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Journal of Learning Disabilities

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694092/are-reading-interventions-for-english-language-learners-effective-a-meta-analysis
#1
Caralyn Ludwig, Kan Guo, George K Georgiou
Despite concerted efforts to improve the reading skills of English language learners (ELLs), it remains unclear if the interventions they have been receiving produce any positive results. Thus, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine how effective reading interventions are in improving ELLs' reading skills and what factors may influence their effectiveness. Twenty-six studies with reported outcomes for pretest and posttest were selected, and four moderators (group size, intensity of intervention, students' risk status, and type of intervention) were coded...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30636501/student-practice-opportunities-in-core-mathematics-instruction-exploring-for-a-goldilocks-effect-for-kindergartners-with-mathematics-difficulties
#2
Christian T Doabler, Brian Gearin, Scott K Baker, Mike Stoolmiller, Patrick C Kennedy, Ben Clarke, Nancy J Nelson, Hank Fien, Keith Smolkowski
Opportunities for practice play a critical role in learning complex behaviors. In the context of explicit mathematics instruction, practice facilitates systematic opportunities for students with mathematics difficulties (MD) to learn new mathematics content and apply such knowledge and skills to novel mathematics problems. This study explored whether there is an optimal amount of student practice that teachers should provide in core mathematics instruction to maximize the mathematics achievement of kindergarten students with MD, a so called "Goldilocks effect," as opposed to simply "more is better...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30484366/examining-reading-comprehension-profiles-of-grade-5-monolinguals-and-english-language-learners-through-the-lexical-quality-hypothesis-lens
#3
Megan O'Connor, Esther Geva, Poh Wee Koh
This study set out to compare patterns of relationships among phonological skills, orthographic skills, semantic knowledge, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension in English as a first language (EL1) and English language learners (ELL) students and to test the applicability of the lexical quality hypothesis framework. Participants included 94 EL1 and 178 ELL Grade 5 students from diverse home-language backgrounds. Latent profile analyses conducted separately for ELLs and EL1s provided support for the lexical quality hypothesis in both groups, with the emergence of two profiles: A poor comprehenders profile was associated with poor word-reading-related skills (phonological awareness and orthographic processing) and with poor language-related skills (semantic knowledge and, to a lesser extent, listening comprehension)...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30381981/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-trajectories-and-predictors-of-word-reading-and-reading-comprehension-development-among-at-risk-readers
#4
Peng Peng, Douglas Fuchs, Lynn S Fuchs, Amy M Elleman, Devin M Kearns, Jennifer K Gilbert, Donald L Compton, Eunsoo Cho, Samuel Patton
This study explored the developmental trajectories and predictors of word reading and reading comprehension among young at-risk readers. In fall of first grade, 185 students identified as at-risk for reading difficulties were assessed on measures of domain-specific skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and vocabulary), domain-general skills (working memory, nonverbal reasoning, and processing speed), and word reading and reading comprehension. Word reading and reading comprehension were assessed again in spring of grades 1-4...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29779424/current-evidence-on-the-effects-of-intensive-early-reading-interventions
#5
Jeanne Wanzek, Elizabeth A Stevens, Kelly J Williams, Nancy Scammacca, Sharon Vaughn, Katherine Sargent
Many students at risk for or identified with reading disabilities need intensive reading interventions. This meta-analysis provides an update to the Wanzek and Vaughn synthesis on intensive early reading interventions. Effects from 25 reading intervention studies are analyzed to examine the overall effect of intensive early reading interventions as well as relationships between intervention and student characteristics related to outcomes. The weighted mean effect size (ES) estimate (ES = 0.39), with a mean effect size adjusted for publication bias (ES = 0...
November 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28758526/examining-predictive-validity-of-oral-reading-fluency-slope-in-upper-elementary-grades-using-quantile-regression
#6
Eunsoo Cho, Philip Capin, Greg Roberts, Sharon Vaughn
Within multitiered instructional delivery models, progress monitoring is a key mechanism for determining whether a child demonstrates an adequate response to instruction. One measure commonly used to monitor the reading progress of students is oral reading fluency (ORF). This study examined the extent to which ORF slope predicts reading comprehension outcomes for fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 102) participating in an intensive reading intervention. Quantile regression models showed that ORF slope significantly predicted performance on a sentence-level fluency and comprehension assessment, regardless of the students' reading skills, controlling for initial ORF performance...
