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Journal of Anatomy

Makram E Aljghami, Marc G Jeschke, Saeid Amini-Nik
Severe cutaneous wounds expose the body to the external environment, which may lead to impairments in bodily functions and increased risk of infection. There is a need to develop skin substitutes which could effectively promote complete skin regeneration following an injury. Murine models are used to test such skin substitutes, but their healing involves contraction of the dermis not found in human wounds. We have previously described a device called a dome, which comes in two models, that is used to prevent skin contraction in mice...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Benedikt Sagl, Martina Schmid-Schwap, Eva Piehslinger, Claudia Kronnerwetter, Michael Kundi, Siegfried Trattnig, Ian Stavness
Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are common dysfunctions of the masticatory region and are often linked to dislocation or changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for TMJ imaging but standard clinical sequences do not deliver a sufficient resolution and contrast for the creation of detailed meshes of the TMJ disc. Additionally, bony structures cannot be captured appropriately using standard MRI sequences due to their low signal intensity...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Luisa C Pusch, Christian F Kammerer, Jörg Fröbisch
The cranial anatomy of the early non-mammalian cynodont Galesaurus planiceps from the South African Karoo Basin is redescribed on the basis of a computed tomographic reconstruction of the skull. Previously, little was known about internal skull morphology and the nervous and sensory system of this taxon. The endocranial anatomy of various cynodonts has been intensively studied in recent years to understand the origin of mammalian characters in the nasal capsule, brain and ear. However, these studies have focused on only a few taxa, the earliest of which is another Early Triassic cynodont, Thrinaxodon liorhinus...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Guido N Buezas, Federico Becerra, Alejandra I Echeverría, Adrián Cisilino, Aldo I Vassallo
The monophyletic group Caviomorpha constitutes the most diverse rodent clade in terms of locomotion, ecology and diet. Caviomorph species show considerable variation in cranio-mandibular morphology that has been linked to the differences in toughness of dietary items and other behaviors, such as chisel-tooth digging. This work assesses the structural strength of the mandible of three caviomorph species that show remarkable differences in ecology, behavior and bite force: Chinchilla lanigera (a surface-dwelling species), Octodon degus (a semi-fossorial species) and Ctenomys talarum (a subterranean species)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Vipul R Sheth, Pamela Duran, Jonathan Wong, Sameer Shah, Jiang Du, Karen L Christman, Eric Y Chang, Marianna Alperin
Pelvic floor disorders negatively impact millions of women worldwide. Although there is a strong epidemiological association with childbirth, the mechanisms leading to the dysfunction of the integral constituents of the female pelvic floor, including pelvic floor skeletal muscles, are not well understood. This is in part due to the constraints associated with directly probing these muscles, which are located deep in the pelvis. Thus, experimental models and non-invasive techniques are essential for advancing knowledge of various phenotypes of pelvic floor muscle injury and pathogenesis of muscle dysfunction, as well as developing minimally invasive approaches for the delivery of novel therapeutics...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Johann Chretien, Cynthia Y Wang-Claypool, Frank Glaw, Mark D Scherz
The emerging picture of non-monophyly of scolecophidian snakes is increasingly indicative that fossorial lifestyle, myrmecophagous diet, and miniaturisation are powerful drivers of morphological evolution in squamate skulls. We provide a detailed description of the skull of Xenotyphlops grandidieri, with reference to the skulls of other scolecophidian snakes. The skull, which shows dramatic ventral inflection of the snout complex, is remarkably bizarre, and the mouth opening is more ventrally oriented than in other typhlopoids...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Luis Quirós-Terrón, Luis-Alfonso Arráez-Aybar, Jorge Murillo-González, Crótida De-la-Cuadra-Blanco, María-Concepción Martínez-Álvarez, José-Vicente Sanz-Casado, José-Ramón Mérida-Velasco
The aim of this study was to determine the main stages of submandibular salivary gland development during the embryonic period in humans. In addition, we studied submandibular salivary gland development in rats on embryonic days 14-16 and expression in the submandibular salivary gland region with the monoclonal antibody HNK-1. Serial sections from 25 human embryos with a greatest length ranging from 10 to 31 mm (Carnegie stages 16-23; weeks 5.5-8 of development) and Wistar rats of embryonic days (E) 14-16 were analysed with light microscopy...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Mathilde Roger, Nicola Fullard, Lydia Costello, Steven Bradbury, Ewa Markiewicz, Steven O'Reilly, Nicole Darling, Pamela Ritchie, Arto Määttä, Iakowos Karakesisoglou, Glyn Nelson, Thomas von Zglinicki, Teresa Dicolandrea, Robert Isfort, Charles Bascom, Stefan Przyborski
