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Yong Cui, Yan Su, Liya Deng, Wenjing Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although the cure rate for retinoblastoma is high, surviving patients are at risk for developing secondary cancers and require life-long follow-up. It is imperative to discover and develop novel therapeutic agents with better efficiency and fewer adverse effects. Ginsenoside-Rg5 is an active derivate from ginseng and exerts anti-cancer activity in breast cancer cells. However, it is still unclear whether ginsenoside-Rg5 has similar anti-cancer functions in retinoblastoma...
February 7, 2019: Chemotherapy
Rachel J Gibson, Ysabella Z A van Sebille, Hannah R Wardill, Anthony Wignall, Joseph Shirren, Imogen A Ball, Nicole Williams, Kiara Wanner, Joanne M Bowen
BACKGROUND: The common cytotoxic mechanisms that underpin chemoefficacy and toxicity have hampered efforts to deliver effective supportive care interventions, particularly for gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in both tumor growth and GI toxicity, and as such MMP inhibitors present as a novel therapeutic avenue to simultaneously enhance treatment efficacy and reduce toxicity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an MMP-9/12 inhibitor, AZD3342, on tumor growth and GI toxicity in a rat model...
February 7, 2019: Chemotherapy
Kentaro Miyake, Tasuku Kiyuna, Shukuan Li, Qinghong Han, Yuying Tan, Ming Zhao, Hiromichi Oshiro, Kei Kawaguchi, Takashi Higuchi, Zhiying Zhang, Sahar Razmjooei, Maryam Barangi, Sintawat Wangsiricharoen, Takashi Murakami, Arun S Singh, Yunfeng Li, Scott D Nelson, Fritz C Eilber, Michael Bouvet, Yukihiko Hiroshima, Takashi Chishima, Ryusei Matsuyama, Shree Ram Singh, Itaru Endo, Robert M Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a recalcitrant disease in need of transformative therapeutics. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of tumor-selective Salmonella typhimurium A1-R combined with tumor metabolism targeting with oral administration of recombinant methioninase (o-rMETase), on an ES patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. METHODS: The ES PDOX models were previously established in the right chest wall...
January 23, 2019: Chemotherapy
Corine de Jong, Bas J M Peters, Franz M N H Schramel
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors heralded a new era in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. However, nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, can cause serious adverse events that are mostly autoimmune related. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old woman was treated with nivolumab as second-line therapy for stage IV adenocarcinoma. The patient developed a nivolumab-induced recurrent pneumonitis preceding durable clinical remission after seven cycles of nivolumab...
December 20, 2018: Chemotherapy
Yajie Cui, Li Qin, Defu Tian, Ting Wang, Lijing Fan, Peilian Zhang, Zhongqi Wang
Ovarian cancer is one of the deadliest gynecological malignancies in women. Chemoresistance has been a major obstacle for ovarian cancer treatment. Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is an important regulator of tumor development in various types of cancer. Abnormal expression of SLC3A2 (CD98hc), a type 2 transmembrane cell surface molecule, has been described in several cancers. This study was designed to investigate the role of ZEB1 and SLC3A2 in the chemoresistance to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells...
November 27, 2018: Chemotherapy
Masahiro Yamasaki, Kunihiko Funaishi, Naomi Saito, Ken-Ichi Sakamoto, Sayaka Ishiyama, Kazuma Kawamoto, Yu Matsumoto, Naoko Matsumoto, Masaya Taniwaki, Nobuyuki Ohashi, Noboru Hattori
BACKGROUND: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) rarely coexists with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium intracellular complex (MAC) infection. The key drug for SCLC treatment is etoposide, which is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4. Meanwhile, the key drugs for pulmonary MAC infection are clarithromycin (CAM) and rifampicin (RFP), and their metabolism influences CYP3A4. Therefore, treatment of concurrent SCLC and pulmonary MAC infection is difficult, and to the best of our knowledge, no report of treatments for concurrent SCLC and pulmonary MAC infection has been published...
