. Fitness training professionals have developed multiple teaching strategies, but have not subjected these strategies to systematic evaluation, particularly with novice lifters. Two strategies recommended by professional training organizations are akin to forward and backward chaining, which have been shown effective at teaching other novel, complex behaviors...
February 2019: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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