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Brain, Behavior and Evolution

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30982030/social-complexity-and-brain-evolution-comparative-analysis-of-modularity-and-integration-in-ant-brain-organization
#1
J Frances Kamhi, Iulian Ilieş, James F A Traniello
The behavioral demands of living in social groups have been linked to the evolution of brain size and structure, but how social organization shapes investment and connectivity within and among functionally specialized brain regions remains unclear. To understand the influence of sociality on brain evolution in ants, a premier clade of eusocial insects, we statistically analyzed patterns of brain region size covariation as a proxy for brain region connectivity. We investigated brain structure covariance in young and old workers of two formicine ants, the Australasian weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina, a pinnacle of social complexity in insects, and its socially basic sister clade Formica subsericea...
April 12, 2019: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30943507/brain-changes-during-phyletic-dwarfing-in-elephants-and-hippos
#2
George A Lyras
Of all known insular mammals, hippos and elephants present the extremes of body size decrease, reducing to 4 and a mere 2% of their ancestral mainland size, respectively. Despite the numerous studies on these taxa, what happens to their relative brain size during phyletic dwarfing is not well known, and results are sometimes conflicting. For example, relative brain size increase has been noted in the Sicilian dwarf elephant, Palaeoloxodon falconeri, whereas relative brain size decrease has been postulated for Malagasy dwarf hippos...
April 3, 2019: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30870852/thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-caiman-crocodilus-immunohistochemical-staining
#3
Michael B Pritz
The thalamic reticular nucleus in reptiles, Caiman crocodilus, shares a number of morphological similarities with its counterpart in mammals. In view of the immunohistochemical properties of this nucleus in mammals and the more recently identified complexity of this neuronal aggregate in Caiman, this nucleus was investigated using a number of antibodies. These results were compared with findings described for other amniotes. The following antibodies gave consistent and reproducible results: polyclonal sheep anti-parvalbumin (PV), monoclonal mouse anti-PV, and polyclonal sheep anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)...
March 14, 2019: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30820010/sensory-specializations-of-mormyrid-fish-are-associated-with-species-differences-in-electric-signal-localization-behavior
#4
Alejandro Vélez, Da Yeon Ryoo, Bruce A Carlson
The ability to localize communication signals plays a fundamental role in social interactions. For signal localization to take place, the sensory system of the receiver must extract information about distance and direction to the sender from physical characteristics of the signal. In many sensory systems, information from multiple peripheral receptors must be integrated by central sensory pathways to determine the sender location. Here, we asked whether evolutionary divergence in the electrosensory and visual systems of mormyrid fish is associated with signal localization behavior...
March 1, 2019: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30799395/eye-optics-in-semiaquatic-mammals-for-aerial-and-aquatic-vision
#5
Alla M Mass, Alexander Ya Supin
Based on anatomical measurements of refractive structures in the eye, the positions of focused images were computed for several groups of semiaquatic mammals: rodents, a nonpinniped semiaquatic carnivore (the sea otter), and pinniped carnivores (seals, sea lions, and the walrus). In semiaquatic rodents, eye optics enable emmetropia in the air but cause substantial hypermetropia in the water. In semiaquatic carnivores, there are several mechanisms for amphibious vision that focus images on the retina in both air and water...
February 21, 2019: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783037/erratum
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677755/retinal-topography-in-two-species-of-baleen-whale-cetacea-mysticeti
#7
Thomas J Lisney, Shaun P Collin
Little is known about the visual systems of large baleen whales (Mysticeti: Cetacea). In this study, we investigate eye morphology and the topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in two species of mysticete, Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni) and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeanglia). Both species have large eyes characterised by a thickened cornea, a heavily thickened sclera, a highly vascularised fibro-adipose bundle surrounding the optic nerve at the back of the eye, and a reflective blue-green tapetum fibrosum...