November 22, 2018: Chemotherapy
Francesco Marchesi, Corrado Girmenia, Bianca Maria Goffredo, Emanuela Salvatorelli, Atelda Romano, Andrea Mengarelli, Giorgio Minotti, Pierantonio Menna
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Voriconazole (VCZ) and posaconazole (PCZ) remain the most widely used antifungals for the prophylaxis and treatment of IFD. However, VCZ and PCZ are liable for drug-drug interactions and show a pharmacokinetic variability that requires therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Isavuconazole (IVZ) is a newest generation triazole antifungal approved for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in adult patients and for the treatment of invasive mucormycosis in adult patients for whom treatment with amphotericin B is inappropriate...
November 20, 2018: Chemotherapy
Mustafa Karaca, Deniz Tural, Emre Akar, İbrahim Çil, Savaş Bayrak, Gulsum Ozet, Orhan Kemal Yucel, Erhan Hocaoglu, Ahmet Ozet
OBJECTIVE: The reactivation rate of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in cancer patients and chemotherapy regimens thought to be associated with hepatitis reactivation were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 3,890 cancer patients were included in this study. Mortality rates, chemotherapy regimens, cancer types, number of positive hepatitis serology and reactivation rates were obtained. RESULTS: Only 354 patients had positive hepatitis serology results (HBsAg+)...
November 8, 2018: Chemotherapy
Eugenio Piro, Maria Lentini, Luciano Levato, Antonio Russo, Stefano Molica
Iron overload (IOL) due to transfusion-dependent anemia is a serious adverse effect in patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Recent studies have shown that the oral iron chelator deferasirox may prevent multiple organ damage due to IOL in MF. However, it is not clear whether deferasirox may contribute to revert transfusion-dependent anemia. Here, we present a patient with transfusion-dependent intermediate-2 MF according to the International Prognostic Scoring System treated with ruxolitinib in combination with deferasirox...
April 25, 2018: Chemotherapy
Dao-Hai Cheng, Hua Lu, Tao-Tao Liu, Xiao-Qin Zou, Hui-Mei Pang
AIMS: Although high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) is an effective means for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the development of renal dysfunction remains a significant management challenge. This study aimed to identify the key factors in HDMTX-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in childhood ALL. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data in 1,329 courses of HDMTX treatment in 336 Chinese ALL children at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from September 2012 to November 2016...
April 19, 2018: Chemotherapy
Hongzhang Ji, Changyue Wu, Min Ni, Nannan Feng, Chan Wang, Yu Zhao, Lingyan Liu, Shengju Yang, Xiaofeng Bao
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia is a group of bacterial pathogens distributed worldwide that can lead to serious reproductive and other health problems. The rise of antibiotic-resistant pathogens promotes the development of novel antichlamydial agents. The aim of this study is to assess in vitro antichlamydial activity of our previously synthesized 1,2,3,5- tetrasubstituted pyrroles. METHODS: The derivatives were screened for their antichlamydial activity against three Chlamydia strains by calculating IC50 values using concentration-response inhibition data between 1 and 32 μM...
April 12, 2018: Chemotherapy
Maria Baimas-George, Erin Baker, Michal Kamionek, J Stuart Salmon, Amit Sastry, David Levi, Dionisios Vrochides
Advances in the systemic treatment of stage IV colorectal cancer with liver metastases has offered improved survival rates for patients who otherwise face a dismal prognosis. However, a pathologically complete response (PCR) to chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases is still rare, and its significance is not fully understood. In this case report, we describe a patient who achieved PCR after neoadjuvant immunotherapy with pembrolizumab and a left hepatectomy using an ex vivo resection technique.
April 5, 2018: Chemotherapy
Michele Fiore, Rolando Maria D Apos Angelillo, Carlo Greco, Iacopo Fioroni, Edy Ippolito, Daniele Santini, Sara Ramella
Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has seen substantial progress over the last decade. A number of targeted therapies have been shown to improve clinical outcome. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are an effective option in treating mRCC. RCC is traditionally perceived to be a radioresistant malignancy with a limited role of radiotherapy (RT) in the management of localized disease. While RCC appears to be radioresistant using conventionally fractionated RT, preclinical data suggest increased radiosensitivity when an ablative, hypofractionated schedule is used...
