Adrian Crucean, Diane E Spicer, Justin T Tretter, Timothy J Mohun, Andrew C Cook, Damian Sanchez-Quintana, Jill P J M Hikspoors, Wouter H Lamers, Robert H Anderson
Despite centuries of investigation, certain aspects of left ventricular anatomy remain either controversial or uncertain. We make no claims to have resolved these issues, but our review, based on our current knowledge of development, hopefully identifies the issues requiring further investigation. When first formed, the left ventricle had only inlet and apical components. With the expansion of the atrioventricular canal, the developing ventricle cedes part of its inlet to the right ventricle whilst retaining the larger parts of the cushions dividing the atrioventricular canal...
April 17, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
George R F Murphy, Eleanor Feneck, James Paget, Branavan Sivakumar, Gill Smith, Malcolm P O Logan
Radial dysplasia (RD) is a congenital upper limb birth defect that presents with changes to the upper limb anatomy, including a shortened or absent radius, bowed ulna, thumb malformations, a radially deviated hand and a range of muscle and tendon malformations, including absent or abnormally shaped muscle bundles. Current treatments to address wrist instability caused by a shortened or absent radius frequently require an initial soft tissue distraction intervention followed by a wrist stabilisation procedure...
April 16, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Kelsey M Woldt, R Brandon Pratt, Mark J Statham, Laureen M Barthman-Thompson, Diego Sustaita
The salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) is an endangered species, endemic to the San Francisco Bay Estuary, that co-occurs with the more broadly distributed species, the western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis). Despite their considerable external morphological similarities, the northern subspecies of salt marsh harvest mice have relatively longer and thicker tails than do western harvest mice, which may be related to their abilities to climb emergent marsh vegetation to avoid tidal inundation...
April 13, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Dina Giese, Hao Li, Wei Liu, Karin Staxäng, Monika Hodik, Hanif M Ladak, Sumit Agrawal, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Rudolf Glueckert, Helge Rask-Andersen
Auditory sensitivity and frequency resolution depend on the optimal transfer of sound-induced vibrations from the basilar membrane (BM) to the inner hair cells (IHCs), the principal auditory receptors. There remains a paucity of information on how this is accomplished along the frequency range in the human cochlea. Most of the current knowledge is derived either from animal experiments or human tissue processed after death, offering limited structural preservation and optical resolution. In our study, we analyzed the cytoarchitecture of the human cochlear partition at different frequency locations using high-resolution microscopy of uniquely preserved normal human tissue...
April 13, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Matthew J Mason, Madaleine A Lewis
Although domestic dogs vary considerably in both body size and skull morphology, behavioural audiograms have previously been found to be similar in breeds as distinct as a Chihuahua and a St Bernard. In this study, we created micro-CT reconstructions of the middle ears and bony labyrinths from the skulls of 17 dog breeds, including both Chihuahua and St Bernard, plus a mongrel and a wolf. From these reconstructions, we measured middle ear cavity and ossicular volumes, eardrum and stapes footplate areas and bony labyrinth volumes...
April 11, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Masahiro Tsutsumi, Akimoto Nimura, Hajime Utsunomiya, Shintarou Kudo, Keiichi Akita
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), characterized by a pathological contact between the proximal femur and acetabulum, is a common precursor of hip osteoarthritis. Cam morphology is a bony prominence that causes FAI and frequently forms on the anterosuperior femoral head-neck junction. Despite anatomical consensus regarding the femoral head-neck junction as a boundary area covered by the articular cartilage and joint capsule, it remains unclear whether the joint capsule is continuous with the anterosuperior articular cartilage...
April 8, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Magdalena Kowalska, Paweł Kaczmarek, Weronika Rupik
This study investigated the pancreas differentiation of two species of gekkotan families-the mourning gecko Lepidodactylus lugubris (Gekkonidae) and the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius (Eublepharidae)-based on two-dimensional (2D) histological samples and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the position of the pancreatic buds and the surrounding organs. The results showed that at the moment of egg laying, the pancreas of L. lugubris is composed of three distinct primordia: one dorsal and two ventral...
April 6, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
David D Lam, Neel V Hegde, Divya D Patel, Daniel L Lakeland, Nicholas Guardino, Amit Kochhar, Francesca V Mariani
Cartilage is a strong and flexible connective tissue that has many forms and functions in our body. While cartilage exhibits some forms of limited repair, for the most part, it is not particularly regenerative. Thus, in situations where patients require cartilage reconstruction, surgeons may use autografts to replace missing or damaged tissue. Cartilage tissues from different regions of the body exhibit histological differences and are in limited supply. Thus, it is important to characterize these differences to determine the most appropriate autograft source...
April 4, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Susan W Herring, Katherine L Rafferty, David U Shin, Kelsey Smith, Michael C Baldwin
Yucatan miniature pigs, often used as large animal models in clinical research, are distinguished by a breed-specific midfacial hypoplasia with anterior crossbite. Although this deformity can be corrected by distraction osteogenesis, a less invasive method is desirable. We chose a mechanical cyclic stimulation protocol that has been successful in enhancing sutural growth in small animals and in a pilot study on standard pigs. Yucatan minipigs (n = 14) were obtained in pairs, with one of each pair randomly assigned to sham or loaded groups...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Cyril Etienne, Alexandra Houssaye, Michael J Fagan, John R Hutchinson
Heavy animals incur large forces on their limb bones, due to the transmission of body weight and ground reaction forces, and the contractions of the various muscles of the limbs. This is particularly true for rhinoceroses, the heaviest extant animals capable of galloping. Several studies have examined their musculoskeletal system and the forces their bones incur, but no detailed quantification has ever been attempted. Such quantification could help understand better the link between form and function in giant land animals...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Babatunde A Ayodele, Fatemeh Malekipour, Charles N Pagel, Eleanor J Mackie, R Chris Whitton
Bone microdamage is common at subchondral bone (SCB) sites subjected to repeated high rate and magnitude of loading in the limbs of athletic animals and humans. Microdamage can affect the biomechanical behaviour of bone under physiological loading conditions. To understand the effects of microdamage on the mechanical properties of SCB, it is important to be able to quantify it. The extent of SCB microdamage had been previously estimated qualitatively using plain microcomputed tomography (μCT) and a radiocontrast quantification method has been used for trabecular bone but this method may not be directly applicable to SCB due to differences in bone structure...
