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Journal of General and Applied Microbiology

Jia-Fu Huang, Dan-Feng Zhang, Bo Leng, Zhi-Chao Lin, Yu-Tian Pan
In the present study, the conditions for Azotobacter chroococcum fermentation using Agaricus bisporus wastewater as the culture medium were optimized. We analyzed the total number of living A. chroococcum in the fermentation broth, using multispectral imaging flow cytometry. Single-factor experiments were carried out, where a Plackett-Burman design was used to screen out three factors from the original six processing factors wastewater solubility, initial pH, inoculum size, liquid volume, culture temperature, and rotation speed that affected the total number of viable A...
February 12, 2019: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Jun-Ichi Matsuoka, Fumiko Ishizuna, Tetsuhiro Ogawa, Makoto Hidaka, Lowela Siarot, Toshihiro Aono
Azorhizobium caulinodans, a kind of rhizobia, has a reb operon encoding pathogenic R-body components, whose expression is usually repressed by a transcription factor PraR. Mutation on praR induced a high expression of reb operon and the formation of aberrant nodules, in which both morphologically normal and shrunken host cells were observed. Histochemical GUS analyses of praR mutant expressing reb operon-uidA fusion revealed that the bacterial cells within the normal host cells highly expressed the reb operon, but rarely produced R-bodies...
February 5, 2019: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Saki Goto, Naoyuki Suzuki, Ken'ichiro Matsumoto, Seiichi Taguchi, Kenji Tanaka, Hiromi Matsusaki
For enhancing the lactate (LA) fraction of poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate)s [P(LA-co-3HB)s], an exogenous D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhD) was introduced into Escherichia coli. Recombinant strains of E. coli DH5α, LS5218, and XL1-Blue harboring the ldhD gene from Lactobacillus acetotolerans HT, together with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-biosynthetic genes containing a lactate-polymerizing enzyme (modified PHA synthase) gene, accumulated the P(LA-co-3HB) copolymer from glucose under microaerobic conditions (100 strokes/min)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Yuuki Tanabe, Seisuke Arai, Ikuo Wada, Hiroyuki Adachi, Takashi Kamakura, Koji Yoda, Yoichi Noda
After being translocated into the ER lumen, membrane and secretory proteins are transported from the ER to the early Golgi by COPII vesicles. Incorporation of these cargo proteins into COPII vesicles are facilitated either by direct interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins or by ER exit adaptor proteins which mediate the interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins. Svp26 is one of the ER exit adaptor proteins in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ER exit of several type II membrane proteins have been reported to be facilitated by Svp26...
January 31, 2019: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Jed O Eberly, Michael L Mayo, Matthew R Carr, Fiona H Crocker, Karl J Indest
Explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are common contaminants found in soil and groundwater at military facilities worldwide, but large-scale monitoring of these contaminants at low concentrations is difficult. Biosensors that incorporate aptamers μ with high affinity and specificity for a target are a novel way of detecting these compounds. This work describes novel riboswitch-based biosensors for detecting RDX. The performance of the RDX riboswitch was characterized in Escherichia coli using a range of RDX concentrations from 0-44 μmol l-1 ...
January 29, 2019: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Shazwana Sha'arani, Hirofumi Hara, Hiroya Araie, Iwane Suzuki, Megat Johari Megat Mohd Noor, Fazrena Nadia Md Akhir, Nor'azizi Othman, Zuriati Zakaria
This study gives the first picture of whole RNA-Sequencing analysis of a PCB-degrading microbe, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. Genes that were highly expressed in biphenyl-grown cells, compared with pyruvate-grown cells, were chosen based on the Reads Per Kilobase Million (RPKM) value and were summarized based on the criteria of RPKM ≥100 and fold change ≥2.0. Consequently, 266 total genes were identified as genes expressed particularly for the degradation of biphenyl. After comparison with previous microarray data that identified highly-expressed genes, based on a fold change ≥2...
