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Environmental Research

Min Nian, Qing-Qing Li, Michael Bloom, Zhengmin Min Qian, Kevin M Syberg, Michael G Vaughn, Si-Quan Wang, Qi Wei, Mohammed Zeeshan, Namratha Gurram, Chu Chu, Jia Wang, Yan-Peng Tian, Li-Wen Hu, Kang-Kang Liu, Bo-Yi Yang, Ru-Qing Liu, Dan Feng, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Guang-Hui Dong
Exposure to chemicals may affect liver enzyme to increase the risk of liver diseases. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are one kind of persistent organic pollutants with hepatotoxic effect in organism. However, data is scarce to characterize the hepatotoxic effects of specific structural PFAA isomers in general population. To address this data gap, we evaluated the association between serum PFAAs concentration and liver function biomarkers in the Isomers of C8 Health Project in China. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to measure 18 serum PFAAs, except for linear and branched isomers of PFOA/PFOS, nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were also included, in 1605 adult residents of Shenyang, China...
February 11, 2019: Environmental Research
Barouch Giechaskiel, Tero Lähde, Yannis Drossinos
Light-duty vehicle emission regulation in the European Union requires the dilution of the whole exhaust in a dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling prior to emission measurements. This methodology avoids measurement uncertainties associated with direct raw exhaust emission measurements from the tailpipe, such as exhaust flow determination, exhaust flow pressure pulsations, differences in the response time between exhaust flow and instrument signals, or their misalignment. Transfer tubes connecting the tailpipe to the dilution tunnel of different lengths, and mixing of the exhaust gas with the dilution air in the dilution tunnel may increase differences in measurements performed at different facilities...
February 7, 2019: Environmental Research
Qixiao Zhai, Shi Cen, Jinchi Jiang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder that is characterized by impairments of reciprocal social interaction and restricted stereotyped repetitive behavior. The goal of the present study was to investigate the trace element and gut microbiota profiles of Chinese autistic children and screen out potential metallic or microbial indicators of the disease. One hundred and thirty-six children (78 with ASD and 58 healthy controls) aged from 3 to 7 years were enrolled. The levels of lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, zinc, iron, mercury, calcium and magnesium in hair samples from the children were analyzed...
February 5, 2019: Environmental Research
Giovanni Pagano, Philippe J Thomas, Aldo Di Nunzio, Marco Trifuoggi
The extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) in a number of technologies is expected to impact on human health, including occupational and environmental REE exposures. A body of experimental evidence on REE-associated toxicity has been accumulated in recent decades, thus providing extensive background information on the adverse effects of REE exposures. Unlike experimental studies, the consequences of REE exposures to human health have been subjected to relatively fewer investigations. Geographical studies have been conducted on residents in REE mining districts, reporting on REE bioaccumulation, and associations between REE residential exposures and adverse health effects...
February 4, 2019: Environmental Research
Navish Kataria, V K Garg
This work explored the potential of magnetic sawdust carbon nanocomposites for cationic dyes removal from aqueous medium. EDTA modified magnetic sawdust carbon nanocomposites (EDTA@Fe3 O4 /SC ncs) were prepared by biogenic green reduction and precipitation approach. The surface properties, structure and composition of nanocomposites were characterized by HRTEM, FESEM, XRD, EDX, BET, FTIR etc. The Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were 10-20 nm in diameters and having 14 m2 /g surface area. Removal of Methylene blue (MB) and Brilliant green (BG) dyes from aqueous medium was studied in batch mode experiments...
February 2, 2019: Environmental Research
Joonwoo Park, Choa Park, Myung Chan Gye, Youngjoo Lee
Plastic products are closely intertwined with modern life. Some plasticizers used in making plastics, such as phthalates, are reported to be endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Plasticizers can be released into the environment, and health risks related to plasticizer exposure have been reported. In addition, due to plastic waste that flows into the ocean, microplastics have been found in marine products, including non-biological seawater products such as sea salt. Plastics can affect the body via a variety of pathways, and therefore safer alternative chemicals are needed...
February 2, 2019: Environmental Research
Imane Abbas, Ghidaa Badran, Anthony Verdin, Frédéric Ledoux, Mohamed Roumie, Jean-Marc Lo Guidice, Dominique Courcot, Guillaume Garçon
A particular attention has been devoted to the type of toxicological responses induced by particulate matter (PM), since their knowledge is greatly complicated by the fact that it is a heterogeneous and often poorly described pollutant. However, despite intensive research effort, there is still a lack of knowledge about the specific chemical fraction of PM, which could be mainly responsible of its adverse health effects. We sought also to better investigate the toxicological effects of organic extractable matter (OEM) in normal human bronchial epithelial lung BEAS-2B cells...
