Alexis N Boucher, Bethany H Bhat, Nathan H Clemens, Sharon Vaughn, Katherine O'Donnell
Most students with reading difficulties struggle to read words. We examined intervention effects for students with significant word reading difficulties (SWRD; standard score of 80 on at least one pretest measure of word reading), which includes individuals with or at risk for dyslexia. We investigated: (a) What are the effects of reading interventions for students in grades 3-12 with SWRD? and (b) What intervention features (i.e., instructional components and elements of dosage) are related to improved reading outcomes for the target population? A meta-analysis of 22 studies and 208 effect sizes revealed a statistically significant, positive, mean effect ( g = 0...
November 8, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Darius Endlich, Wolfgang Lenhard, Peter Marx, Tobias Richter
Children with mathematical difficulties need to spend more time than typically achieving children on solving even simple equations. Since these tasks already require a larger share of their cognitive resources, additional demands imposed by the need to switch between tasks may lead to a greater decline of performance in children with mathematical difficulties. We explored differential task switch costs with respect to switching between addition versus subtraction with a tablet-based arithmetic verification task and additional standardized tests in elementary school children in Grades 1 to 4...
October 31, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Sara Esmaeeli
This study extends the research on the preschool home literacy environment (HLE) in the context of the family risk (FR) of reading disability (RD) by examining a multiple-deficit model of RD. A total of 1171 six-year-old children were assessed at school entry, the onset of formal reading instruction in Norway. Their parents completed a questionnaire regarding their own RD, education, and the HLE. The final sample after applying the inclusion criteria was 794 children and their parents. The findings suggest, first, that two HLE factors (access to print and reading-related activities) should be distinguished rather than treated as a single factor, "exposure to print," as the majority of previous studies have done...
September 16, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Xin Wei, Susu Zhang
This study analyzed performance, process, and survey data of eighth graders with learning disabilities (LDs) who took the 2017 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) digital math test. Compared with students with LDs who did not receive extended time accommodations (ETAs), students with LDs who received and used ETA scored significantly higher on the test, whereas students with LDs who received but did not use ETA scored significantly lower on the test. In addition, students with LDs in the two ETA groups reported a lower level of perceived time pressure and a higher level of math interest and enjoyment than their peers who did not receive ETA...
August 30, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Abigail Howard-Gosse, Bradley W Bergey, S Hélène Deacon
Given the increase in students with learning disabilities entering university, we investigated a broader group-students with a history of reading difficulties (HRD)-who are known to be at risk of academic struggles. We identified the self-reported reading challenges and strategies of university students with HRD ( n  = 49) and those with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n = 88) and examined group differences and relations with first-year grade point average (GPA). Students with HRD reported more difficulties with perceived reading comprehension, concentration, and reading speed than students with NRD...
August 3, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Mercedes A Zapata, Frank C Worrell
Personal disability identity is a predictor of psychosocial functioning among adults with predominantly physical disabilities. In the present study, we examined personal disability identity in adults with learning disabilities (LD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In samples of 541 adults with LD, 475 with ADHD, and 433 with comorbid LD and ADHD, we examined the structural validity of disability acceptance and disability affirmation scores and the association between these scores and anxiety/depression, life satisfaction, and general self-efficacy...
July 25, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Kevin Kien Hoa Chung, Chun Bun Lam, Kevin Shing-Chi Chan, Alfred S Y Lee, Catrina Liu, Li-Chih Wang
This study investigated the cross-sectional relationships between reading-related affective and cognitive factors and reading skills among adolescents with and without dyslexia. Participants included 120 Chinese-speaking eighth graders, including 60 adolescents with dyslexia and 60 typically developing adolescents from Hong Kong, China. Adolescents completed questionnaires on general anxiety, reading anxiety, and reading self-concept. They were also assessed on measures of rapid digit naming, verbal working memory, word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension...
July 7, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Steve Graham, Stephen Ciullo, Alyson Collins
Seventy-five general and 65 special education teachers working in the same 65 elementary schools in 12 different school districts were surveyed about their mindsets concerning the malleability of writing and intelligence as well as their practices for teaching writing. All teachers taught writing to one or more fourth-grade students receiving special education services, including students with learning disabilities. Both general and special education teachers typically held a growth mindset toward the malleability of writing and intelligence...
July 7, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Kristen L McMaster, Panayiota Kendeou, Jasmine Kim, Reese Butterfuss
We examined the efficacy of a Technology-Based Early Language Comprehension Intervention (TeLCI) designed to teach inferencing in a non-reading context. First- and second graders identified as at risk of comprehension difficulties were assigned randomly to a business-as-usual control group or to use TeLCI over an 8-week period. TeLCI comprised three learning modules per week that involved (a) learning new vocabulary, (b) watching fiction or nonfiction videos, and (c) answering inferential questions. Students also engaged in small-group read-alouds with their teachers once per week...
June 27, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Jeannette Mancilla-Martinez, Min Hyun Oh, Gigi Luk, Adam Rollins
Using state-level data, we report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio of special education (SPED) trends in Tennessee from 2009 to 2019 for students in Grades 3 to 8 by three language groups: native English speakers (NES), English-proficient bilinguals (EPB), and Current English learners (Current EL). We report trends across all SPED disability categories and across five prevalent disability categories (specific learning disability, specific language impairment, intellectual disability, other health impairments, and autism)...