January 24, 2019: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30138937/the-38th-annual-meeting-of-the-j-b-johnston-club-for-evolutionary-neuroscience-and-the-30th-annual-karger-workshop-in-evolutionary-neuroscience-abstracts
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30415265/evolution-of-endolymph-secretion-and-endolymphatic-potential-generation-in-the-vertebrate-inner-ear
#9
REVIEW
Christine Köppl, Viviane Wilms, Ian John Russell, Hans Gerd Nothwang
The ear of extant vertebrates reflects multiple independent evolutionary trajectories. Examples include the middle ear or the unique specializations of the mammalian cochlea. Another striking difference between vertebrate inner ears concerns the differences in the magnitude of the endolymphatic potential. This differs both between the vestibular and auditory part of the inner ear as well as between the auditory periphery in different vertebrates. Here we provide a comparison of the cellular and molecular mechanisms in different endorgans across vertebrates...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30415261/brain-and-body-size-relations-among-spotted-hyenas-crocuta-crocuta
#10
Michael D Mann, Lawrence G Frank, Stephen E Glickman, Arnold L Towe
The relationship between brain size and body size across species "from mouse to elephant" is described by a function of positive slope. Almost uniformly, the relationship between brain size and body size within a species has a positive slope, though this is less steep than across species. The spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, differs from most other mammals in a number of ways including the fact that, on average, adult females weigh more than adult males and occasionally display greater body lengths...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30380540/how-not-to-be-turned-into-a-zombie
#11
Kenneth C Catania
The emerald jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa) is renowned for its ability to zombify the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) with a sting to the brain. When the venom takes effect, the cockroach becomes passive and can be led by its antenna into a hole, where the wasp deposits an egg and then seals the exit with debris. The cockroach has the ability to walk, run, or fly if properly stimulated, but it does not try to escape as it is slowly eaten alive by the developing wasp larva. Although the composition and effects of the wasp's venom have been investigated, no studies have detailed how cockroaches might prevent this grim fate...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30212810/environmental-influences-on-neuromorphology-in-the-non-native-starling-sturnus-vulgaris
#12
Adam P A Cardilini, Sarah Micallef, Valerie R Bishop, Craig D H Sherman, Simone L Meddle, Katherine L Buchanan
Cognitive traits are predicted to be under intense selection in animals moving into new environments and may determine the success, or otherwise, of dispersal and invasions. In particular, spatial information related to resource distribution is an important determinant of neural development. Spatial information is predicted to vary for invasive species encountering novel environments. However, few studies have tested how cognition or neural development varies intraspecifically within an invasive species. In Australia, the non-native common starling Sturnus vulgaris inhabits a range of habitats that vary in seasonal resource availability and distribution...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30176658/the-role-of-acetylcholine-in-attention-in-turtles-chrysemys-picta
#13
Vanessa Naimoli, Jennifer Donnelly-Greenberg, Nicolette M Gabel, Daniel J Libby, Emily R Panigrosso, Kathryn Rhindress, Alice Schade Powers
Research on mammals and turtles has suggested that acetylcholine is involved in attention in these groups. Two experiments investigated the ability of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) to ignore irrelevant stimuli when the basal forebrain acetylcholine system was compromised. In experiment 1, turtles given lesions of the basal magnocellular cholinergic nucleus (NBM) or sham lesions were tested on a go/no go discrimination between horizontal and vertical stripes with or without irrelevant inserts in the box...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30130751/retinal-morphology-and-visual-specializations-in-three-species-of-chimaeras-the-deep-sea-r-pacifica-and-c-lignaria-and-the-vertical-migrator-c-milii-holocephali
#14
Eduardo Garza-Gisholt, Nathan S Hart, Shaun P Collin
The majority of holocephalans live in the mesopelagic zone of the deep ocean, where there is little or no sunlight, but some species migrate to brightly lit shallow waters to reproduce. This study compares the retinal morphology of two species of deep-sea chimaeras, the Pacific spookfish (Rhinochimaera pacifica) and the Carpenter's chimaera (Chimaera lignaria), with the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a vertical migrator that lives in the mesopelagic zone but migrates to shallow water to reproduce. The two deep-sea chimaera species possess pure rod retinae with long photoreceptor outer segments that might serve to increase visual sensitivity...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30099466/title-page-table-of-contents
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30099465/from-fossils-to-function-integrative-and-taxonomically-inclusive-approaches-to-vertebrate-evolutionary-neuroscience
#16
Ashley C Morhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30099464/development-and-evolution-of-cerebral-and-cerebellar-cortex
#17
David C Van Essen, Chad J Donahue, Matthew F Glasser
Cerebral cortex and cerebellar cortex both vary enormously across species in their size and complexity of convolutions. We discuss the development and evolution of cortical structures in terms of anatomy and functional organization. We propose that the distinctive shapes of cerebral and cerebellar cortex can be explained by relatively few developmental processes, notably including mechanical tension along axons and dendrites. Regarding functional organization, we show how maps of myelin content in cerebral cortex are evolutionarily conserved across primates but differ in the proportion of cortex devoted to sensory, cognitive, and other functions...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30099463/the-utility-of-dicect-imaging-for-high-throughput-comparative-neuroanatomical-studies
#18
Paul M Gignac, Nathan J Kley
Advancements in imaging techniques have drastically improved our ability to visualize, study, and digitally share complex, often minute, anatomical relationships. The recent adoption of soft-tissue X-ray imaging techniques, such as diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT), is beginning to offer previously unattainable insights into the detailed configurations of soft- tissue complexes across Metazoa. As a contrast agent, dissolved iodine diffuses deeply throughout preserved specimens to bind fats and carbohydrates that are natural ly present within metazoan soft tissues, increasing the radiodensities of these tissues in predictable ways...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30099462/augmenting-trait-dependent-diversification-estimations-with-fossil-evidence-a-case-study-using-osmoregulatory-neurovasculature
#19
Haley D O'Brien
When comparative neuromorphological studies are extended into evolutionary contexts, traits of interest are often linked to diversification patterns. Features demonstrably associated with increases in diversification rates and the infiltration or occupation of novel niche spaces are often termed "key innovations." Within the past decade, phylogenetically informed methods have been developed to test key innovation hypotheses and evaluate the influence these traits have had in shaping modern faunas...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30099461/comparative-primate-connectomics
#20
James K Rilling, Martijn P van den Heuvel
A connectome is a comprehensive map of neural connections of a species nervous system. While recent work has begun comparing connectomes across a wide breadth of species, we present here a more detailed and specific comparison of connectomes across the primate order. Long-range connections are thought to improve communication efficiency and thus brain function but are costly in terms of energy and space utilization. Methods for measuring connectivity in the brain include measuring white matter volume, histological cell counting, anatomical tract tracing, diffusion-weighted imaging and tractography, and functional connectivity in MRI...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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