Jihyun Lee
Developing both conceptual and procedural knowledge is important for students' mathematics competence. This study examined whether Grade 9 general education mathematics teachers' self-reported use of concept-focused instruction (CFI) and procedure-focused instruction (PFI) were associated differently with ninth graders' algebra achievement after 2.5 years, depending on students' mathematics difficulty (MD) status. Data for this study were drawn from the High School Longitudinal Study for the years 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 ( N = 19,104)...
May 18, 2024: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Rebecca L Parker
High-level literacy skills are required for full participation in the democratic process through voting. Consequently, adults with low-level literacy skills are at a disadvantage. This work investigated the disparity between the readability of U.S. ballot propositions for year 2022 state elections and grade level reading estimates (≤eighth grade) for adults. Educational attainment was also examined. Propositions ( n = 140) from 38 states were included. Mean readability was 18 (range 7.0-64.0). Only four measures (3%) fell within range of national estimates for adult reading ability...
May 7, 2024: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Lynn S Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs, Eunsoo Cho, Marcia A Barnes, Tuire Koponen, Daniel R Espinas
The purpose of this analysis was to describe cognitive processes associated with comorbid difficulty between word reading (WR) and mathematics computation (MC) at the start of first grade among children selected for WR and MC delays. A sample of 234 children (mean age 6.50 years, SD = 0.31) was assessed on WR, MC, core cognitive processes (phonological processing, rapid automatized naming, verbal counting [VC]), and domain-general cognitive processes (working memory, oral language, nonverbal reasoning, attentive behavior)...
April 30, 2024: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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April 11, 2024: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Mengyu Tian, Yuzhu Ji, Runzhou Wang, Hong-Yan Bi
A growing body of evidence suggests that children with dyslexia in alphabetic languages exhibit visual-spatial attention deficits that can obstruct reading acquisition by impairing their phonological decoding skills. However, it remains an open question whether these visual-spatial attention deficits are present in children with dyslexia in non-alphabetic languages. Chinese, with its logographic writing system, offers a unique opportunity to explore this question. The presence of visual-spatial attention deficits in Chinese children with dyslexia remains insufficiently investigated...
April 9, 2024: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Garret J Hall, Peter M Nelson, David C Parker
School context can shape relative intervention response in myriad ways due to factors, such as instructional quality, resource allocation, peer effects, and correlations between the school context and characteristics of enrolled students (e.g., higher-poverty students attending higher-poverty schools). In the current study, we used data from 16,000 Grade 3 students in a community-based supplemental reading intervention program to investigate the degree to which school context factors (percentage eligible for free/reduced-price lunch [FRPL], school-level achievement) relate to the differences in triannual reading fluency growth rates between students actively receiving supplemental intervention (active recipients) and those that formerly received intervention (and therefore only received general class instruction at this time; former recipients)...
April 2, 2024: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Jessica R Toste, Marissa J Filderman, Nathan H Clemens, Erica Fry
Data-based instruction (DBI) is a process in which teachers use progress data to make ongoing instructional decisions for students with learning disabilities. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is a common form of progress monitoring, and CBM data are placed on a graph to guide decision-making. Despite the central role that graph interpretation plays in the successful implementation of DBI, relatively little attention has been devoted to investigating this skill among special education teachers. In the present study, we examined the data decisions of 32 pre-service special education teachers (29 females and 3 males)...
February 27, 2024: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Estelle Ardanouy, Pascal Zesiger, Hélène Delage
Children with developmental dyslexia (DD) display partially preserved morphology skills which they rely upon for reading and spelling. Therefore, we conducted explicit and intensive training of derivational morphology in individuals with DD, ages 9 to 14 years, in order to assess its effect on: morphological awareness, reading (speed and accuracy), and spelling. Our pre-posttest design included a group trained in derivational morphology and a group of children who continued their business-as-usual rehabilitation program with their speech-language therapist...
February 7, 2024: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Caroline Jolly, Marianne Jover, Jérémy Danna
Handwriting deficits, or dysgraphia, are present in several neurodevelopmental disorders. To investigate whether dysgraphia differs according to the associated disorder, we performed a detailed analysis of handwriting in children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD), reading disorder (RD), or comorbid RD and DCD. Handwriting deficits were investigated at the product (quality of the trace) and the process (movement that generates the trace) levels. Nineteen children with singular RD (among which eight with dysgraphia), 13 children with singular DCD (among which seven with dysgraphia), 16 children with comorbid RD+DCD (among which 11 with dysgraphia), and 20 typically developing children, age 7 to 12, performed the BHK (Brave Handwriting Kinder) test, a standardized assessment of handwriting, on a graphic tablet...
January 29, 2024: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Seohyeon Choi, Emma Shanahan, Bess Casey-Wilke, Jechun An, LeAnne Johnson
Despite decades of research efforts, data-based instruction (DBI) for students with intensive intervention needs are not being widely used in practice as anticipated, and many educators have difficulties in implementing it. This systematic review aimed to examine what kinds of implementation drivers and strategies have been used to support educators implementing DBI and what kinds of implementation outcomes researchers have measured. Eighteen studies were synthesized using the Implementation Drivers framework and Implementation Outcomes taxonomy and were quality appraised...
December 30, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Erin J Panda, Trisha Woehrle, Jan C Frijters, Rhonda Moules, Sonia Zolis, Edie Edwards, Karen A Steinbach, Maria De Palma, Maureen W Lovett
There is a wide gap between what research evidence identifies as effective reading intervention and what is currently offered in schools. This effectiveness study reports the results of a long-term research/school system partnership that is implementing reading intervention for children with reading difficulties in community schools. In Study 1, growth-curve analyses revealed significant long-term shifts in the reading trajectories of children ( n = 731) from Kindergarten to Grade 5 as a function of receiving the Empower™ Reading: Decoding and Spelling intervention...