January 28, 2019: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Min Shen, Zhifeng Yin, Dan Xia, Qingxin Zhao, Yijun Kang
We created a combined system using duckweed and bacteria to enhance the efficiency of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 + -N) and total nitrogen (TN) removal from aquaculture wastewater. Heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample at an intensive land-based aquaculture farm. It was identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain A6 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence (accession number MF767879). The NH4 + -N removal efficiency of the strain and duckweed in culture media and sampled aquaculture wastewater at 15°C was over 99% without any accumulation of nitrite or nitrate...
January 25, 2019: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Moushree Pal Roy, Vaskar Das, Amal Patra
An extracellular L-asparaginase was isolated and purified from Bacillus megaterium MG1 to apparent homogeneity. The purification procedure involved a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration techniques, resulting in a purification factor of 31.52 fold with a specific activity of 215 U mg-1 . The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was approximately 47 kDa on SDS-PAGE and 185 kDa on native PAGE gel as well as in gel filtration column chromatography, revealing that the enzyme was a homotetramer...
December 19, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Chunji Li, Bingxue Li, Ning Zhang, Qifan Wang, Wenjing Wang, Hongtao Zou
Carotenoids are ubiquitous constituents of living organisms. These structurally diverse pigments have received considerable attention due to their biotechnological applications and potential beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we characterized an over-producing β-carotene mutant of Sporidiobolus pararoseus, obtained by ultraviolet mutagenesis, named MuY9. We compared the transcriptome between the wild-type and MuY9. A total of 348 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were found, and only one DEG crtYB is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis...
December 13, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Chunji Li, Bingxue Li, Ning Zhang, Na Wei, Qifan Wang, Wenjing Wang, Yiwei Xie, Hongtao Zou
Carotenoids represent a diverse class of aliphatic C40 molecules with a variety of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Sporidiobolus pararoseus NGR produces various carotenoids, including torulene, torularhodin and β-carotene. Salt stress significantly increases the torulene accumulation of S. pararoseus NGR. However, little is known, about the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased torulene biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the effects of NaCl treatment on the contents of carotenoids (both qualitatively and quantitatively) and transcriptome...
November 29, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Gumpanat Mahipant, Junichi Kato, Naoya Kataoka, Alisa S Vangnai
Given their applicability in genetic engineering, undomesticated Bacillus strains are extensively used as non-natural hosts for chemical production due to their high tolerance of toxic substrates or products. However, they are difficult to genomically modify due to their low transformation efficiencies. In this study, the Bacillus-E. coli shuttle vector pHY300PLK, which is widely used in gram-positive bacteria, was adopted for genome integration in organic solvent-tolerant Bacillus isolates. The Bacillus-replicative vector was used to deliver homologous recombinant DNA and propagate itself inside the host cell, increasing the likelihood of genome integration of the recombinant DNA...
November 27, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Mana Yanagiba, Kazuo Masaki, Hideyuki Shinmori, Takafumi Naganuma
The yeast Lipomyces accumulates triacylglycerols (TAGs) as intracellular fat globules, and these TAGs can be used as source materials for biodiesel production. In this study, we aimed to use this yeast to produce lipids from renewable resources. Using plate culture and micrograph methods, strains with a high lipid-accumulation ability were screened from 15,408 types of systems combining renewable resources, strains, and culture temperatures. The lipid-accumulation ability of the strains was estimated from the fat globule volume, which was calculated using a micrograph...
November 21, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Kristian Daly, Jennifer Kelly, Andrew W Moran, Robert Bristow, Iain S Young, Andrew R Cossins, David Bravo, Soraya P Shirazi-Beechey
Fish production is increasingly important to global food security. A major factor in maintaining health, productivity and welfare of farmed fish is the establishment and promotion of a stable and beneficial intestinal microbiota. Understanding the effects of factors such as host and environment on gut microbial community structure is essential for developing strategies for stimulating the establishment of a health-promoting gut-microbiota. We compared intestinal microbiota of common carp and rainbow trout, two fish with different dietary habits, sourced from various farm locations...
November 9, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Md Shahbaz Anwar, Ashutosh Paliwal, Nazia Firdous, Amit Verma, Ashish Kumar, Veena Pande
Numerous microbes reside in the rhizosphere having plant growth promoting activity, and enhancing the property by increasing plant yield. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has gradually increased in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. Soil was collected from the rhizosphere of an agricultural farm and the psychrotrophic bacterial strains STA3 (KY888133) and RM2 (KY888134) were successfully isolated, and screened on the basis of phosphate solubilization...
