Dooseop Song, Seongjin Lim, Joseph Park, Joseph L Demer
PURPOSE: Despite presumed relevance to ocular diseases, the viscoelastic properties of the posterior human eye have not been evaluated in detail. We performed creep testing to characterize the viscoelastic properties of ocular regions, including the sclera, optic nerve (ON) and ON sheath. METHODS: We tested 10 pairs of postmortem human eyes of average age 77 ± 17 years, consisting of 5 males and 5 females. Except for the ON that was tested in native shape, tissues were trimmed into rectangles...
March 11, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Yuika Ueda, Shinji Deguchi
Stress fibers (SFs), a contractile actin bundle in nonmuscle mesenchymal cells, are known to intrinsically sustain a constant level of tension or tensional stress, a process called cellular tensional homeostasis. Malfunction in this homeostatic process has been implicated in many diseases such atherosclerosis, but its mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interestingly, the homeostatic stress in individual SFs is altered upon recruitment of α-smooth muscle actin in particular cellular contexts to reinforce the preexisting SFs...
March 11, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Vara Isvilanonda, Ellen Y Li, Joseph M Iaquinto, William R Ledoux
The plantar aponeurosis functions to support the foot arch during weight bearing. Accurate anatomy and material properties are critical in developing analytical and computational models of this tissue. We determined the cross-sectional areas and material properties of four regions of the plantar aponeurosis: the proximal middle and distal middle portions of the tissue and the medial (to the first ray) and lateral (to the fifth ray) regions. Bone-plantar aponeurosis-bone specimens were harvested from fifteen cadaveric feet...
March 7, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Daniel J Davis, John H Challis
The arch of the human foot has historically been likened to either a truss, a rigid lever, or a spring. Growing evidence indicates that energy is stored, generated, and dissipated actively by structures crossing the arch, suggesting that the arch can further function in a motor- or spring-like manner. In the present study, participants walked, ran with a rearfoot strike pattern, and ran with a non-rearfoot strike pattern overground while foot segment motions and ground reaction forces were recorded. To quantify the midtarsal joint's (i...
March 7, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Angel Bu, Mhairi K MacLean, Daniel P Ferris
Bodyweight supported walking is a common gait rehabilitation method that can be used as an experimental approach to better understand walking biomechanics. Neuromuscular modeling can provide an analytical means to gain insight into how muscles coordinate to produce walking and other movements. To better understand how muscle length and velocity affect muscle force during overground walking with bodyweight support, we used an electromyography (EMG)-informed neuromuscular model to investigate changes in muscle parameters (muscle force, activation and fiber length) at varying bodyweight support levels: 0%, 24%, 45% and 69% bodyweight...
March 6, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Stephen Dooley, Sunwook Kim, Maury A Nussbaum, Michael L Madigan
Occupational exoskeletons have become more prevalent as an ergonomic control to reduce the physical demands of workers. While beneficial effects have been reported, there is relatively little evidence regarding potential adverse effects of exoskeletons on fall risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a leg-support exoskeleton on reactive balance after simulated slips and trips. Six participants (three females) used a passive, leg-support exoskeleton that provided chair-like support in three experimental conditions (no exoskeleton, low-seat setting, high-seat setting)...
March 6, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Erica A Bell
From the perspective of a Black woman in the biomechanics field, it is my observation that many Black biomechanists are exposed to the field of biomechanics late into their academic careers. STEM (science, technology, and mathematics) is such a broad/encompassing field, yet students are only typically given a narrow introduction to biology and chemistry prior to college. These basic science courses are not enough to continue recruiting and building a pathway for future scientists to pursue STEM careers in the interdisciplinary field of biomechanics...
March 5, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Jae W Lee, Shauna Mauceri, Katherine Chan, Janelle Unger, Kristin E Musselman, Kei Masani
Incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) causes impairment of reactive balance control, leading to higher fall risk. In our previous work, we found that individuals with iSCI were more likely to exhibit multiple-step response during the lean-and-release (LR) test, where the participant leaned forward while a tether supported 8-12% of the body weight and received a sudden release, inducing reactive steps. Here we investigated the foot placement of people with iSCI during the LR test using margin-of-stability (MOS)...
March 2, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
S-I Murtada, A B Ramachandra, J D Humphrey
Children born with congenital heart defects typically undergo staged palliative surgeries to reconstruct the circulation to improve transport of deoxygenated blood to the lungs. As part of the first surgery, a temporary shunt (Blalock-Thomas-Taussig) is often created in neonates to connect a systemic and a pulmonary artery. Standard-of-care shunts are synthetic, which can lead to thrombosis, and much stiffer than the two host vessels, which can cause adverse mechanobiological responses. Moreover, the neonatal vasculature can undergo significant changes in size and structure over a short period, thus constraining the use of a non-growing synthetic shunt...
February 28, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Chiyu Xie, Xiaofan Li, Wei Qu, Ru Ji, Jiulong Wang, Hongqing Song
Portal hypertension (PH) can cause a series of complications, therefore, early prediction of PH is important. Traditional diagnostic methods are harmful to the human body, while other non-invasive methods are inaccurate and lack physical meaning. Combining various fractal theories and flow laws, we establish a complete portal system blood flow model from the Computed Tomography (CT) and angiography images. The portal vein pressure (PP) is obtained by the flow rate data from the Doppler ultrasound and the pressure-velocity relationship is established by the model...