January 31, 2019: Environmental Research
Andrea E Cassidy-Bushrow, Kuan-Han Hank Wu, Alexandra R Sitarik, Sung Kyun Park, Lawrence F Bielak, Christine Austin, Chris Gennings, Paul Curtin, Christine Cole Johnson, Manish Arora
A growing number of studies have examined associations of metal exposures with birth outcomes, however, results from these studies have been inconsistent, and hampered by methodological limitations. We measured direct fetal exposure to three metals (lead, manganese and zinc) during the second and third trimester and examined its association with birth weight and gestational age at delivery. Participants in the Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy and Asthma Longitudinal Study (WHEALS), a population-based birth cohort established between September 2003 and December 2007, were invited to donate teeth to the study...
January 31, 2019: Environmental Research
Muhammad Naveed Afridi, Won-Hee Lee, Jong-Oh Kim
Phosphorus is a necessary nutrient for the growth and survival of living beings. Nevertheless, an oversupply of phosphorus in wastewater results in eutrophication. Therefore, its removal from wastewater is important. However, coexisting components, such as anions, heavy metals, and organic matter, might inhibit the phosphate-adsorption mechanism by competing for the active surface sites of the adsorbent. In this study, iron oxide nanoflakes (INFs) were fabricated on iron foil via anodization. The rate of phosphate adsorption from wastewater onto INFs in the presence of three different coexisting components-anions, heavy metals, and organic matter-was evaluated...
January 31, 2019: Environmental Research
Arushi Gupta, Sanjeev K Bhardwaj, Amit L Sharma, Ki-Hyun Kim, Akash Deep
Because of numerous merits (e.g., the possibility of their synthesis in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D forms, large surface-to-volume ratio, and flexible framework functionality), metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are envisaged as excellent media for the development of biosensors for diverse analytes present in environmental media. The present research work, for the first time, reports the development of a Cu-MOF based electrochemical biosensor for highly sensitive detection of E. coli bacteria. In order to realize an MOF-based electrochemically active platform, Cu3 (BTC)2 (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) was mixed with polyaniline (PANI)...
January 30, 2019: Environmental Research
Vikash Bharti, Kumar Vikrant, Mandavi Goswami, Himanshu Tiwari, Ravi Kumar Sonwani, Jechan Lee, Daniel C W Tsang, Ki-Hyun Kim, Mohd Saeed, Sunil Kumar, Birendra Nath Rai, Balendu Shekher Giri, Ram Sharan Singh
Bacterial species for metabolizing dye molecules were isolated from dye rich water bodies. The best microbial species for such an application was selected amongst the isolated bacterial populations by conducting methylene blue (MB) batch degradation studies with the bacterial strains using NaCl-yeast as a nutrient medium. The most suitable bacterial species was Alcaligenes faecalis (A. faecalis) according to 16S rDNA sequencing. Process parameters were optimized and under the optimum conditions (e.g., inoculum size of 3 mL, temperature of 30 °C, 150 ppm, and time of 5 days), 96...
January 30, 2019: Environmental Research
Jong-Min Jung, Jeong-Ik Oh, Young-Kwon Park, Jechan Lee, Eilhann E Kwon
This study employs chicken manure as a feedstock to produce different forms of energy to abate environmental burdens. To achieve ultimate carbon management, the possible utilization of CO2 during pyrolysis of chicken manure was fundamentally investigated. The roles of CO2 in pyrolysis of chicken manure include enhanced thermal cracking and shifting of the carbon distribution via reaction between volatile organic compounds and CO2 . The identified roles induced by CO2 were catalytically enhanced because of the inorganic content in the feedstock...
January 30, 2019: Environmental Research
Carly Hyland, Asa Bradman, Roy Gerona, Sharyle Patton, Igor Zakharevich, Robert B Gunier, Kendra Klein
BACKGROUND: Previous diet intervention studies indicate that an organic diet can reduce urinary pesticide metabolite excretion; however, they have largely focused on organophosphate (OP) pesticides. Knowledge gaps exist regarding the impact of an organic diet on exposure to other pesticides, including pyrethroids and neonicotinoids, which are increasing in use in the United States and globally. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of an organic diet intervention on levels of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides or their metabolites in urine collected from adults and children...