March 13, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Yuzuki Sugiyama, Satoru Muro, Daisuke Ban, Keiichi Akita
The fascia of the pancreatic head is referred to as the retropancreatic fascia of Treitz, and that of the body and tail of the pancreas is named the retropancreatic fascia of Toldt. However, the spatial relationship between the nerves, fascia, and the distribution of the fascia on the dorsal side of the pancreas remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the distribution of these fasciae and elucidate the spatial relationship between the nerves and arteries connecting the retroperitoneal space and the peritoneal organs by studying eight cadavers using macroscopic anatomical examination, wide-range serial sectioning, and three-dimensional reconstruction...
March 7, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Georgi P Georgiev, R Shane Tubbs
We read with great interest the article by Weninger et al. (2023) on the presence of the axillary arch (AA) (of Langer) found during anatomical dissections-"Axillary arch (of Langer): A large-scale dissection and simulation study based on unembalmed cadavers of body donors." The authors performed their study using 400 axillae from 200 unembalmed cadavers; they identified this variant muscle in 27 axillae of 18 cadavers. Weninger et al. (2023) described the muscular AA in 15 cases; AA was composed of connective tissue in six cases, and AA comprised muscular and connective tissue in six cadavers...
March 6, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Tea Maho, Sigi Maho, Joseph J Bevitt, Robert R Reisz
Paleozoic synapsids represent the first chapter in the evolution of this large clade that includes mammals. These fascinating terrestrial vertebrates were the first amniotes to successfully adapt to a wide range of feeding strategies, reflected by their varied dental morphologies. Evolution of the marginal dentition on the mammalian side of amniotes is characterized by strong, size and shape heterodonty, with the late Permian therapsids showing heterodonty with the presence of incisiform, caniniform, and multicuspid molariform dentition...
March 2, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Aleksandar Urošević, Sanja Budečević, Katarina Ljubisavljević, Nataša Tomašević Kolarov, Maja Ajduković
The modular organization of tetrapod paired limbs and girdles, influenced by the expression of Hox genes is one of the primary driving forces of the evolution of animal locomotion. The increased morphological diversification of the paired limbs is correlated with reduced between-limb covariation, while correlation within the elements is usually higher than between the elements. The tailed amphibians, such as Lissotriton newts, have a biphasic lifestyle with aquatic and terrestrial environments imposing different constraints on limb skeleton...
March 2, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Julio De Las Heras, Clara Simón de Blas, Guillermo José Salaberri, Ioannis Krompas, Lukasz Olewnik, Sara Quinones, Marc García-Elías, José Ramón Sanudo, Paloma Aragonés
The flexor tendon pulleys in the fingers of the hand are fibrous structures of variable size, shape, and thickness that cover the synovial sheath of these tendons. Despite their clinical relevance, their arrangement and configuration in each of the triphalangeal fingers have been little studied and with small sample sizes. 192 triphalangeal fingers belonging to 48 fresh body donors' hands were dissected. Multivariate analysis was carried out. Twenty-five cases (52%) were left hands, and 26 of the 48 hands belonged to female donors (54...
February 28, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Qazi Waheed-Ullah, Anna Wilsdon, Aseel Abbad, Sophie Rochette, Frances Bu'Lock, Marc-Phillip Hitz, Gregor Dombrowsky, Friederike Cuello, J David Brook, Siobhan Loughna
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common congenital anomaly, with an overall incidence of approximately 1% in the United Kingdom. Exome sequencing in large CHD cohorts has been performed to provide insights into the genetic aetiology of CHD. This includes a study of 1891 probands by our group in collaboration with others, which identified three novel genes-CDK13, PRKD1, and CHD4, in patients with syndromic CHD. PRKD1 encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is important in a variety of fundamental cellular functions...
February 28, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Sena Aksel, Amber Derpinghaus, Mei Cao, Yi Li, Gerald Cunha, Laurence Baskin
The human penile and clitoral development begins from a morphologically indifferent genital tubercle. Under the influence of androgen, the genital tubercle forms the penis by forming a tubular urethra within the penile shaft. Without the effect of the androgen, the genital tubercle differentiates into the clitoris, and a lack of formation of the urethra within the clitoris is observed. Even though there are similarities during the development of the glans penis and glans clitoris, the complex canalization occurring along the penile shaft eventually leads to a morphological difference between the penis and clitoris...
February 28, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
Meir M Barak, James Schlott, Laura Gundersen, Giovanni Diaz, Vanessa Rhee, Naomi Villoth, Alexandra Ferber, Salvatore Blair
The vertebral column, a defining trait of all vertebrates, is organized as a concatenated chain of vertebrae, and therefore its support to the body depends on individual vertebral morphology. Consequently, studying the morphology of the vertebral centrum is of anatomical and clinical importance. Grass carp (GC) is a member of the infraclass Teleostei (teleost fish), which accounts for the majority of all vertebrate species; thus, its vertebral anatomical structure can help us understand vertebrate development and vertebral morphology...
February 28, 2024: Journal of Anatomy
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