December 27, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Erica C Fry, Jessica R Toste, Beth R Feuer, Christine A Espin
Data-based decision-making (DBDM) using curriculum-based measurement (CBM) data has demonstrated effectiveness in improving academic achievement for students with or at risk for learning disability. Despite substantial evidence supporting DBDM, its use is not common practice for many educators, even those who regularly collect CBM data. One explanation for its lack of widespread use is that educators may not receive adequate training in the DBDM aspects of CBM. Espin et al. examined the extent to which DBDM is represented in CBM professional development (PD) materials and found that the topic was significantly underrepresented (12% to 14% of CBM PD material content) compared with other CBM topics...
December 7, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Allison F Gilmour, Justin Harper, Blair Lloyd, Alyssa Van Camp
Response to intervention (RTI) is a method for providing academic support to students and for identifying specific learning disabilities (SLDs). Using interrupted time series and hazard models, we examined if statewide RTI adoption was associated with changes in rates of SLD and first-time SLD identification in elementary schools, and if these associations varied across student groups. Response to intervention was associated with an initial decline in the percentage of students with SLD in the state that continued over time, with larger decreases for students who were Black or economically disadvantaged...
December 4, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Christian T Doabler, Ben Clarke, Jessica E Turtura, Marah Sutherland, Jenna A Gersib, Taylor Lesner, Madison Cook, Georgia L Kimmel, Keith Smolkowski, Derek Kosty
Conceptual replications are part and parcel of education science. Methodologically rigorous conceptual replication studies permit researchers to test and strengthen the generalizability of a study's initial findings. The current conceptual replication sought to replicate the efficacy of a small-group, first-grade mathematics intervention with 240 first-grade students with mathematics difficulties in a new geographical region. Participating students were randomized into one of three conditions: (a) 2:1 mathematics intervention group, (b) 5:1 mathematics intervention group, or (c) business-as-usual instruction...
November 28, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Scott K Baker, Patrick C Kennedy, Dean Richards, Nancy J Nelson, Hank Fien, Christian T Doabler
More than two-thirds of middle school students do not read proficiently. Research has shown that targeted interventions using explicit instruction methods can improve reading outcomes for struggling readers. A central feature of explicit instruction is the systematic implementation of instructional interactions, but it is not clear what specific instructional interaction practices lead to stronger outcomes for middle school readers. This study used a regression discontinuity design to compare the frequency and impact of instructional interactions experienced by eighth-grade students who received a targeted reading intervention ( n = 1,461) with those who did not ( n = 4,292)...
November 14, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Vered Vaknin-Nusbaum, Israel Rachevski
This study examined whether there are differences between students with learning disabilities (LD) and their typically developing peers with regard to their 21st-century skills according to their self-report and whether the differences between the two groups are greater in postsecondary education than in high school-an aim that had not been examined in depth in previous research. Findings suggest that overall (beyond type of learner), in most skills, postsecondary education students reported higher scores than high school students on questionnaires designed for self-assessment of 21st-century skills...
November 14, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Anabela Malpique, Deborah Pino-Pasternak, Debora Valcan, Mustafa Asil
Two hundred ninety-eight primary teachers (88% female) from across all Australian states and territories reported on the frequency with which they implemented instructional adaptations for struggling writers in their classrooms. They also rated their preparation and self-efficacy for teaching writing. The majority of participating teachers indicated they provided additional instruction on spelling, capitalization and punctuation, and sentence construction at least once a week or more often. Teachers further reported implementing additional minilessons and reteaching strategies and skills, as well as extra instruction on grammar, handwriting, text structure, revising, and planning on a monthly basis or more often...
November 13, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Rong-An Jhuo, Hsien-Ming Yang, Huang-Ju Tsai, Li-Chih Wang
Given that inhibition interacts with visual temporal processing (VTP), the past evidence regarding the influence of VTP on the Chinese character reading of children with dyslexia may not disclose the whole picture without considering inhibition. Thus, the present study is among the first to investigate VTP and cognitive inhibition as well as their relationships to Chinese character reading. We compared the performances of 62 Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia in primary school ( n = 62, M age = 11.36 years) on VTP and inhibition tasks to those in a chronological-age-matched group (CA; n = 62, M age = 11...
November 9, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Alexis N Boucher, Bethany H Bhat, Nathan H Clemens, Sharon Vaughn, Katherine O'Donnell
Most students with reading difficulties struggle to read words. We examined intervention effects for students with significant word reading difficulties (SWRD; standard score of 80 on at least one pretest measure of word reading), which includes individuals with or at risk for dyslexia. We investigated: (a) What are the effects of reading interventions for students in grades 3-12 with SWRD? and (b) What intervention features (i.e., instructional components and elements of dosage) are related to improved reading outcomes for the target population? A meta-analysis of 22 studies and 208 effect sizes revealed a statistically significant, positive, mean effect ( g = 0...
November 8, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Darius Endlich, Wolfgang Lenhard, Peter Marx, Tobias Richter
Children with mathematical difficulties need to spend more time than typically achieving children on solving even simple equations. Since these tasks already require a larger share of their cognitive resources, additional demands imposed by the need to switch between tasks may lead to a greater decline of performance in children with mathematical difficulties. We explored differential task switch costs with respect to switching between addition versus subtraction with a tablet-based arithmetic verification task and additional standardized tests in elementary school children in Grades 1 to 4...
October 31, 2023: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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