Recreating the structure of human tissues in the laboratory is valuable for fundamental research, testing interventions, and reducing the use of animals. Critical to the use of such technology is the ability to produce tissue models that accurately reproduce the microanatomy of the native tissue. Current artificial cell-based skin systems lack thorough characterisation, are not representative of human skin, and can show variation. In this study, we have developed a novel full thickness model of human skin comprised of epidermal and dermal compartments...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Stefan Washausen, Wolfgang Knabe
In the posterior placodal area (PPA) of C57BL/6N mice and primate-related Tupaia belangeri (Scandentia), apoptosis helps to establish morphologically separated otic and epibranchial placodes. Here, we demonstrate that basically identical patterns of apoptosis pass rostrocaudally through the Pax2+ PPA of chicken embryos. Interplacodal apoptosis eliminates unneeded cells either between the otic anlage and the epibranchial placodes 1, 2 and/or 3, respectively (type A), or between neighbouring epibranchial placodes (type B)...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Suthankamon Khrongyut, Atsara Rawangwong, Atthapon Pidsaya, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Hisatake Kondo, Wiphawi Hipkaeo
Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K), which is composed of three isozymes (α, β and γ), catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2). This phospholipid functions in membrane trafficking, as an anchor for actin cytoskeletons and as a regulator of intramembranous channels/transporters. It is also a precursor of such second messengers as diacylglycerol, inositol triphosphate and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate. In the present study, the expression and localization of endogenous PIP5Ks were examined in the three major salivary glands of young adult mice in situ...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Ratheesraj Ratinam, Michelle Quayle, John Crock, Michelle Lazarus, Quentin Fogg, Paul McMenamin
Three-dimensional (3D) printing, or additive manufacturing, is now a widely used tool in pre-operative planning, surgical teaching and simulator training. However, 3D printing technology that produces models with accurate haptic feedback, biomechanics and visuals for the training surgeon is not currently available. Challenges and opportunities in creating such surgical models will be discussed in this review paper. Surgery requires proper tissue handling as well as knowledge of relevant anatomy. To prepare doctors properly, training models need to take into account the biomechanical properties of the anatomical structures that will be manipulated in any given operation...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Junichiro Yamauchi, Keiji Koyama
The muscle and tendon complex of the foot helps to support the foot arch and generates the muscle force of the foot. The present study investigated the force-generating capacity of the toe flexor muscles and the dynamic function of the foot arch when standing upright, and the relationships between these indices. The maximum toe flexor force and foot arch height in the sitting and standing positions were studied in the left and right feet of 224 healthy young individuals. To measure the maximum isometric force of the toe flexor muscles, the subjects exerted maximum force on a toe grip dynamometer...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Sandra Assis, Anne Keenleyside
Periosteal new bone formation (PNBF) is a common finding in a large spectrum of diseases. In clinical practice, the morphology and location of periosteal lesions are frequently used to assist in the differential diagnosis of distinct bone conditions. Less commonly reported is the presence of PNBF on the ribs. This contrasts with the data retrieved from the study of skeletonized human remains that shows a high frequency of cases and a strong, albeit not specific, association between periosteal rib lesions and pulmonary conditions (e...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Akari Nagata, Shinnosuke Hatta, Xiang Ji, Aoi Ishikawa, Rino Sakamoto, Shigehito Yamada, Hirohiko Imai, Tetsuya Matsuda, Tetsuya Takakuwa