November 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28891762/reading-and-phonological-awareness-in-africa
#7
Katherine J Alcock, Damaris S Ngorosho, Matthew C H Jukes
Literacy levels in Africa are low, and school instruction outcomes are not promising. Africa also has a disproportionate number of unschooled children. Phonological awareness (PA), especially phoneme awareness, is critically associated with literacy, but there is little evidence about whether PA is gained through literacy, schooling, or both, because most children studied are in education and can read at least letters. Our previous study of PA and reading in children in and out of school in Tanzania found that PA was associated with reading ability, not schooling or age, and many unschooled children learned to read...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28799454/unpacking-direct-and-indirect-relationships-of-short-term-memory-to-word-reading-evidence-from-korean-speaking-children
#8
Young-Suk Grace Kim, Jeung-Ryeul Cho, Soon-Gil Park
We examined the relations of short-term memory (STM), metalinguistic awareness (phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) to word reading in Korean, a language with a relatively transparent orthography. STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN have been shown to be important to word reading, but the nature of the relations of STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN to word reading has rarely been investigated. Two alternative models were fitted. In the indirect relation model, STM was hypothesized to be indirectly related to word reading via metalinguistic awareness and RAN...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28730931/a-reading-model-from-the-perspective-of-japanese-orthography-connectionist-approach-to-the-hypothesis-of-granularity-and-transparency
#9
Mutsuo Ijuin, Taeko N Wydell
This study presents a computer simulation model of reading in Japanese syllabic kana and morphographic kanji. The model was based on the simulation model developed by Harm and Seidenberg for reading in English. The purpose of building the current model was to verify the validity of the hypothesis of granularity and transparency (HGT) postulated by Wydell and Butterworth, focusing on the granularity dimension. The HGT was developed in order to explain the behavioral dissociation between excellent reading skills in Japanese and poor reading skills in English of an English-Japanese bilingual individual as well as the relatively low incidence of developmental dyslexia in Japan...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28720028/growth-of-word-and-pseudoword-reading-efficiency-in-alphabetic-orthographies-impact-of-consistency
#10
Mark├ęta Caravolas
Word and pseudoword reading are related abilities fundamental to reading development in alphabetic orthographies. They are respectively assumed to index children's orthographic representations of words, which are in turn acquired through the underlying "self-teaching mechanism" of alphabetic pseudoword decoding. Little is known about concurrent growth trajectories of these skills in the early grades among children learning different alphabetic orthographies. In the present study, between- and within-group latent growth models of word and pseudoword reading efficiency were tested on data spanning Grades 1 and 2 from learners of the inconsistent English and consistent Czech and Slovak orthographies...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28720026/models-of-reading-in-different-orthographies-an-introduction
#11
R Malatesha Joshi, Peggy McCardle
The authors provide a summary of the articles in the special series on reading development in different orthographies from various writing systems and scripts.
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28715927/mawrid-a-model-of-arabic-word-reading-in-development
#12
Elinor Saiegh-Haddad
This article offers a model of Arabic word reading according to which three conspicuous features of the Arabic language and orthography shape the development of word reading in this language: (a) vowelization/vocalization, or the use of diacritical marks to represent short vowels and other features of articulation; (b) morphological structure, namely, the predominance and transparency of derivational morphological structure in the linguistic and orthographic representation of the Arabic word; and (c) diglossia, specifically, the lexical and lexico-phonological distance between the spoken and the standard forms of Arabic words...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28703637/learning-to-read-a-semitic-abjad-the-triplex-model-of-hebrew-reading-development
#13
David L Share, Amalia Bar-On
We introduce a model of Hebrew reading development that emphasizes both the universal and script-specific aspects of learning to read a Semitic abjad. At the universal level, the study of Hebrew reading acquisition offers valuable insights into the fundamental dilemmas of all writing systems-balancing the competing needs of the novice versus the expert reader (Share, 2008). At the script-specific level, pointed Hebrew initially employs supplementary vowel signs, providing the beginning reader a consistent, phonologically well-specified script while helping the expert-to-be unitize words and morphemes via (consonantal) spelling constancy...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28693370/toward-a-graded-psycholexical-space-mapping-model-sublexical-and-lexical-representations-in-chinese-character-reading-development
#14
Xiuli Tong, Catherine McBride
