Journals Pflügers Archiv : European ...

Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology
M González-García, L Carrillo-Franco, C Morales-Luque, M Ponce-Velasco, B Gago, M S Dawid-Milner, M V López-González
To assess the possible interactions between the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray matter (dlPAG) and the different domains of the nucleus ambiguus (nA), we have examined the pattern of double-staining c-Fos/FoxP2 protein immunoreactivity (c-Fos-ir/FoxP2-ir) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) throughout the rostrocaudal extent of nA in spontaneously breathing anaesthetised male Sprague-Dawley rats during dlPAG electrical stimulation. Activation of the dlPAG elicited a selective increase in c-Fos-ir with an ipsilateral predominance in the somatas of the loose (p < 0...
June 10, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Barbora Veselá, Adéla Ševčíková, Kateřina Holomková, Alice Ramešová, Adéla Kratochvílova, Paul T Sharpe, Eva Matalová
Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells of hematopoietic origin, with a pivotal role in bone development and remodeling. Failure in osteoclast differentiation and activation leads to various bone disorders; thus, attention has focused on a search of molecules involved in osteoclast regulatory pathways. Caspase-8 appears to be an interesting candidate for further exploration, due to its potential function in bone development and homeostasis. Mouse bone marrow cells were differentiated into osteoclasts by RANKL stimulation...
June 4, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Penny L Ljungholm, Anna Ermund, Molly M Söderlund Garsveden, Victor L Pettersson, Jenny K Gustafsson
The intestinal epithelium is covered by mucus that protects the tissue from the luminal content. Studies have shown that anion secretion via the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator (Cftr) regulates mucus formation in the small intestine. However, mechanisms regulating mucus formation in the colon are less understood. The aim of this study was to explore the role of anion transport in the regulation of mucus formation during steady state and in response to carbamylcholine (CCh) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 )...
June 3, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Javier Lucas-Romero, Ivan Rivera-Arconada, Jose Antonio Lopez-Garcia
Spontaneous activity refers to the firing of action potentials by neurons in the absence of external stimulation. Initially considered an artifact or "noise" in the nervous system, it is now recognized as a potential feature of neural function. Spontaneous activity has been observed in various brain areas, in experimental preparations from different animal species, and in live animals and humans using non-invasive imaging techniques. In this review, we specifically focus on the spontaneous activity of dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord...
June 1, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Alexander A Mongin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Danielle M A Ratsma, Max Muller, Marijke Koedam, M Carola Zillikens, Bram C J van der Eerden
Phosphate homeostasis is vital for many biological processes and disruptions in circulating levels can be detrimental. While the mechanisms behind FGF23 regulation have been regularly studied, the role of extracellular phosphate sensing and its impact on fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) expression remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), and Hairy and Enhancer of Split-1 (HES1) in regulating FGF23 in FGF23 expressing MC3T3-E1 cells...
May 21, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Elisa Bovo, Jaroslava Seflova, Seth L Robia, Aleksey V Zima
Diabetes is commonly associated with an elevated level of reactive carbonyl species due to alteration of glucose and fatty acid metabolism. These metabolic changes cause an abnormality in cardiac Ca2+ regulation that can lead to cardiomyopathies. In this study, we explored how the reactive α-dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (MGO) affects Ca2+ regulation in mouse ventricular myocytes. Analysis of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics revealed that MGO (200 μM) increases action potential (AP)-induced Ca2+ transients and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ load, with a limited effect on L-type Ca2+ channel-mediated Ca2+ transients and SERCA-mediated Ca2+ uptake...
May 20, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Mira Hanna, Sabreen Sayed Elnassag, Dina Hisham Mohamed, Marawan Abd Elbaset, Olfat Shaker, Effat A Khowailed, Sarah Ali Abdelhameed Gouda
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered a severe disease mitigating lung physiological functions with high mortality outcomes, insufficient therapy, and pathophysiology pathways which is still not fully understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow play an important role in improving the function of organs suffering inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune reaction. It might also play a role in regenerative medicine, but that is still questionable. Additionally, Melatonin with its known antioxidative and anti-inflammatory impact is attracting attention nowadays as a useful treatment...
May 14, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Christian Stock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Tina Schönberger, Marie Jakobs, Anna-Lena Friedel, Tina Hörbelt-Grünheidt, Bastian Tebbe, Oliver Witzke, Manfred Schedlowski, Joachim Fandrey
Cells of the immune defence, especially leukocytes, often have to perform their function in tissue areas that are characterized by oxygen deficiency, so-called hypoxia. Physiological hypoxia significantly affects leukocyte function and controls the innate and adaptive immune response mainly through transcriptional gene regulation via the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Multiple pathogens including components of bacteria, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) trigger the activation of leukocytes. HIF pathway activation enables immune cells to adapt to both hypoxic environments in physiological and inflammatory settings and modulates immune cell responses through metabolism changes and crosstalk with other immune-relevant signalling pathways...
May 7, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Jonna Airaksinen, Satu Siimes, Juha Hartikainen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Arrhythmia detection is essential when assessing the safety of novel drugs and therapies in preclinical studies. Many short-term arrhythmia monitoring methods exist, including non-invasive ECG and Holter. However, there are no reliable, long-term, non-invasive, or minimally invasive methods for cardiac arrhythmia follow-up in large animals that allows free movement with littermates. A long follow-up time is needed when estimating the impact of long-lasting drugs or therapies, such as gene therapy. We evaluated the feasibility and performance of insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) in pigs for minimally invasive, long-term monitoring of cardiac arrhythmias that allows free movement and species-specific behavior...
