journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633723/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Hanna Swaab, Gerben Meynen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633722/foreword
#2
EDITORIAL
Michael J Aminoff, Fran├žois Boller, Dick F Swaab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633721/amygdala-connectivity-and-aggression
#3
REVIEW
Franca Tonnaer, Linda van Zutphen, Adrian Raine, Maaike Cima
Neurobiological models propose that reactive aggression is predicated on impairments in amygdala-prefrontal connectivity that subserves moral decision-making and emotion regulation. The amygdala is a key component within this neural network that modulates reactive aggression. We provide a review of amygdala dysfunctional brain networks leading to reactive aggressive behavior. We elaborate on key concepts, focusing on moral decision-making and emotion regulation in a developmental context, and brain network connectivity factors relating to amygdala (dys)function-factors which we suggest predispose to reactive aggression...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633720/social-affective-functioning-and-learning-in-psychopathy
#4
REVIEW
Inti A Brazil
Psychopathy is a personality construct for which impairments in multiple aspects of social and affective functioning are considered to be central. Individuals with elevated levels of psychopathic traits tend to exhibit maladaptive behaviors that are harmful to themselves and others, and seem to be limited in how they perceive and experience affective states. This chapter provides a brief overview of biopsychological theories and studies of psychopathy targeting impairments in affective processing and behavioral adaptation through learning...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633719/forensically-relevant-challenging-behaviors-and-the-genetics-domain
#5
REVIEW
Jos I M Egger, Willem M A Verhoeven
Impulsive and aggressive behaviors along with intellectual disabilities often manifest in the context of genetic disorders and are a persisting challenge to professionals in the forensic psychiatric and psychological setting. The following chapter comprises an overview of relevant factors in the gene-context-behavior interaction such as monoamine oxidase A activity and specific epileptic phenomena. It presents several examples of monogenetic disorders with behaviors from the aggression spectrum and summarizes emerging strategies for treatment and clinical management thereof...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633718/prison-and-the-brain
#6
REVIEW
Jesse Meijers, Joke M Harte, Erik J A Scherder
Imprisonment is a common punishment in most countries. Goals of imprisonment are often not only retribution, but also prevention. Specific prevention aims to reduce the risk of reoffending of the imprisoned offender. The question is whether the goals of retribution and specific prevention contradict each other. Retribution is not only expressed in taking away ones freedom, but also in the prison environment itself. Prisoners live in a sober regime, with a minimal amount of autonomy. There are few cognitive challenges, meaningful social interaction is reduced significantly, and many prisoners are highly sedentary...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633717/network-localization-of-antisocial-behavior-in-neurological-patients-evidence-and-implications
#7
REVIEW
R Ryan Darby
Antisocial behavior may develop in otherwise normal persons as a result of neurological diseases, including patients with focal brain lesions, frontotemporal dementia, and Parkinson Disease patients taking dopamine agonist medications. Evidence from these neurological patients demonstrates that antisocial behaviors relate to dysfunction in several different brain regions that form a specific brain network, rather than any single location alone. This network associated with acquired antisocial behavior is involved in social decision-making (measured using moral decision-making tasks) and value-based decision-making (measured using neuroeconomic and reward-based tasks)...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633716/introduction-on-brain-and-crime
#8
REVIEW
Hanna Swaab, Gerben Meynen
Crime is a complex phenomenon involving many factors, among which are situational and societal factors. What counts as a crime may also vary across space and time. Often, it is the interplay of several factors that may lead to criminal behavior. Scientifically, brain function is important to consider, first of all because the brain is central to behavior as such, including criminal behavior. Second, because there is increasing evidence for the relevance of specific brain dysfunctions in some criminal behavior, particularly developmental findings related to nonadaptive behavior...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633715/neurotechnology-to-reduce-recidivism-ethical-and-legal-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Gerben Meynen, Naomi Van de Pol, Vera Tesink, Sjors Ligthart
Crime comes with enormous costs, not only financial but also in terms of loss of mental and physical health and, in some cases, even loss of life. Recidivism is responsible for a considerable percentage of the crimes, and therefore, society deems reducing recidivism a priority. To reduce recidivism, several types of interventions can be used, such as education and employment-focused rehabilitation programs which are intended to improve psychological and social factors. Another way to prevent reoffending is to influence the offender's brain functions...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633714/why-neuroscience-changes-some-things-but-not-everything-for-the-law
#10
REVIEW
Paul Catley, Lisa Claydon
Neuroenthusiasts and neuroskeptics both exaggerate the strength of their positions. Neuroscience is already having a significant impact in the courts in many jurisdictions and as knowledge from the cognitive sciences expands, that knowledge, wherever relevant, should continue to inform legal systems. However, neuroscience will only ever be one influence among many. In certain areas, for example, our understanding of fear responses or the reliability of memory evidence, the cognitive sciences may help challenge errors of folk psychology and assist the law to adopt better approaches...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633713/neurolaw-challenges-and-limits
#11
REVIEW
Stephen J Morse
This chapter canvasses the current relevance of behavioral neuroscience to the law, especially to issues of criminal responsibility and competence. It begins with an explanation of the legal doctrines at stake. I then explore the source of the often-inflated claims for the legal relevance of neuroscience. The next section discusses the scientific status of behavioral neuroscience. Then, it addresses two radical challenges to current conceptions of criminal responsibility that neuroscience allegedly poses: determinism and the death of agency...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633712/added-value-of-neurotechnology-for-forensic-psychiatric-and-psychological-assessment
