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Journal of Biomechanics

Hamed Ziaeipoor, Mark Taylor, Marcus Pandy, Saulo Martelli
Surrogate methods for rapid calculation of femoral strain are limited by the scope of the training data. We compared a newly developed training-free method based on the superposition principle (Superposition Principle Method, SPM) and popular surrogate methods for calculating femoral strain during activity. Finite-element calculations of femoral strain, muscle, and joint forces for five different activity types were obtained previously. Multi-linear regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines, and Gaussian process were trained for 50, 100, 200, and 300 random samples generated using Latin Hypercube (LH) and Design of Experiment (DOE) sampling...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Alexander M Morgan, Kristian M O'Connor
Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries account for 70% of all ACL injuries, and can lead to missed time from activity for athletes and a predisposition for knee osteoarthritis. Prior research has shown that athletes who land in a stiff manner, with larger internal knee adduction and extension moments, are at greater risk for an ACL injury. A three-dimensional accelerometer placed at the tibial tuberosity may prove to be a low-cost means of assessing these risk factors. The primary purpose of this study was to compare tibial accelerations during drop landings with kinematic and kinetic risk factors for ACL injury measured with three-dimensional motion capture...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Gabriela Zapata, Inigo Sanz-Pena, Matthias Verstraete, Peter S Walker
Misalignment and soft-tissue imbalance in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can cause discomfort, pain, inadequate motion and instability that may require revision surgery. Balancing can be defined as equal collateral ligament tensions or equal medial and lateral compartmental forces during the flexion range. Our goal was to study the effects on balancing of linear femoral component misplacements (proximal, distal, anterior, posterior); and different component rotations in mechanical alignment compared to kinematic alignment throughout the flexion path...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Deborah Solomonow-Avnon, Amir Herman, Uriel Giwnewer, Nimrod Rozen, Avi Elbaz, Amit Mor, Alon Wolf
Footwear devices that shift foot center of pressure (COP), thereby impacting lower-limb biomechanics to produce clinical benefit, have been studied regarding degenerative diseases of knee and hip joints, exhibiting evidence of clinical success. Ability to purposefully affect trunk biomechanics has not been investigated for this type of footwear. Fifteen healthy young male subjects underwent gait and electromyography analysis using a biomechanical device that shifts COP via moveable convex elements attached to the shoe sole...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Scott Telfer, Joseph J Bigham, Amanda S M Sudduth
Identifying environmental risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders is challenging due to the number of potential confounders. Twins are of particular interest for researchers interested in studying these types of problems due to their inherent control for the influence of genetic factors. In twin studies, this population can allow environmental risk factors to be more easily identified, and this type of study design may allow the role of biomechanics in injury and disease to be further explored. At present, it is unclear if foot function displays more similarity between certain types of twins...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Ursula Trinler, Hermann Schwameder, Richard Baker, Nathalie Alexander
A variety of musculoskeletal models are applied in different modelling environments for estimating muscle forces during gait. Influence of different modelling assumptions and approaches on model outputs are still not fully understood, while direct comparisons of standard approaches have been rarely undertaken. This study seeks to compare joint kinematics, joint kinetics and estimated muscle forces of two standard approaches offered in two different modelling environments (AnyBody, OpenSim). It is hypothesised that distinctive differences exist for individual muscles, while summing up synergists show general agreement...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Nicholas J Lobb, AuraLea C Fain, Kayla D Seymore, Tyler N Brown
This study quantified leg stiffness and vGRF measures for males and females using different stride lengths to run with four body borne loads (20, 25, 30, and 35 kg). Thirty-six participants (20 males and 16 females) ran at 4.0 m/s using either: their preferred stride length (PSL), or strides 15% longer (LSL) and shorter (SSL) than PSL. Leg stiffness and vGRF measures, including peak vGRF, impact peak and loading rate, were submitted to a RM ANOVA to test the main effect and interactions of load, stride length, and sex...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Derek P Zwambag, Shawn M Beaudette, Diane E Gregory, Stephen H M Brown
Despite 'abnormal' motion being considered a risk factor for low back injury, the current understanding of 'normal' spine motion is limited. Identifying normal motion within an individual is complicated by the considerable variation in movement patterns amongst healthy individuals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize sources of variation in spine motion among a sample of healthy participants. The second objective of this study was to develop a multivariate model capable of predicting an expected movement pattern for an individual...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Hiroaki Hobara, Satoru Hashizume, Johannes Funken, Steffen Willwacher, Ralf Müller, Alena M Grabowski, Wolfgang Potthast
Although athletes with unilateral below-the-knee amputations (BKAs) generally use their affected leg, including their prosthesis, as their take-off leg for the long jump, little is known about the spring-like leg behavior and stiffness regulation of the affected leg. The purpose of this study was to investigate vertical stiffness during one-legged hopping in an elite-level long jump athlete with a unilateral BKA. We used the spring-mass model to calculate vertical stiffness, which equals the ratio of maximum vertical ground reaction force to maximum center of mass displacement, while the athlete with a BKA hopped on one leg at a range of frequencies...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Qi Gao, Yuqiang Fang, Shiqing Zhang, Ho Sze Hersey Wong, Yee Edward Chan, Samantha Sze Man Wong, Ken K L Yung, King W C Lai
Aβ1-42 , which is highly toxic to neural cells, is commonly present in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease. In this study, dynamic changes in cell mechanics were monitored under Aβ-induced toxicity. To investigate the changes in cellular mechanical properties, we used Aβ1-42 oligomer at different concentrations to treat human neuroblastoma SH-SY5H cells. Results demonstrated a two-stage dynamic change in cell mechanics during neurodegeneration. Additionally, Young's modulus (YM) of the treated cells increased in a short period...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Bart Bolsterlee, Arkiev D'Souza, Robert D Herbert
