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Psychophysiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758048/absence-of-conditioned-responding-in-humans-a-bad-measure-or-individual-differences
#1
Marie-France Marin, Florentine Barbey, Blake L Rosenbaum, Mira Z Hammoud, Scott P Orr, Mohammed R Milad
Skin conductance response (SCR) is often used as an index of conditioned fear. SCR has been shown to be highly variable, and absence of SC reactivity is sometimes used as criteria for excluding data. It is, however, possible that low or no SC reactivity is the result of a distinct biological signature that underlies individual differences in SCR reactivity. This study examined neural correlates associated with the near absence of SCR conditionability. Archival data from 109 healthy adults aged 18-60 years were pooled...
February 13, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734321/influence-of-cognitive-load-on-the-dynamics-of-neurophysiological-adjustments-during-fatiguing-exercise
#2
Cyril Chatain, Rémi Radel, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Tahar Rabahi, Jean-Marc Vallier, Thierry Bernard, Mathieu Gruet
We aimed to determine the neurophysiological mechanisms associated with reduced endurance performance during cognitive-motor dual task at different levels of cognitive load, compared to a motor task alone. Eighteen healthy men performed isometric quadriceps contractions at 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (blocks of 170 s interspaced by neuromuscular evaluations) until exhaustion. This task was performed on three separate days: (a) in the absence of concomitant cognitive task, (b) with concomitant 1-back task, and (c) with concomitant 2-back task...
February 7, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719737/blunted-neural-response-to-gains-versus-losses-associated-with-both-risk-prone-and-risk-averse-behavior-in-a-clinically-diverse-sample
#3
Ashley A Huggins, Anna Weinberg, Stephanie M Gorka, Stewart A Shankman
Reduced responsiveness to reward has been associated with both risk-prone and risk-averse behavior, common features of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology, respectively. Thus, evidence has suggested a potential quadratic relationship (i.e., inverted U) between reward sensitivity and risk-taking propensity. Blunted response to reward compared to loss may therefore demonstrate transdiagnostic utility as it relates to different patterns of maladaptive risk behavior. The current study sought to disentangle the relationship between risk and reward in a clinically diverse sample...
February 4, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710351/p300-and-positive-slow-waves-reveal-the-plausibility-in-inductive-reasoning
#4
Yi Lei, Jinxia Wang, Yuxi Zhu, Qingfei Chen, Hong Li
Category-based induction is an advanced cognitive function that is based on our category-level knowledge. Previous findings have recognized the distance effect in category-based induction: Inductive strength is affected by the hierarchical distance between the premises and conclusions. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect require elucidation. In the present study, we investigated the neural mechanisms of the distance effect by using EEG technology and a new experimental paradigm-category-based induction...
February 2, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710345/the-neural-sources-of-n170-understanding-timing-of-activation-in-face-selective-areas
#5
Chuanji Gao, Stefania Conte, John E Richards, Wanze Xie, Taylor Hanayik
The N170 ERP component has been widely identified as a face-sensitive neural marker. Despite extensive investigations conducted to examine the neural sources of N170, there are two issues in prior literature: (a) few studies used individualized anatomy as head model for the cortical source analysis of the N170, and (b) the relationship between the N170 and face-selective regions from fMRI studies is unclear. Here, we addressed these questions by presenting pictures of faces and houses to the same group of healthy adults and recording structural MRI, fMRI, and high-density ERPs in separate sessions...
February 2, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702155/interoceptive-accuracy-predicts-nonplanning-trait-impulsivity
#6
Aleksandra M Herman, Charlotte L Rae, Hugo D Critchley, Theodora Duka
Influential theories concerning personality argue that many impulsive individuals show physiological underarousal at rest. This interoceptive state is proposed to be egodystonic, motivating impulsive maladaptive actions to enhance arousal. However, there is little empirical research on this matter. The current study tested the relationship between physiological markers of arousal, measures of interoceptive (in)sensitivity, and trait impulsivity in a nonclinical sample of young adults. Experiment 1 investigated whether individuals (N = 31) with high trait impulsivity show decreased resting measures of arousal (indexed from heart rate, heart rate variability, and sympathetic electrodermal activity)...
January 31, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30693534/loneliness-and-biological-responses-to-acute-stress-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Ruth A Hackett, Lydia Poole, Elizabeth Hunt, Laura Panagi, Andrew Steptoe
Loneliness is linked with all-cause mortality and coronary heart disease. Altered neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses to stress constitute potential pathways linking loneliness and ill-health. Stress responsivity is modified in people with Type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether loneliness influences biological stress responses in this population. We assessed interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cortisol responses to acute stress in 135 people with Type 2 diabetes...