May 4, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Nermeen Bastawy, Aliaa E M K El-Mosallamy, Samira H Aljuaydi, Huda O AbuBakr, Rabab Ahmed Rasheed, A S Sadek, R T Khattab, Wael Botros Abualyamin, Shereen E Abdelaal, Amy F Boushra
Hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac disease is an evolving health, economic, and social problem affecting well-being. Sodium-glucose cotransporter protein 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-I) have been proven to be cardio-protective when administered in cases of heart failure. This study intended to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of SGLT2-I on hyperthyroidism-related cardiopulmonary injury, targeting the possible underlying mechanisms. The impact of the SGLT2-I, dapagliflozin (DAPA), (1 mg/kg/day, p.o) on LT4 (0...
May 3, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Aline Cristina Parletta, Gabriela Cavazza Cerri, Claudia Ribeiro Borba Gasparini, Karine Panico, Denival Nascimento Vieira-Junior, Larissa Maria Zacarias-Rodrigues, Nathalia Senger, Amanda de Almeida Silva, Marina Fevereiro, Gabriela Placoná Diniz, Maria Cláudia Costa Irigoyen, Maria Luiza Morais Barreto-Chaves
Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is an adaptive response to maintain cardiac function; however, persistent stress responses lead to contractile dysfunction and heart failure. Although inflammation is involved in these processes, the mechanisms that control cardiac inflammation and hypertrophy still need to be clarified. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a cytosolic multiprotein complex that mediates IL-1β production. The priming step of NLRP3 is essential for increasing the expression of its components and occurs following NF-κB activation...
April 29, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Leonie Inderwiedenstraße, Marie-Cécile Kienitz
Signaling of G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels is an important mechanism of the parasympathetic regulation of the heart rate and cardiac excitability. GIRK channels are inhibited during stimulation of Gq -coupled receptors (Gq PCRs) by depletion of phosphatidyl-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ) and/or channel phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC). The Gq PCR-dependent modulation of GIRK currents in terms of specific PKC isoform activation was analyzed in voltage-clamp experiments in rat atrial myocytes and in CHO or HEK 293 cells...
April 24, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Megan A Palmer, Yvonne Benatzy, Bernhard Brüne
Human arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type B is a lipoxygenase that catalyzes the peroxidation of arachidonic acid at carbon-15. The corresponding murine ortholog however has 8-lipoxygenase activity. Both enzymes oxygenate polyunsaturated fatty acids in S-chirality with singular reaction specificity, although they generate a different product pattern. Furthermore, while both enzymes utilize both esterified fatty acids and fatty acid hydro(pero)xides as substrates, they differ with respect to the orientation of the fatty acid in their substrate-binding pocket...
April 19, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Nadine Merz, Jennifer Christina Hartel, Sabine Grösch
The integrity of the colon and the development of colon cancer depend on the sphingolipid balance in colon epithelial cells. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on how ceramides and their complex derivatives influence normal colon development and colon cancer development. Ceramides, glucosylceramides and sphingomyelin are essential membrane components and, due to their biophysical properties, can influence the activation of membrane proteins, affecting protein-protein interactions and downstream signalling pathways...
April 18, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Sandy MacMillan, David P Burns, Ken D O'Halloran, A Mark Evans
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggests that the hypoxic ventilatory response is facilitated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), not at the carotid bodies, but within a subnucleus (Bregma -7.5 to -7.1 mm) of the nucleus tractus solitarius that exhibits right-sided bilateral asymmetry. Here, we map this subnucleus using cFos expression as a surrogate for neuronal activation and mice in which the genes encoding the AMPK-α1 (Prkaa1) and AMPK-α2 (Prkaa2) catalytic subunits were deleted in catecholaminergic cells by Cre expression via the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter...
April 18, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Karolos-Philippos Pissas, Stefan Gründer, Yuemin Tian
Fast growing solid tumors are frequently surrounded by an acidic microenvironment. Tumor cells employ a variety of mechanisms to survive and proliferate under these harsh conditions. In that regard, acid-sensitive membrane receptors constitute a particularly interesting target, since they can affect cellular functions through ion flow and second messenger cascades. Our knowledge of these processes remains sparse, however, especially regarding medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric CNS malignancy. In this study, using RT-qPCR, whole-cell patch clamp, and Ca2+ -imaging, we uncovered several ion channels and a G protein-coupled receptor, which were regulated directly or indirectly by low extracellular pH in DAOY and UW228 medulloblastoma cells...
April 16, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Joshua Godoy Coto, Erica V Pereyra, Fiorella A Cavalli, Carlos A Valverde, Claudia I Caldiz, Sabina M Maté, Alejandra M Yeves, Irene L Ennis
The myocardium is a highly oxidative tissue in which mitochondria are essential to supply the energy required to maintain pump function. When pathological hypertrophy develops, energy consumption augments and jeopardizes mitochondrial capacity. We explored the cardiac consequences of chronic swimming training, focusing on the mitochondrial network, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male adult SHR were randomized to sedentary or trained (T: 8-week swimming protocol). Blood pressure and echocardiograms were recorded, and hearts were removed at the end of the training period to perform molecular, imaging, or isolated mitochondria studies...
April 16, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Andreas Draguhn, Armin Kurtz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2024: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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