For detailed analyses of muscle adaptation mechanisms during growth, ageing or disease, reliable measurements of muscle architecture are required. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and DTI tractography have been used to reconstruct the architecture of human muscles in vivo. However, muscle architecture measurements reconstructed with conventional DTI techniques are often anatomically implausible because the reconstructed fascicles do not terminate on aponeuroses, as real muscle fascicles are known to do. In this study, we tested the reliability of an anatomically constrained DTI-based method for measuring three-dimensional muscle architecture...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Evan M Day, Michael E Hahn
The forefoot functions as the base of support during late stance, rotating about the dual-axis of the metatarsophalangeal joints. Previous research has shown that joint axis definition affects estimated joint moments about the forefoot. However, little is known about how metatarsophalangeal joint center definition affects estimated joint kinetics. This study compared moments about the metatarsophalangeal joint using four different defined joint centers. There was a significant difference (p < .001) in peak moments between joint center definitions, differing by up to 0...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Patrick Bakenecker, Brent Raiteri, Daniel Hahn
In vivo muscle forces are typically estimated using literature-based or subject-specific moment arms (MAs) because it is not possible to measure in vivo muscle forces non-invasively. However, even subject-specific muscle-tendon MAs vary across contraction levels and are impossible to determine at high contraction levels without techniques that use ionized radiation. Therefore, different generic MA functions are often used to estimate in vivo muscle forces, which may alter force predictions and the shape of the muscle's force-length relationship...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
F Comini, M Palanca, L Cristofolini, E Dall'Ara
Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) is used to measure internal displacements and strains in bone. Recent studies have shown that Synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-microCT) can improve the accuracy and precision of DVC. However, only zero-strain or virtually-moved test have been used to quantify the DVC uncertainties, leading to potential underestimation of the measurement errors. In this study, for the first time, the uncertainties of a global DVC approach have been evaluated on repeated SR-microCT scans of bovine cortical bone (voxel size: 1...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Joanna Reeves, Richard Jones, Anmin Liu, Leah Bent, Christopher Nester
The peroneus longus (PL) is a rearfoot evertor, important in frontal plane foot motion. Studying PL function has been limited by previous electromyography (EMG) studies reporting poor between-day reliability. Due to its close proximity to adjacent muscles, EMG measures of PL may be susceptible to crosstalk, thus correct electrode placement is vital. The aim of this study was to use ultrasound to aid placement of small surface EMG electrodes and determine the between-day reliability of PL EMG in healthy participants' walking...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
M T Gallagher, R A J Wain, S Dari, J P Whitty, D J Smith
Choosing a suitable model and determining its associated parameters from fitting to experimental data is fundamental for many problems in biomechanics. Models of shear-thinning complex fluids, dating from the work of Bird, Carreau, Cross and Yasuda, have been applied in highly-cited computational studies of hemodynamics for several decades. In this manuscript we revisit these models, first to highlight a degree of uncertainty in the naming conventions in the literature, but more importantly to address the problem of inferring model parameters by fitting to rheology experiments...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Josh R Baxter, Daniel C Farber, Michael W Hast
Achilles tendon ruptures have been linked with detrimental changes in muscle-tendon structure, which may help explain long-term functional deficits. However, the causal effects of muscle-tendon structure on joint function have not been tested in a controlled setting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the implications of muscle-tendon unit parameters on simulated single-leg heel raise height. We hypothesized that muscle fiber length and resting ankle angle - a clinical surrogate measure of tendon slack length - would predict single-leg heel raise height more strongly than other parameters...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Sekiya Koike, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Alexander P Willmott, Neil E Bezodis
This study proposed a method to quantify direct and indirect effects of the joint torque inputs in the speed-generating mechanism of a swinging motion. Linear and angular accelerations of all segments within a multi-linked system can be expressed as the sum of contributions from a joint torque term, gravitational force term and motion-dependent term (MDT), where the MDT is a nonlinear term consisting of centrifugal force, Coriolis force and gyroscopic effect moment components. Direct effects result from angular accelerations induced by a joint torque at a given instant, whereas indirect effects arise through the MDT induced by joint torques exerted in the past...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Marzieh M Ardestani, Chen ZhenXian, Hessam Noori, Mehran Moazen, Zhongmin Jin
The overall objective of this study was to introduce knee joint power as a potential measure to investigate knee joint stability following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Specific aims were to investigate whether weakened knee joint stabilizers cause abnormal kinematics and how it influences the knee joint kinetic (i.e., power) in response to perturbation. Patient-specific musculoskeletal models were simulated with experimental gait data from six TKA patients (baseline models). Muscle strength and ligament force parameter were reduced by up to 30% to simulate weak knee joint stabilizers (weak models)...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Jasvir S Bahl, Ju Zhang, Bryce A Killen, Mark Taylor, Lucian B Solomon, John B Arnold, David G Lloyd, Thor F Besier, Dominic Thewlis
Marker-based dynamic functional or regression methods are used to compute joint centre locations that can be used to improve linear scaling of the pelvis in musculoskeletal models, although large errors have been reported using these methods. This study aimed to investigate if statistical shape models could improve prediction of the hip joint centre (HJC) location. The inclusion of complete pelvis imaging data from computed tomography (CT) was also explored to determine if free-form deformation techniques could further improve HJC estimates...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
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