January 28, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30672603/respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-reactivity-across-empirically-based-structural-dimensions-of-psychopathology-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Theodore P Beauchaine, Ziv Bell, Erin Knapton, Heather McDonough-Caplan, Tiffany Shader, Aimee Zisner
Low resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is observed in many mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury, among others. Findings for RSA reactivity are more mixed. We evaluate associations between RSA reactivity and empirically derived structural categories of psychopathology-including internalizing, externalizing, and thought problems-among physically healthy adults. We searched multiple electronic databases for studies of RSA among participants who were assessed either dimensionally using well-validated measures or diagnostically using structured interviews...
January 23, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30672602/detailed-analysis-of-skin-conductance-responses-during-a-gambling-task-decision-anticipation-and-outcomes
#9
Thomas Agren, Philip Millroth, Peter Andersson, Måns Ridzén, Johannes Björkstrand
Physiological arousal is considered a key factor of gambling behavior. Hence, to understand gambling behavior it is important to study the arousal responses during gambling. Moreover, crucial mechanisms of action could be uncovered by detailing the situations that produce an arousal response. A gamble, or bet, can be partitioned into three distinct phases: (a) decision phase, during which the information concerning the gamble is presented, outcomes are appraised, and a decision is made on how to gamble; (b) anticipation phase, during which the result of the gamble is awaited; (c) outcome phase, during which the outcome of the gamble is presented...
January 23, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666661/sex-differences-in-interleukin-6-stress-responses-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Laura Panagi, Lydia Poole, Ruth A Hackett, Andrew Steptoe
People with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) show dysregulated inflammatory responses to acute stress, but the effect of sex on inflammatory responses in T2D remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in interleukin (IL)-6 stress responses between older men and women with T2D. One hundred and twenty-one people (76 men; mean age = 64.09, SD = 7.35, 45 women; mean age = 63.20, SD = 6.70) with doctor-verified T2D took part in this laboratory-based stress testing study. Participants carried out acute mental stress tasks, and blood was sampled at baseline, immediately poststress, 45 min poststress, and 75 min poststress to detect plasma IL-6 concentrations...
January 22, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663061/attention-to-a-threat-related-feature-does-not-interfere-with-concurrent-attentive-feature-selection
#11
Maeve R Boylan, Mia N Kelly, Nina N Thigpen, Andreas Keil
Visual features associated with a task and those that predict noxious events both prompt selectively heightened visuocortical responses. Conflicting views exist regarding how the competition between a task-related and a threat-related feature is resolved when they co-occur in time and space. Utilizing aversive classical Pavlovian conditioning, we investigated the visuocortical representation of two simultaneously presented, fully overlapping visual stimuli. Isoluminant red and green random dot kinematogram (RDK) stimuli were flickered at distinct tagging frequencies (8...
January 21, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663060/interoception-and-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-in-gambling-disorder
#12
Dawn Kennedy, Caylee-Britt Goshko, W Spencer Murch, Eve H Limbrick-Oldfield, Barnaby D Dunn, Luke Clark
Gambling has longstanding links with excitement and physiological arousal, but prior research has not considered (a) gamblers' ability to detect internal physiological signals, or (b) markers of parasympathetic functioning. The present study measured interoception in individuals with gambling disorder, using self-report measures and a heartbeat counting task administered at rest. Resting state respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of heart rate variability, was measured as a proxy for parasympathetic control and emotional regulation capacity...
January 21, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657602/syllables-constitute-proximate-units-for-mandarin-speakers-electrophysiological-evidence-from-a-masked-priming-task
#13
Qingfang Zhang, Markus F Damian
Languages may differ regarding the primary mental unit of phonological encoding in spoken production, with models of speakers of Indo-European languages generally assuming a central role for phonemes, but spoken Chinese production potentially attributing a more prominent role to syllables. In the present study, native Mandarin Chinese speakers named objects that were preceded by briefly presented and masked prime words, which were form related and either matched or mismatched concerning their syllabic structure, or were unrelated...
January 18, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657186/caffeine-affects-children-s-erps-and-performance-in-an-equiprobable-go-no-go-task-testing-a-processing-schema
#14
Robert J Barry, Frances M De Blasio, Jack S Fogarty
Caffeine's stimulant properties were used to test a proposed processing schema for children's processing stages in the equiprobable auditory go/no-go task. Active control-related ERP components were hypothesized to be differentially enhanced by caffeine. Caffeine (80 mg) was administered in a counterbalanced, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of 24 children, aged 8-12 years. Four blocks of an equiprobable auditory go/no-go task were completed on each of two occasions, while on or off caffeine...