Following a review of contemporary models of word-level processing for reading and their limitations, we propose a new hypothetical model of Chinese character reading, namely, the graded lexical space mapping model that characterizes how sublexical radicals and lexical information are involved in Chinese character reading development. The underlying assumption of this model is that Chinese character recognition is a process of competitive mappings of phonology, semantics, and orthography in both lexical and sublexical systems, operating as functions of statistical properties of print input based on the individual's specific level of reading...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28693368/what-reading-disability-evidence-for-multiple-latent-profiles-of-struggling-readers-in-a-large-russian-sibpair-sample-with-at-least-one-sibling-at-risk-for-reading-difficulties
#15
Sergey A Kornilov, Elena L Grigorenko
In this study, we performed a latent profile analysis of reading and related skills in a large ( n = 733) sibpair sample of Russian readers at risk for reading difficulties. The analysis suggested the presence of seven latent profiles, of which two were characterized by relatively high performance on measures of spelling and reading comprehension and the remaining five included severely as well as moderately affected readers with deficits in the domains of phonological, orthographic, and morphological processing...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28685668/investigating-the-asymmetrical-roles-of-syllabic-and-phonemic-awareness-in-akshara-processing
#16
Pooja R Nakamura, R Malatesha Joshi, Xuejun Ryan Ji
In this study, we examine the relative contributions of syllabic awareness, phonemic awareness, and oral vocabulary knowledge in early akshara reading ability from Grades 1 through 5. The performance of 488 students in two states of South India, Karnataka (Kannada language) and Andhra Pradesh (Telugu language), was measured. Results from a commonality analysis indicate that there was an increasing independent contribution of syllabic awareness to Kannada and Telugu decoding through the five grades, but the unique contribution of phonemic awareness steadily declined through the five grades, as it became subsumed within syllabic awareness...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28597718/effect-of-working-memory-updating-training-on-retrieving-symptoms-of-children-with-learning-disabilities
#17
Xiaoying Chen, Maolin Ye, Lei Chang, Weigang Chen, Renlai Zhou
Working memory (WM) deficiency is a primary reason for the poor academic performance of children with learning disabilities (LDs). Studies have shown that the WM of typical children could be improved through training, and WM training contributes to improving their fluid intelligence and academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated WM training for children with LDs, and results have been inconsistent. The present study examined the long-term effects of WM updating training and whether it can mitigate LD symptoms...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30035685/effectiveness-of-a-partial-read-aloud-test-accommodation-to-assess-reading-comprehension-in-students-with-a-reading-disability
#18
Michelle Giusto, Linnea C Ehri
This experiment examined whether a partial read-aloud accommodation with pacing (PRAP) would improve the reading comprehension of poor decoders but not average decoders compared to standard testing procedures. Participants were 82 third graders with at least average listening comprehension skills: 28 were poor decoders, and 54 were average decoders; mean age 8 years, 9 months (8:9). In the PRAP condition, students' were paced through the Gates MacGinitie reading comprehension test. The examiner read aloud only directions, proper nouns, and questions with multiple choice answers while students read the passages independently...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30035683/corrigendum
#19
(no author information available yet)
Erbeli, F., Hart, S. A., & Taylor, J. (2018). Genetic and environmental influences on achievement outcomes based on family history of learning disabilities status. Journal of Learning Disabilites. Advance online publication. (Original doi: 10.1177/0022219418775116 ) In the version of this article originally published OnlineFirst, an error was made in the coding of missing data for math fluency. The mistake is limited to the math fluency measure only (a miscode of the data resulted in missing data being set to 0), and is limited to the specific numbers reported for the math achievement measure...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30027807/examining-the-impact-of-group-size-on-the-treatment-intensity-of-a-tier-2-mathematics-intervention-within-a-systematic-framework-of-replication
#20
Christian T Doabler, Ben Clarke, Derek Kosty, Evangeline Kurtz-Nelson, Hank Fien, Keith Smolkowski, Scott K Baker
Group size and treatment intensity are understudied topics in mathematics intervention research. This study examined whether the treatment intensity and overall intervention effects of an empirically validated Tier 2 mathematics intervention varied between intervention groups with 2:1 and 5:1 student-teacher ratios. Student practice opportunities and the quality of explicit instruction served as treatment intensity metrics. A total of 465 kindergarten students with mathematics difficulties from 136 intervention groups participated...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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