The intestine elongates during the early fetal period, herniates into the extraembryonic coelom, and subsequently returns to the abdominal coelom. The manner of herniation is well-known; however, the process by which the intestinal loop returns to the abdomen is not clear. Thus, the present study was designed to document and measure intestinal movements in the early fetal period in three dimensions to elucidate the intestinal loop return process. Magnetic resonance images from human fetuses whose intestinal loops herniated (herniated phase; n = 5) while returning to the abdominal coelom [transition phase; n = 3, crown-rump length (CRL)] 37, 41, and 43 mm] and those whose intestinal loops returned to the abdominal coelom normally (return phase; n = 12) were selected from the Kyoto Collection...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Robert F Hevner
In developing cerebral cortex, intermediate progenitors (IPs) are transit amplifying cells that specifically express Tbr2 (gene: Eomes), a T-box transcription factor. IPs are derived from radial glia (RG) progenitors, the neural stem cells of developing cortex. In turn, IPs generate glutamatergic projection neurons (PNs) exclusively. IPs are found in ventricular and subventricular zones, where they differentiate as distinct ventricular IP (vIP) and outer IP (oIP) subtypes. Morphologically, IPs have short processes, resembling filopodia or neurites, that transiently contact other cells, most importantly dividing RG cells to mediate Delta-Notch signaling...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Andy Sanderson, Eduardo Martinez-Valdes, Nicola R Heneghan, Carlos Murillo, Alison Rushton, Deborah Falla
This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution and redistribution of lumbar erector spinae (ES) activity during a lumbar extension endurance task in pain-free participants and how this is modified in people with low back pain (LBP). High density surface electromyography (HDEMG) was recorded using 13 × 5 electrode grids placed over the lumbar ES in 13 LBP and 13 control participants while completing an Ito test to task failure. The root mean square of the HDEMG signals was computed, a topographical map of the EMG amplitude generated and the centre of the activity (centroid) determined throughout the task...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Nara Yoon, Vivian Chu, Maree Gould, Ming Zhang
Skeletal muscle has the remarkable capability to regenerate itself following injury. Adult myogenic stem cells (MSCs) are responsible for the repair and regeneration, and their activity is controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the expression levels of Pax3, Pax7, MRF and p38 proteins during the course of regeneration and in different areas of the focal freeze-lesion damaged adult rat TA muscle. Using the focal freeze injury model, immunohistochemistry, laser-capture micro-dissection and Western blot analysis were performed...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Jihane Homman-Ludiye, James A Bourne
The pulvinar is primarily referred to for its role in visual processing. However, the 'visual pulvinar' only encompasses the inferior and lateral regions of this complex thalamic nucleus. The remaining medial portion (medial pulvinar, PM) establishes distinct cortical connectivity and has been associated with directed attention, executive functions and working memory. These functions are particularly impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), both of which have been associated with abnormal PM architecture and connectivity...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Istvan Adorjan, Teadora Tyler, Aparna Bhaduri, Samuel Demharter, Cintia Klaudia Finszter, Maria Bako, Oliver Marcell Sebok, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Konstantin Khodosevich, Kjeld Møllgård, Arnold R Kriegstein, Lei Shi, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Olaf Ansorge, Zoltán Molnár
Neuroserpin is a serine-protease inhibitor mainly expressed in the CNS and involved in the inhibition of the proteolytic cascade. Animal models confirmed its neuroprotective role in perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia and adult stroke. Although neuroserpin may be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of the aforementioned conditions, there is still no information in the literature on its distribution during human brain development. The present study provides a detailed description of the changing spatiotemporal patterns of neuroserpin focusing on physiological human brain development...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Anna Myszka, Anna M Kubicka, Jacek Tomczyk
The aetiology of septal aperture formation is still an open question. The influence of bone robusticity, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and the size and shape of ulnar processes has been discussed. Some researchers have shown that weaker muscles lead to greater joint hypermobility, the impingement of ulnar processes on the humeral lamina, and, consequently, septal aperture formation. Assuming this theory is correct, the question is whether flexion or extension or both play a role in septal lamina perforation...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
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