January 18, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657185/out-and-about-subsequent-memory-effect-captured-in-a-natural-outdoor-environment-with-smartphone-eeg
#15
Maria Piñeyro Salvidegoitia, Nadine Jacobsen, Anna-Katharina R Bauer, Benjamin Griffiths, Simon Hanslmayr, Stefan Debener
Spatiotemporal context plays an important role in episodic memory. While temporal context effects have been frequently studied in the laboratory, ecologically valid spatial context manipulations are difficult to implement in stationary conditions. We investigated whether the neural correlates of successful encoding (subsequent memory effect) can be captured in a real-world environment. An off-the-shelf Android smartphone was used for wireless mobile EEG acquisition and stimulus presentation. Participants encoded single words, each of which was presented at a different location on a university campus...
January 18, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657176/cluster-based-permutation-tests-of-meg-eeg-data-do-not-establish-significance-of-effect-latency-or-location
#16
Jona Sassenhagen, Dejan Draschkow
Cluster-based permutation tests are gaining an almost universal acceptance as inferential procedures in cognitive neuroscience. They elegantly handle the multiple comparisons problem in high-dimensional magnetoencephalographic and EEG data. Unfortunately, the power of this procedure comes hand in hand with the allure for unwarranted interpretations of the inferential output, the most prominent of which is the overestimation of the temporal, spatial, and frequency precision of statistical claims. This leads researchers to statements about the onset or offset of a certain effect that is not supported by the permutation test...
January 18, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30653666/effects-of-emotions-on-heart-rate-asymmetry
#17
Lukasz D Kaczmarek, Maciej Behnke, Jolanta Enko, Michał Kosakowski, Brian M Hughes, Jaroslaw Piskorski, Przemysław Guzik
Heart rate asymmetry (HRA) is an index that accounts for an uneven contribution of decelerations and accelerations to the heart rate variability (HRV). Clinical studies indicated that HRA measures have additive clinical value over the more frequently used HRV indexes. Despite the abundance of studies on psychological influences on HRV, little is known whether psychological factors influence HRA. Based on previous research regarding HRA and stress, we expected that negative emotions compared to positive emotions would decrease the contribution of decelerations to HRV...
January 17, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30637763/oscillatory-brain-activity-during-acute-exercise-tonic-and-transient-neural-response-to-an-oddball-task
#18
Luis F Ciria, Antonio Luque-Casado, Daniel Sanabria, Darías Holgado, Plamen Ch Ivanov, Pandelis Perakakis
Intense physical exercise exerts measurable changes at various physiological levels that are well documented in the literature. However, despite the key role of the brain in processing inputs from internal organ systems and the external environment to coordinate and optimize behavior, little is known about brain dynamics during exercise. The present study investigates tonic and transient oscillatory brain activity in a group of participants performing an oddball task during a single bout of aerobic exercise...
January 13, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30629298/do-body-related-sensations-make-feel-us-better-subjective-well-being-is-associated-only-with-the-subjective-aspect-of-interoception
#19
Eszter Ferentzi, Áron Horváth, Ferenc Köteles
According to the proposition of several theoretical accounts, the perception of the bodily cues, interoceptive accuracy and interoceptive sensibility, has a significant positive impact on subjective well-being. Others assume a negative association; however, empirical evidence is scarce. In this study, 142 young adults completed questionnaires assessing subjective well-being, interoceptive sensibility, and subjective somatic symptoms and participated in measurements of proprioceptive accuracy (reproduction of the angle of the elbow joint), gastric sensitivity (water load test), and heartbeat tracking ability (Schandry task)...
January 10, 2019: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30628097/do-emojis-influence-social-interactions-neural-and-behavioral-responses-to-affective-emojis-in-bargaining-situations
#20
Martin Weiß, Julian Gutzeit, Johannes Rodrigues, Patrick Mussel, Johannes Hewig
Emojis are nowadays a common substitute for real facial expressions to integrate emotions in social interaction. In certain contexts, emojis possibly could also transport information beyond emotions, reflecting interindividual differences or social aspects. In this study, we investigated the influence of emojis as socioemotional feedback stimuli on behavior and neural responses in a social decision game. We modified the Ultimatum Game by including emotional feedback provided by the proposer as response to the decision of the participant as receiver...
January 10, 2019: Psychophysiology
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