February 26, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
R Behrens, G Pliske, S Piatek, F Walcher, N Elkmann
Biomechanical limits based on pain thresholds ensure safety in workplaces where humans and cobots (collaborative robots) work together. Standardization bodies' decision to rely on pain thresholds stems from the assumption that such limits inherently protect humans from injury. This assumption has never been verified, though. This article reports on a study with 22 human subjects in which we studied injury onset in four locations of the hand-arm system using an impact pendulum. During the tests, the impact intensity was slowly increased over several weeks until a blunt injury, i...
February 24, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
James Borrelli, Robert Creath, Mark W Rogers
Protective arm reactions have been shown to be an important injury avoidance mechanism in unavoidable falls. Protective arm reactions have been shown to be modulated with fall height, however it is not clear if they are modulated with impact velocity. The aim of this study was to determine if protective arm reactions are modulated in response to a forward fall with an initially unpredictable impact velocity. Forward falls were evoked via sudden release of a standing pendulum support frame with adjustable counterweight to control fall acceleration and impact velocity...
February 24, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Zoé Pomarat, Sacha Guitteny, Raphaël Dumas, Antoine Muller
Soft tissue artefact (STA) remains a major source of error in human movement analysis. The multibody kinematics optimisation (MKO) approach is widely stated as a solution to reduce the effects of STA. This study aimed at assessing the influence of the MKO STA-compensation on the errors of estimation of the knee intersegment moments. Experimental data were issued from the CAMS-Knee dataset where six participants with instrumented total knee arthroplasty performed five activities of daily living: gait, downhill walking, stair descent, squat, and sit-to-stand...
February 24, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
V Garcia Bennett, M Alberti, M Quadrio, J O Pralits
Corneal transplantation is the only solution which avoids loss of vision, when endothelial cells are dramatically lost. The surgery involves injecting gas into the anterior chamber of the eye, to create a bubble that pushes onto the donor cornea (graft), achieving sutureless adherence to the host cornea. During the postoperative period, patient positioning affects the bubble. To improve healing, we study the shape of the gas-bubble interface throughout the postoperative period, by numerically solving the equations of fluid motion...
February 24, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Jorie D Budzikowski, Wendy M Murray
Muscle volume is an important parameter in analyzing three-dimensional structure of muscle-tendon units. Three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) enables excellent quantification of muscle volume in small muscles; however, when a muscle's cross sectional area is larger than the field of view of the ultrasound transducer at any point along its length, more than one sweep is necessary to reconstruct muscle anatomy. Confounding image registration errors have been reported between multiple sweeps. Here, we detail imaging phantom studies used to (1) define an acquisition protocol that reduces misalignment in 3D reconstruction caused by muscle deformation, and (2) quantify accuracy of 3DUS for measures of volume when phantoms are too large to be fully imaged via a single transducer sweep...
February 23, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Renjie Ke, Erdem Kucukal, Umut A Gurkan, Bo Li
Fibronectin (Fn) has been observed to assemble in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of cell culture and stretch in response to the external force. The alteration of molecule domain functions generally follows the extension of Fn. Several researchers have investigated fibronectin extensively in molecular architecture and conformation structure. However, the bulk material behavior of the Fn in the ECM has not been fully depicted at the cell scale, and many studies have ignored physiological conditions. Conversely, microfluidic techniques that explore cellular properties based on cell deformation and adhesion have emerged as a powerful and effective platform to study cell rheological transformation in a physiological environment...
February 22, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Wenwei Xu, Saif Kabariti, Katherine M Young, Steven P Swingle, Alan Y Liu, Todd Sulchek
Because cells vary in thickness and in biomechanical properties, the use of a constant force trigger during atomic force microscopy (AFM) stiffness mapping produces a varied nominal strain that can obfuscate the comparison of local material properties. In this study, we measured the biomechanical spatial heterogeneity of ovarian and breast cancer cells by using an indentation-dependent pointwise Hertzian method. Force curves and surface topography were used together to determine cell stiffness as a function of nominal strain...
February 20, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Antonia M Zaferiou
Community engagement experiences through National Biomechanics Day (NBD) that focused on dance biomechanics have provided excellent Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Math (STEAM) learning opportunities. During these experiences, bidirectional learning has been enjoyed by the biomechanists hosting the events and the kindergarten through 12th grade student attendees. In this article, perspectives are shared about dance biomechanics and hosting dance-themed NBD events. Importantly, examples of high school student feedback are provided that point towards the positive impact of NBD by inviting future generations to advance the field of biomechanics...
February 20, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Christopher L Deschler, Erika M Pliner, Daina L Sturnieks, Stephen R Lord, Kurt E Beschorner
Overreaching is a common cause of ladder falls, which occur frequently among older adults in the domestic setting. Reaching and body leaning during ladder use likely influence the climber-ladder combined center of mass and subsequently center of pressure (COP) position (location of the resultant force acting at the base of the ladder). The relationship between these variables has not been quantified, but is warranted to assess ladder tipping risk due to overreaching (i.e. COP traveling outside the ladder's base of support)...
February 20, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
Junhuan Li, Dan Wu, Lijuan Lv, Mei Dong, Yeming Han, Mei Zhang, Rock H Savage, Hongkai Zhang, Junjie Bai, Kunlin Cao, Youbing Yin, Qi Song, Yun Zhang, Yuwei Li, Pengfei Zhang, U Joseph Schoepf
Establishing a patient-specific and non-invasive technique to derive blood flow as well as coronary structural information from one single cardiac CT imaging modality. 336 patients with chest pain or ST segment depression on electrocardiogram were retrospectively enrolled. All patients underwent adenosine-stressed dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging (CT-MPI) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in sequence. Relationship between myocardial mass (M) and blood flow (Q), defined as log(Q) = b · log(M) + log(Q0 ), was explored based on the general allometric scaling law...
February 18, 2023: Journal of Biomechanics
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