October 31, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Ronilo Jose D Flores, Takao Ohashi, Kanae Sakai, Tohru Gonoi, Hiroko Kawasaki, Kazuhito Fujiyama
Pseudozyma antarctica and Malassezia furfur are basidiomycetous yeasts under the subphylum Ustilaginomycotina. P. antarctica is a commensal organism found in certain plant species, while M. furfur is associated with several skin diseases of animals including humans. N-linked glycans of P. antarctica and M. furfur were prepared, digested with glycosidases, and structurally analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Analyses revealed the presence of neutral N-linked glycans ranging in length from Man3 GlcNAc2 -PA to Man9 GlcNAc2 -PA...
October 10, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Keitaro Take, Hidehisa Fujiki, Wasana Suyotha, Junji Hayashi, Kazuyoshi Takagi, Shigekazu Yano, Mamoru Wakayama
Chitinase 1 (Chi1) is an acidic and thermostable hydrolytic enzyme capable of the breakdown of chitin, a resilient biopolymer that is the primary building block of fungi cell walls and marine exoskeletons. In this study, Chi1 was purified from the bacterium Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF 3-3, and its properties were carefully characterized. The molecular mass of Chi1 was estimated to be approximately 46 kDa and, through sequencing, its N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified as ADSGKVKL. Although the optimal operating temperature and pH for Chi1 were determined to be 65°C and pH 5...
September 27, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Jiwei Mao, Quanli Liu, Yuanzi Li, Jiuxia Yang, Xinhao Song, Xiao Liu, Haijin Xu, Mingqiang Qiao
A biosensor screening assay based on the synthesis of betaxanthin was applied to relatively high throughput screening of the L-tyrosine mutant library. In the assays, fluorescence output showed a linear relationship between extracellular L-tyrosine content and yellow pigment formation. In addition, the yellow pigment accumulation of the L-tyrosine high-yield strain can be easily distinguished with the naked eye compared with the wild-type strain. As a result, numerous mutants that exhibited significantly increased coloration, were screened out after random mutagenesis, and p-coumaric acid production in mutants NK-A3 and NK-B4, were remarkably improved by 4-fold more than that of the wild-type strain...
September 27, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Vidya Pradeep Kumar, Atul P Kolte, Arindam Dhali, Chandrashekar Naik, Manpal Sridhar
Utilization of energy-rich crop residues by ruminants is restricted by the presence of lignin, which is recalcitrant to digestion. Application of lignin degrading enzymes on the lignocellulosic biomass exposes the cellulose for easy digestion by ruminants. Laccases have been found to be considerably effective in improving the digestibility by way of delignification. However, laccase yields from natural hosts are not sufficient for industrial scale applications, which restricts their use. A viable option would be to express the laccase gene in compatible hosts to achieve higher production yields...
September 27, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Minoru Sasaki, Yoshitoyo Kodama, Yu Shimoyama, Taichi Ishikawa, Shigenobu Kimura
Although Streptococcus anginosus constitutes a proportion of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts, and the oral cavity, it has been reported that S. anginosus infection could be closely associated with abscesses at various body sites, infective endocarditis, and upper gastrointestinal cancers. The colonization in an acidic environment due to the aciduricity of S. anginosus could be the etiology of the systemic infection of the bacteria. To elucidate the aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of the microbe, we examined the viability and growth of S...
September 27, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Hung-Yin Pan, Carton W Chen, Chih-Hung Huang
Soil bacteria Streptomyces are the most important producers of secondary metabolites, including most known antibiotics. These bacteria and their close relatives are unique in possessing linear chromosomes, which typically harbor 20 to 30 biosynthetic gene clusters of tens to hundreds of kb in length. Many Streptomyces chromosomes are accompanied by linear plasmids with sizes ranging from several to several hundred kb. The large linear plasmids also often contain biosynthetic gene clusters. We have developed a targeted recombination procedure for arm exchanges between a linear plasmid and a linear chromosome...
September 27, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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