June 13, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Lynn S Fuchs, Pamela M Seethaler, Douglas Fuchs, Daniel Espinas
Analyses were conducted with second graders, drawn from an ongoing multi-cohort randomized controlled trial (RCT), who had been identified for RCT entry based on comorbid reading comprehension and word-problem solving difficulty. To estimate pandemic learning loss, we contrasted fall performance for 3 cohorts: fall of 2019 (pre-pandemic; n = 47), 2020 (early pandemic, when performance was affected by the truncated preceding school year; n = 35), versus 2021 (later pandemic, when performance was affected by the truncated 2019 to 2020 school year plus the subsequent year's ongoing interruptions; n = 75)...
May 17, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Robert Savage, Kristina Maiorino, Kristina Gavin, Hanna Horne-Robinson, George Georgiou PhD, Hélène Deacon
We report a school-based randomized control trial study comparing two morphological interventions with untaught controls: one focusing on direct instruction targeting print morphological decoding (direct decoding condition) and the other on inquiry-focused pedagogy using oral morphological analysis (inquiry-analysis condition). We identified 63 Grade 3 children with below-average morphological awareness following screening (from N = 163). This sub-sample showed average pseudoword decoding but poor language and word reading abilities...
April 13, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Paulo E Andrade, Daniel Müllensiefen, Olga V C A Andrade, Jade Dunstan, Jennifer Zuk, Nadine Gaab
Musical abilities, both in the pitch and temporal dimension, have been shown to be positively associated with phonological awareness and reading abilities in both children and adults. There is increasing evidence that the relationship between music and language relies primarily on the temporal dimension, including both meter and rhythm. It remains unclear to what extent skill level in these temporal aspects of music may uniquely contribute to the prediction of reading outcomes. A longitudinal design was used to test a group-administered musical sequence transcription task (MSTT)...
March 20, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Bryn Harris, Tara Kulkarni, Amanda L Sullivan
The identification of specific learning disabilities (SLD) remains fraught with controversy and uncertainty about professionals' capacity to appropriately identify special education eligibility. For students from linguistically minoritized backgrounds, the exclusionary clause prohibits the identification of learning difficulties primarily attributable to contextual or linguistic factors. Yet the ambiguity of the federal language may hinder application, making critical states' interpretation and corresponding guidance for professional practice in eligibility determination...
March 20, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Emma Shanahan, Kristen L McMaster, Britta Cook Bresina, Nicole M McKevett, Seohyeon Choi, Erica S Lembke
Teacher-level factors are theoretically linked to student outcomes in data-based instruction (DBI; Lembke et al., 2018). Professional development and ongoing support can increase teachers' knowledge, skills, and beliefs related to DBI, as well as their instructional fidelity (McMaster et al., 2020). However, less is known about how each of these teacher-level factors influences student progress during an intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between several important teacher-level factors-teachers' writing instruction fidelity, knowledge and skills related to DBI, explicit writing orientation, and writing instruction self-efficacy-and students' writing growth...
March 19, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Anna Maria Re, Francesca De Vita, Cesare Cornoldi, Susanna Schmidt
Copying a text quickly and accurately is important both in school and in daily life. However, this skill has never been systematically studied, either in children with typical development (TD) or in children with specific learning disabilities (SLD). The aim of this research was to study the features of a copy task and its relationship with other writing tasks. For this purpose, 674 children with TD and 65 children with SLD from Grades 6 through 8 were tested with a copy task and other writing assessment tasks, measuring three aspects of writing: handwriting speed, spelling, and expressive writing...
March 10, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Nicole Casali, Chiara Meneghetti, Carla Tinti, Anna Maria Re, Barbara Sini, Maria Chiara Passolunghi, Antonella Valenti, Lorena Montesano, Gerardo Pellegrino, Barbara Carretti
Understanding the individual qualities sustaining students with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) is key to supporting their academic achievement and well-being. In this study, we investigated the differences between students with and without SLDs in terms of intraindividual factors (soft skills and study-related factors), academic and nonacademic outcomes (achievement, academic and life satisfaction), and the relationships between such intraindividual factors and the three outcomes. A total of 318 students (79 males; M age = 22...
February 15, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Tuija Aro, Reeta Neittaanmäki, Elisa Korhonen, Heli Riihimäki, Minna Torppa
The present study examined whether learning disabilities (LD) in reading and/or math (i.e., reading disability [RD], math disability [MD], and RD+MD) co-occur with other diagnoses. The data comprised a clinical sample ( n = 430) with LD identified in childhood and a sample of matched controls ( n = 2,140). Their medical diagnoses (according to the International Classification of Diseases nosology) until adulthood (20-39 years) were analyzed. The co-occurrence of LD with neurodevelopmental disorders was considered a homotypic comorbidity, and co-occurrence with disorders or diseases from the other diagnostic categories (i...
February 11, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Lisa B Hurwitz, Kirk P Vanacore
Experts laud the potential of educational technology (edtech) to promote reading among students with disabilities, but supporting evidence is lacking. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Lexia® Core5® Reading edtech program (Core5) on the Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP) Growth Reading™ and easyCBM oral reading fluency performance of students with reading or language-based disabilities in Grades K to 5. Core5 systematically addresses multiple reading domains and previously was effective in general education...
December 15, 2022: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Daphne Greenberg, Dolores Perin
The purpose of this special issue's five articles is to highlight issues regarding decoding, comprehension, oral language fluency, and writing for adults with low literacy skills. Our authors' samples include adults attending adult literacy programs, as well as those who are attending postsecondary programs who may or may not have official learning disability diagnoses. The authors address issues that are not often covered in adult literacy scholarship. Through this special issue, we hope to highlight the importance of, and directions for, future research on adults with low literacy skills, including individuals with specific learning disabilities...
October 31, 2022: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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