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Physiology & Behavior

Renata Fiche da Mata Gonçalves, Danyela de Almeida Barreto, Pâmela Ione Monteiro, Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo, Paula Midori Castelo, Andries van der Bilt, Luciano José Pereira
The use of smartphones during meals may possibly influence the number of ingested calories. We evaluated the influence of smartphones' distraction during eating on caloric intake. Physical (masticatory parameters, sex and body mass index - BMI); environmental (with or without distraction) and psychological (stress levels) variables were evaluated as confounding factors. Sixty-two adults were recruited for experimental snack tests performed on four different days. At baseline, we evaluated masticatory performance, swallowing threshold, masticatory frequency and body mass index (BMI)...
February 15, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Júlia Maria Tonin Geiss, Sara Sagae, Edson Duarte Ribeiro Paz, Mayara Lutchemeyer de Freitas, Naiéli Schiefelbein Souto, Ana Flavia Furian, Mauro Schneider Oliveira, Gustavo Petri Guerra
The excessive consumption of alcohol affects the central nervous system, resulting in memory and learning deficits. Lutein is a carotenoid known for its antioxidant properties, which can be able to prevent neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive deficits. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of lutein on ethanol-induced memory deficits in the object recognition task in adult rats, as well as the possible involvement of oxidative stress and cholinergic system. Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups receiving lutein (50 mg/kg) or olive oil (1 mL/kg) by oral gavage once daily for 14 days...
February 14, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Harish S Appiakannan, Daniel R Kestyus, E Todd Weber
Both high-fat diet and chronic circadian disruption have been associated with increased incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Chronically elevated glucocorticoids, which have considerable impacts on physiological processes such as intermediary metabolism, inflammation, and fat metabolism, have also been implicated in insulin resistance associated with obesity and diabetes. In this study, the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) or chronic circadian challenge in C57BL/6J mice on basal and stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose levels were assessed...
February 12, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Mitra Ansari Dezfouli, Maryam Zahmatkesh, Maryam Farahmandfar, Fariba Khodagholi
Melatonin has a potential therapeutic value in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease that is associated with a dramatic decline in memory and cognitive abilities. The aggregation of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, a hallmark of AD, deactivates mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defenses. Melatonin as an endogenous antioxidant, decreases in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients. Even though several experimental studies have demonstrated the melatonin neuroprotection in AD, clinical trials of melatonin therapy have not yet confirmed outstanding results in AD patients...
February 12, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Raimo Pohjanvirta, Selma Mahiout
Previous studies have shown that several aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists, including β-naphthoflavone (BNF), elicit avoidance of novel food items in rodents, with this behavioral response displaying a similar dose-response to hepatic induction of CYP1A1. The avoidance has been found to bear substantial similarity to conditioned taste avoidance/aversion (CTA). The present study set out to confirm the indispensability of AHR in the avoidance response, to verify whether vagal afferent fibers are involved in it, and to see if AHR signaling might interfere with the effect of the classic trigger of CTA, LiCl...
February 12, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Luke Haile, Fredric L Goss, Joseph L Andreacci, Elizabeth F Nagle, Robert J Robertson
Self-selected intensity exercise has resulted in greater affective responses (AR) compared to prescribed exercise of similar intensity and many individuals self-select intensity at a moderate level identified by metabolic analysis. As such, self-selected intensity may be an effective alternative for exercise prescription designed to promote adherence and result in health and fitness benefits. Self-selected intensity has not been well described for many subject populations and exercise modes. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to measure affective and metabolic responses during self-selected intensity cycle exercise in college-aged men...
February 11, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Dominique Musselman, Neeta Shenvi, Amita Manatunga, Andrew H Miller, Edward Lin, Nana Gletsu-Miller
BACKGROUND: Neurobehavioral symptoms and cognitive dysfunction related to mood disorders are present in individuals with severe obesity. We sought to determine acute improvements in these symptoms and relationships with adiposity, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity after roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. METHODS: The self-report Zung Depression Rating (ZDRS) and Neurotoxicity Rating (NRS) scales were administered before, and at 6-months after RYGB surgery in severely obese women (body mass index > 35 kg/m2 ; N = 19)...
February 11, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Wolfgang Langhans
I was flattered and felt tremendously honored to receive the 2018 Distinguished Career Award (DCA) from SSIB, the society that I always considered my scientific home, my family. Preparing the award lecture, I reflected about defining features of my career. This paper summarizes this very personal retrospective. As you will read, serendipity and more or less spontaneous decisions; i.e., some luck to be in the right place at the right time, and spontaneity to grab an opportunity when it presented itself, played a major role, and not necessarily a thorough analysis of my life situation at various junctions of my career path...
February 9, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Lianjin Weng, Shuqi Dong, Shuangshuang Wang, Litao Yi, Di Geng
Macranthol is a lignans natural product isolated from Illicium dunnianum Tutch. Our previous studies have shown that BDNF dependent signaling pathway activation was involved in the antidepressant-like effects of macranthol. However, it is not clear whether neuro-inflammation suppression is involved in the effects of macranthol. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to determine whether macranthol affected the neuro-inflammation system in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice by measuring pro-inflammatory cytokines and CD11b...
