journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697749/foreword
#1
EDITORIAL
Michael J Aminoff, Fran├žois Boller, Dick F Swaab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697748/other-median-neuropathies
#2
REVIEW
Danielle Richards, Kerry H Levin
Median mononeuropathy is common, with carpal tunnel syndrome the most frequently encountered acquired mononeuropathy in clinical practice. However, other disorders of the median nerve and many known anatomical variants can lead to misdiagnosis and unexpected surgical complications if their presence is not correctly identified. A number of inherited and acquired disorders can affect the median nerve proximal to the wrist, alone or accompanied by other affected peripheral nerves. Recognizing other disorders that can masquerade as median mononeuropathies can avoid misdiagnosis and misguided management...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697747/carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Nimalan Harinesan, Matthew Silsby, Neil G Simon
Median neuropathy at the wrist, commonly referred to as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), is the most common entrapment neuropathy. It is caused by chronic compression of the median nerve at the wrist within the space-limited carpal tunnel. Risk factors that contribute to the etiology of compression include female gender, obesity, work-related factors, and underlying medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism, pregnancy, and amyloidosis. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, although these can be confounded by anatomical variations...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697746/the-role-of-electrodiagnosis-in-focal-neuropathies
#4
REVIEW
Devon I Rubin, Christopher J Lamb
Electrodiagnostic (EDX) testing plays an important role in confirming a mononeuropathy, localizing the site of nerve injury, defining the pathophysiology, and assessing the severity and prognosis. The combination of nerve conduction studies (NCS) and needle electromyography findings provides the necessary information to fully assess a nerve. The pattern of NCS abnormalities reflects the underlying pathophysiology, with focal slowing or conduction block in neuropraxic injuries and reduced amplitudes in axonotmetic injuries...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697745/focal-inflammatory-neuropathies
#5
REVIEW
Rocio Vazquez Do Campo, P James B Dyck
This chapter focuses on neuropathies that present with focal involvement of nerve roots, plexus, and/or peripheral nerves associated with autoimmune and inflammatory mechanisms that present with focal involvement of nerve roots, plexus and/or peripheral nerves. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of focal autoimmune demyelinating neuropathies, focal nonsystemic vasculitic disorders (diabetic and nondiabetic radiculoplexus neuropathies, postsurgical inflammatory neuropathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy), and focal neuropathies associated with sarcoidosis and bacterial and viral infections are reviewed...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697744/peripheral-nerve-tumors
#6
REVIEW
Caterina Giannini, Alberto Righi
The chapter is focused on the neoplastic peripheral nerve lesions, which primarily involve "cranial and paraspinal nerves," as outlined in the CNS volume (WHO_Classification_of_Tumours_Editorial_Board, 2021). These include classic peripheral nerve sheath tumors such as schwannoma, neurofibroma, intraneural perineurioma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, with their variants as well as new and more precisely defined entities, including hybrid nerve sheath tumors and malignant melanotic nerve sheath tumor (previously melanotic schwannoma)...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697743/surgery-for-mononeuropathies
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Umansky, Kate Elzinga, Rajiv Midha
Advancement in microsurgical techniques and innovative approaches including greater use of nerve and tendon transfers have resulted in better peripheral nerve injury (PNI) surgical outcomes. Clinical evaluation of the patient and their injury factors along with a shift toward earlier time frame for intervention remain key. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and biology involved in PNI and specifically mononeuropathies along with advances in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging allow us, nowadays, to provide our patients with a logical and sophisticated approach...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697742/piriformis-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Julian K Lo, Lawrence R Robinson
Piriformis syndrome is a condition that is proposed to result from compression of the sciatic nerve, either in whole or in part, in the deep gluteal space by the piriformis muscle. The prevalence of piriformis syndrome depends upon the diagnostic criteria being used and the population studied but is estimated by some to be 5%-6% in all cases of low back, buttock, and leg pain and up to 17% of patients with chronic low back pain. While the sciatic nerve may pierce the piriformis muscle in about 16% of healthy individuals, this frequency is no different in those with the syndrome; thus, the relationship to this anatomic finding is unclear...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697741/meralgia-paresthetica
#9
REVIEW
Colin Chalk, Dina Namiranian
Meralgia paresthetica is a common but probably underrecognized syndrome caused by dysfunction of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. The diagnosis is based on the patient's description of sensory disturbance, often painful, on the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, with normal strength and reflexes. Sensory nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked potentials may be used to support the diagnosis, but both have technical limitations, with low specificity and sensitivity. Risk factors for meralgia paresthetica include obesity, tight clothing, and diabetes mellitus...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697740/the-role-of-imaging-in-focal-neuropathies
#10
REVIEW
Johan A Telleman, Darryl B Sneag, Leo H Visser
Electrodiagnostic testing (EDX) has been the diagnostic tool of choice in peripheral nerve disease for many years, but in recent years, peripheral nerve imaging has been used ever more frequently in daily clinical practice. Nerve ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR) neurography are able to visualize nerve structures reliably. These techniques can aid in localizing nerve pathology and can reveal significant anatomical abnormalities underlying nerve pathology that may have been otherwise undetected by EDX. As such, nerve ultrasound and MR neurography can significantly improve diagnostic accuracy and can have a significant effect on treatment strategy...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697739/femoral-and-obturator-neuropathies