March 19, 2018: Chemotherapy
Edy Ippolito, Barnaba Floreno, Carla Germana Rinaldi, Lucio Trodella, Federica Loretta Meroni, Aurelia Iurato, Rolando Maria D'Angelillo, Sara Ramella, Michele Fiore
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of a propolis-based syrup, FARINGEL®, in preventing radiation-induced esophagitis in locally advanced lung cancer patients. METHODS: Patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using involved-field radiotherapy (RT). Every patient received FARINGEL at the beginning of CRT until the first follow-up. The data of the study group were compared with the data of a control group treated without the administration of the syrup...
March 19, 2018: Chemotherapy
Ornella Franzese, Maria Luisa Barbaccia, Enzo Bonmassar, Grazia Graziani
Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy more than 2 decades ago, HIV-related deaths have dramatically decreased and HIV infection has become a chronic disease. Due to the inability of antiretroviral drugs to eradicate the virus, treatment of HIV infection requires a systemic lifelong therapy. However, even when successfully treated, HIV patients still show increased incidence of age-associated co-morbidities compared with uninfected individuals. Virus- induced immunosenescence, a process characterized by a progressive decline of immune system function, contributes to the premature ageing observed in HIV patients...
March 13, 2018: Chemotherapy
Giorgio Minotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Chemotherapy
Monika Długosz-Danecka, Alicja M Gruszka, Sebastian Szmit, Agnieszka Olszanecka, Tomasz Ogórka, Marcin Sobociński, Andrzej Jaroszyński, Katarzyna Krawczyk, Aleksander B Skotnicki, Wojciech Jurczak
BACKGROUND: Advances in anti-lymphoma therapy prolong overall survival, making late adverse effects, like doxorubicin-related cardiotoxicity, an even more important clinical issue. The effectiveness of cardioprotective strategies with close monitoring, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or β-blockers as well as liposomal doxorubicin are still unconfirmed in clinical practice. METHODS: This study evaluated the role of a primary cardioprotection strategy in preventing cardiovascular mortality and heart failure occurrence in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients with a high risk of anthracycline cardiotoxicity...
2018: Chemotherapy
Haytham Khoury, Ruijuan He, Aaron Schimmer, James R Beadle, Karl Y Hostetler, Mark D Minden
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to be a deadly disease, with only 50-70% of patients achieving complete remission and less than 30% of adults having sustained long-term remissions. In order to address these unmet medical needs, we carried out a high-throughput screen of an in-house library of on- and off-patent drugs with the OCI/AML-2 cell line. Through this screen, we discovered adefovir dipi-voxil (adefovir-DP) as being active against human AML. In addition to adefovir-DP, there are second-generation formulations of adefovir, including octadecyloxyethyl adefovir (ODE-adefovir) and hexadecyloxypropyl adefovir (HDP-adefovir), which were designed to overcome the pharmacokinetic problems of the parent compound adefovir...
2018: Chemotherapy
Maria Cristina Pirosa, Salvatore Leotta, Alessandra Cupri, Stefania Stella, Enrica Antonia Martino, Luca Scalise, Giuseppe Sapienza, Valeria Calafiore, Elisa Mauro, Andrea Spadaro, Paolo Vigneri, Francesco Di Raimondo, Giuseppe Milone
Ph'+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph'+-ALL) is an oncohematologic disorder for which allogeneic bone marrow transplantation still offers the only chance of cure. However, relapse is the main reason for treatment failure, also after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). New drugs, such as third generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and monoclonal antibodies, have expanded the therapeutic landscape, especially in patients who relapsed before HSCT. Very few reports, up to now, have described the use of both classes of these new agents in combination with donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) in the setting of patients who relapsed after HSCT...
2018: Chemotherapy
Xiaoqin Li, Guomin Gu, Faris Soliman, Andrew J Sanders, Xiuli Wang, Chunling Liu
BACKGROUND: The overall survival (OS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is poor, with median OS of advanced NSCLC with standard systemic chemotherapy being reported at 13.6 months and the 5-year survival rate at less than 15%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Endostar combined with chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. METHODS: Data on 116 cases of pathologically confirmed stage IIIB-IV NSCLC were retrospectively collected. The control group was treated with chemotherapy combined with intravenous infusion of Endostar while the test group received durative transfusion of Endostar...
2018: Chemotherapy
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