February 9, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Paulo Estevão Franco-Alvarenga, Cayque Brietzke, Raul Canestri, Márcio Fagundes Goethel, Florentina Hettinga, Tony Meireles Santos, Flávio Oliveira Pires
PURPOSE: To verify whether caffeine (CAF) could increase the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation and improve 20 km cycling time trial (TT20km ) performance in mentally fatigued cyclists. METHODS: After preliminary TT20km , twelve recreational cyclists (VO2MAX of 58.9 ± 6.2 mL kg min-1 ) performed a familiarization with a cognitive test to induce mental fatigue (MF) and psychological scales. Thereafter, they performed: 2) a baseline TT20km ; 3) a mentally fatigued TT20km (MF); 4 and 5) a mentally fatigued TT20km after CAF (MF + CAF) or placebo (MF + PLA) ingestion, in a double-blind, counterbalanced design...
February 8, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Mehdi Farokhnia, Monica L Faulkner, Daria Piacentino, Mary R Lee, Lorenzo Leggio
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, treatment options, including pharmacotherapies, are limited in number and efficacy. Accumulating evidence suggests that elements of the gut-brain axis, such as neuroendocrine pathways and gut microbiome, are involved in the pathophysiology of AUD and, therefore, may be investigated as potential therapeutic targets. One pathway that has begun to be examined in this regard is the ghrelin system. Here, we review preclinical and clinical data on the relationship between ghrelin and alcohol-related outcomes, with a special focus on the role of the ghrelin system as a treatment target for AUD...
February 7, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Todd A Astorino, Ailish C Sheard
High intensity interval exercise (HIIE) is identified as an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) due to its similar effects on outcomes including maximal oxygen uptake and glycemic control. Nevertheless, its widespread implementation in adults is questioned because acute HIIE elicits more aversive responses (negative affective valence) than MICE which may make it impractical to perform long-term. Differences in muscle mass, fiber type, and substrate utilization exist between men and women that alter physiological responses which may cause differences in affective valence, yet the effect of sex on this outcome is unresolved...
February 7, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Olesya T Shevchouk, Gregory F Ball, Charlotte A Cornil, Jacques Balthazart
Testosterone activates singing within days in castrated male songbirds but full song quality only develops after a few weeks. Lesions of the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) inhibit while stereotaxic testosterone implants into this nucleus increase singing rate suggesting that this site plays a key role in the regulation of singing motivation. Testosterone action in the song control system works in parallel to control song quality. Accordingly, systemic testosterone increases POM volume within 1-2 days in female canaries, while the increase in volume of song control nuclei takes at least 2 weeks...
February 6, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Masanori Ogata, Hisanao Akita, Hitoshi Ishibashi
The dopaminergic neural system plays a crucial role in motor regulation as well as regulation of anxiety-related behaviors. Although rats with neonatal dopamine depletion exhibit motor hyperactivity and have been utilized as animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, characterization of their behavior under anxiogenic conditions is lacking. In the present study, we investigated behavioral responses to anxiogenic stimuli in young adult rats with neonatal dopamine depletion using the open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), and light/dark (L/B) box tests...
February 6, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
M Pajcin, S Banks, J Dorrian, C C Gupta, A M Coates, C L Grant, J M White, C B Della Vedova
Sleep loss is one of the most common causes of accidents and errors in operational environments. Currently, no single method satisfies all of the requisite criteria of an effective system for assessing the risk of injury prior to safety being compromised. Research has concentrated towards the development of a biomarker for individualized assessment of sleepiness-related deficits in neurobehavioral alertness, with salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) recently reported as a potential biomarker during acute total sleep deprivation...
February 4, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Ida Sörensen, Mats Amundin, Matthias Laska
Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) are known to strongly rely on chemical signals for social communication. However, little is known about their use of the sense of smell in foraging and food detection. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether captive meerkats are able to (1) detect hidden food using olfactory cues alone, (2) discriminate between the odor of real food and a single food odor component, and (3) build an association between the odor of real food and a novel odor. We employed the buried food test, widely used with rodents to assess basic olfactory abilities and designed to take advantage of the propensity of certain species to dig...
February 3, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
María Ángeles García-León, José Manuel Pérez-Mármol, Raquel Gonzalez-Perez, María Del Carmen García-Ríos, María Isabel Peralta-Ramírez
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus about how resilience is related to the different types of stress such as daily or chronic stress and psychopathology. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between resilience and the different measures of stress such as perceived stress, chronic stress, life events, HPA axis response during a stressful task and psychopathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The design was cross-sectional. Resilience, perceived stress, stressful life events, hair cortisol and HPA axis response during Trier Social Stress Test measured by salivary cortisol samples and psychopathological symptoms were assessed in a sample of 80 University students...
February 3, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Alexandra Destrez, Pauline Grimm, Véronique Julliand
The bidirectional communication between the central and the enteric nervous system named the gut-brain axis has been widely recognized. The gut microbiota has been implicated in a variety of stress-related conditions including anxiety, depression and irritable bowel syndrome based on rodent studies or correlative analysis in human patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent changes in behavior during stressful events and in the microbial composition of the colonic ecosystem were associated in horses...
February 3, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Marcelo Magalhães Sales, Caio Victor Sousa, Polissandro Mortoza Alves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Pablo Ruisoto, Israel Contador
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence and burden to society of drug abuse and addiction is undisputed. However, its conceptualisation as a brain disease is controversial, and available interventions insufficient. Research on the role of stress in drug addiction may bridge positions and develop more effective interventions. AIM: The aim of this paper is to integrate the most influential literature to date on the role of stress in drug addiction. METHODS: A literature search was conducted of the core collections of Web of Science and Semantic Scholar on the topic of stress and addiction from a neurobiological perspective in humans...
January 31, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
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