#11
REVIEW
Colin Chalk, Austin Zaloum
The femoral and obturator nerves both arise from the L2, L3, and L4 spinal nerve roots and descend into the pelvis before emerging in the lower limbs. The femoral nerve's primary function is knee extension and hip flexion, along with some sensory innervation to the leg. The obturator nerve's primary function is thigh adduction and sensory innervation to a small area of the medial thigh. Each may be injured by a variety of potential causes, many of them iatrogenic. Here, we review the anatomy of the femoral and obturator nerves and the clinical features and potential etiologies of femoral and obturator neuropathies...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697738/sciatic-and-tibial-neuropathies
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Thomas A Miller, Douglas C Ross
The sciatic nerve is the body's largest peripheral nerve. Along with their two terminal divisions (tibial and fibular), their anatomic location makes them particularly vulnerable to trauma and iatrogenic injuries. A thorough understanding of the functional anatomy is required to adequately localize lesions in this lengthy neural pathway. Proximal disorders of the nerve can be challenging to precisely localize among a range of possibilities including lumbosacral pathology, radiculopathy, or piriformis syndrome...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697737/fibular-peroneal-neuropathy
#13
REVIEW
Timothy John Benstead
Fibular neuropathy has variable presenting features depending on the site of the lesion. Anatomical features make it susceptible to injury from extrinsic factors, particularly the superficial location of the nerve at the head of the fibula. There are many mechanisms of compression or other traumatic injury of the fibular nerve, as well as entrapment and intrinsic nerve lesions. Intraneural ganglion cysts are increasingly recognized when the mechanism of neuropathy is not clear from the medical history. Electrodiagnostic testing can contribute to the localization as well as the characterization of the pathologic process affecting the nerve...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697736/axillary-and-musculocutaneous-neuropathies
#14
REVIEW
Grayson Beecher, P James B Dyck, Douglas W Zochodne
This chapter covers axillary and musculocutaneous neuropathies, with a focus on clinically relevant anatomy, electrodiagnostic approaches, etiologic considerations, and management principles. Disorders of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, a derivative of the musculocutaneous nerve, are also reviewed. We emphasize the importance of objective findings, including the physical examination and electrodiagnostic evaluation in confirming the isolated involvement of each nerve which, along with the clinical history, informs etiologic considerations...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697735/radial-neuropathy
#15
REVIEW
Colin Chalk
Radial neuropathy is the third most common upper limb mononeuropathy after median and ulnar neuropathies. Muscle weakness, particularly wrist drop, is the main clinical feature of most cases of radial neuropathy, and an understanding of the radial nerve's anatomy generally makes localizing the lesion straightforward. Electrodiagnosis can help confirm a diagnosis of radial neuropathy and may help with more precise localization of the lesion. Nerve imaging with ultrasound or magnetic resonance neurography is increasingly used in diagnosis and is important in patients lacking a history of major arm or shoulder trauma...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697734/ulnar-neuropathy
#16
REVIEW
Andrew Hannaford, Neil G Simon
Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is the second most common compressive neuropathy. Less common, although similarly disabling, are ulnar neuropathies above the elbow, at the forearm, and the wrist, which can present with different combinations of intrinsic hand muscle weakness and sensory loss. Electrodiagnostic studies are moderately sensitive in diagnosing ulnar neuropathy, although their ability to localize the site of nerve injury is often limited. Nerve imaging with ultrasound can provide greater localization of ulnar injury and identification of specific anatomical pathology causing nerve entrapment...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697733/hallmarks-of-peripheral-nerve-injury-and-regeneration
#17
REVIEW
Anand Krishnan, Valerie M K Verge, Douglas W Zochodne
Peripheral nerves are functional networks in the body. Disruption of these networks induces varied functional consequences depending on the types of nerves and organs affected. Despite the advances in microsurgical repair and understanding of nerve regeneration biology, restoring full functions after severe traumatic nerve injuries is still far from achieved. While a blunted growth response from axons and errors in axon guidance due to physical barriers may surface as the major hurdles in repairing nerves, critical additional cellular and molecular aspects challenge the orderly healing of injured nerves...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38494301/preface
#18
EDITORIAL
Bruno Giometto, Sean J Pittock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38494300/foreword
#19
EDITORIAL
Michael J Aminoff, Fran├žois Boller, Dick Swaab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38494299/overview-of-treatment-strategies-in-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndromes
#20
REVIEW
Jeroen Kerstens, Maarten J Titulaer
Treatment strategies in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes rely on the three pillars of tumor treatment, immunotherapy, and symptomatic treatment, the first one being by far the most important in the majority of patients and syndromes. Classically, antibodies against extracellular antigens are directly pathogenic, and patients with these syndromes are more responsive to immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatments than the ones with antibodies against intracellular targets. This chapter first discusses some general principles of tumor treatment and immunotherapy, followed by a closer look at specific treatment options for different clinical syndromes, focusing on symptomatic treatments...
2024: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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