#12
REVIEW
Maaike Kempes
The attention for neuroscience in relation to criminal behavior is growing rapidly, and research shows that neurobiological factors have added value to the understanding of psychological and social factors in explaining delinquency. There is evidence that neurotechnology can be used in criminal justice and may be of relevance for forensic psychiatric and psychological assessment. However, the question is whether scientific knowledge of neurobiological factors is applicable in daily practice of forensic assessment...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633711/cognition-criminal-conduct-and-virtual-reality-understanding-and-reducing-offending-using-simulated-environments
#13
REVIEW
Liza Cornet, Jean-Louis van Gelder
Over the past years, research has shown that virtual reality (VR) technology can be used to observe, interpret, and change human behavior and cognition in a variety of domains. This chapter explores the potential of VR as a tool to observe, interpret, and change human behavior and cognition as they relate to antisocial behavior. We review the criminological research literature as well as research literature from related disciplines on VR applications that has focused on observing and reducing antisocial behavior...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633710/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-and-the-risk-of-crime
#14
REVIEW
Sylvia Roozen, Friederike Ehrhart
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are an important preventable global health concern. FASD is an umbrella term describing a range of mild to severe cognitive and behavioral problems among individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. Alcohol causes FASD by interfering with molecular pathways during fetal development involving increased oxidative stress, disturbed organ development, and change of epigenetic gene expression control. Neuroimaging studies into FASD show several neuropathological abnormalities including abnormal brain structure, cortical development, white matter microstructure, and functional connectivity...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633709/the-risk-of-criminal-behavior-in-the-elderly-and-patients-with-neurodegenerative-disease
#15
REVIEW
Naomi Prent, Frank A Jonker, Sigfried N T M Schouws, Cees Jonker
Behavioral changes are commonly observed in patients with dementia and can lead to criminal offenses, even without a history of criminal or antisocial behavior. Due to the growth of the aging population, this poses a rising problem to deal with for the criminal justice system and in general for society. Criminal behavior may include minor crimes such as theft or traffic violations, but also serious crimes such as physical abuse, sexual offense, or murder. In the assessment of criminal behavior among elderly (first-time) offenders, it is important to be aware of possible neurodegenerative diseases at the time of the crime...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633708/sexual-offenses-and-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
Angela Boschetti, Andrea Camperio Ciani, Cristina Scarpazza
Sexual offenses are a great concern worldwide due to the devastating physical and psychological consequences the victims of such crimes often experience. It is an important task to investigate potential mechanisms that may underlie sexual offending and predispose an individual for such antisocial behavior. Advanced techniques in neuroscience are increasingly used to uncover biomarkers in psychiatric disorders and organic brain disease. As this type of research is flourishing, preliminary studies with the aim to explore the neural basis of sex offenders have started to appear...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633707/child-maltreatment-and-victimization
#17
REVIEW
Maximilian Scheuplein, Samantha Vermeulen, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Lenneke Alink
It is estimated that up to 25% of all children growing up worldwide experience child maltreatment, making it a global emergency with substantial individual and public health consequences. This chapter addresses one of the most societally pervasive consequences of child maltreatment which is known as the "cycle of victimization." This concept depicts the increased risk of maltreated individuals to victimize others later in life, both within and outside the family environment. To understand the architecture of this victimization cycle, the chapter further sheds light on neurocognitive mechanisms aiding different forms of victimization and the buffering role of social support that could help break the cycle of victimization...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633706/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-human-aggression
#18
REVIEW
Veronika V Odintsova, Fiona A Hagenbeek, Camiel M van der Laan, Steve van de Weijer, Dorret I Boomsma
There is substantial variation between humans in aggressive behavior, with its biological etiology and molecular genetic basis mostly unknown. This review chapter offers an overview of genomic and omics studies revealing the genetic contribution to aggression and first insights into associations with epigenetic and other omics (e.g., metabolomics) profiles. We allowed for a broad phenotype definition including studies on "aggression," "aggressive behavior," or "aggression-related traits," "antisocial behavior," "conduct disorder," and "oppositional defiant disorder...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633705/illicit-drug-use-and-violence
#19
REVIEW
Daniel Stepjanovi─ć, Wayne Hall, Janni Leung
This chapter reviews evidence on the relationship between illicit drug use and violence, specifically cannabis, stimulant drugs, and opioids. It summarizes findings of systematic reviews of evidence on cannabis, stimulant drugs, and opioids. It also examines evidence from epidemiological studies of drug use among violent offenders and of violence among persons who use drugs, intervention studies, animal studies, human laboratory studies, and human neuroimaging studies. More studies have examined cannabis because of its higher prevalence of use...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37633704/the-a-moral-brain-when-things-go-wrong
#20
REVIEW
Ana Seara-Cardoso
In the past decades, a growing interest of neuroscience on moral judgment and decision-making has shed new light on the neurobiological correlates of human morality. It is now understood that moral cognition relies on a complex integration of cognitive and affective information processes that implicate a widely distributed brain network. Moral cognition relies on the coordination of several domain-general processes, subserved by domain-general neural networks, rather than a specific moral cognition system subserved by a specific neural network...
2023: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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