January 29, 2019: Environmental Research
Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Silvia Espín, Sandra Ruiz, Janina Stauffer, Mirella Kanerva, Antonio J García-Fernández, Tapio Eeva
Calcium has been proposed to diminish metal toxicity by the modulation of the oxidative stress. This study explores the effects of Ca availability and metal exposure on oxidative stress biomarkers in great tit (Parus major) nestlings. Nests were supplemented with Ca (Ca-supplemented group) or not supplemented (Control group) in a metal-polluted and a background zone in SW Finland. Metal concentrations were analyzed from feces. We analyzed antioxidants (tGSH, GSH:GSSG ratio, CAT, GST, GPx, SOD), protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation in red cells of nestlings...
January 29, 2019: Environmental Research
Arin A Balalian, Robin M Whyatt, Xinhua Liu, Beverly J Insel, Virginia A Rauh, Julie Herbstman, Pam Factor-Litvak
BACKGROUND: Previous reports suggest that prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with lower scores on measures of motor skills in infants and toddlers. Whether these associations persist into later childhood or preadolescence has not been studied. METHODS: In a follow up study of 209 inner-city mothers and their children the concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monomethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-carboxy-isooctyl phthalate (MCOP), and four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP) were measured in spot urine sample collected from the women in late pregnancy and from their children at ages 3, 5, and 7 years...
January 29, 2019: Environmental Research
Josef Krasa, Tomas Dostal, Barbora Jachymova, Miroslav Bauer, Jan Devaty
Spatially distributed modelling of sediment and phosphorus fluxes on a scale of thousands of square kilometers always involves a compromise between the quality of the data input and the complexity of the model that can be applied. WaTEM/SEDEM offers an approach that allows us to target on spatially focused outputs that can easily be implemented in the decision-making process for effective watershed control. The results for a study area covering the watersheds of 58 large reservoirs threatened by eutrophication within the Czech Republic are presented here as an example of the available analyses...
January 28, 2019: Environmental Research
Yuan Shi, Chao Ren, Meng Cai, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Tsz-Cheung Lee, Wai-Kin Wong
The number of extreme hot weather events have considerably increased in Hong Kong in the recent decades. The complex urban context of Hong Kong leads to a significant intra-urban spatial variability in climate. Under such circumstance, a spatial understanding of extreme hot weather condition is urgently needed for heat risk prevention and public health actions. In this study, the extreme hot weather events of Hong Kong were quantified and measured using two indicators - very hot day hours (VHDHs) and hot night hours (HNHs) which were counted based on the summertime hourly-resolved air temperature data from a total of 40 weather stations (WSs) from 2011 to 2015...
January 28, 2019: Environmental Research
Lucia Fábelová, Christopher A Loffredo, Jana Klánová, Klára Hilscherová, Milena Horvat, Juraj Tihányi, Denisa Richterová, Ľubica Palkovičová Murínová, Soňa Wimmerová, Renata Sisto, Arturo Moleti, Tomáš Trnovec
Hearing loss is an injury that can develop over time, and people may not even be aware of it until it becomes a severe disability. Ototoxicants are substances that may damage the inner ear by either affecting the structures in the ear itself or by affecting the nervous system. We have examined the possibility that ototoxicants may present a health hazard in association with environmental exposures, adding to existing knowledge of their proven hazards under medical therapeutic conditions or occupational activities...
January 26, 2019: Environmental Research
Emily J Rugel, Richard M Carpiano, Sarah B Henderson, Michael Brauer
In a rapidly urbanizing world, identifying evidence-based strategies to support healthy design is essential. Although urban living offers increased access to critical resources and can help to mitigate climate change, densely populated neighborhood environments are often higher in many of the physical and psychological stressors that are detrimental to health, and lower in the social capital that is beneficial to health. One component of urban form that can reduce these stressors and improve social capital is nature: greenspace, such as parks and street trees, and bluespace, such as rivers and oceans...
January 25, 2019: Environmental Research
Kefeng Yang, Pengcheng Xun, Mercedes Carnethon, April P Carson, Liping Lu, Jie Zhu, Ka He
Some studies suggest a positive association between arsenic exposure and risk of diabetes. However, the findings are inconsistent and inconclusive, particularly at a low to moderate arsenic exposure level, and longitudinal data are lacking. We examined toenail arsenic at low to moderate level in young adulthood in relation to incidence of diabetes later in life. This study included 4102 black and white participants aged 20-32 at baseline (1987-88) who completed up to 7 follow-up exams through 2015-16. Toenail arsenic was measured by collision-cell inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry...
January 25, 2019: Environmental Research
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