S D Arnette, L E Simonitis, J P Egan, K E Cohen, M A Kolmann
Gut morphology frequently reflects the food organisms digest. Gizzards are organs of the gut found in archosaurs and fishes that mechanically reduce food to aid digestion. Gizzards are thought to compensate for edentulism and/or provide an advantage when consuming small, tough food items (e.g., phytoplankton and algae). It is unknown how widespread gizzards are in fishes and how similar these structures are among different lineages. Here, we investigate the distribution of gizzards across bony fishes to (1) survey different fishes for gizzard presence, (2) compare the histological structure of gizzards in three species, (3) estimate how often gizzards have evolved in fishes, and (4) explore whether anatomical and ecological traits like edentulism and microphagy predict gizzard presence...
September 28, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Marcin Mostowy, Tomasz Puzio, Katarzyna Matera, Michał Kozieł, Jakub Stanek, Michalina Bawor, Piotr Grzelak, Marcin E Domżalski
The first aim of this study was to compare the medial patellofemoral length between contracted and relaxed quadriceps muscle and second to assess the importance of the intermeshed vastus medialis oblique fibers. After a priori power analysis (α = 0.05, power [1-β] = 0.95), 35 healthy males aged 18-30 were prospectively examined with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner in 10-15° of knee flexion. Two axial MRI sequences (25 s each) were made with relaxed and contracted quadriceps...
September 22, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Alexey Tsessarsky
Sturgeons belong to the family Acipenseridae, the most species-rich extant family of Acipenseriformes, a basal actinopterygian group of key importance in assessing the early radiations of the actinopterygians. At the same time, acipenseriforms display unique specializations in the morphology of the snout and jaws which make them a valuable model for studying evolutionary novelties. However, despite a long history of research, the homologies of the snout and the mandibular arch of acipenseriforms remain uncertain preventing further studies on the evolutionary origin of their unique snout and jaw structure, and in particular, of the upper jaw symphysis, the key apomorphy of the group and the preoral snout...
September 22, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Ornella C Bertrand, Marina Jiménez Lao, Sarah L Shelley, John R Wible, Thomas E Williamson, Jin Meng, Stephen L Brusatte
After successfully diversifying during the Paleocene, the descendants of the first wave of mammals that survived the end-Cretaceous mass extinction waned throughout the Eocene. Competition with modern crown clades and intense climate fluctuations may have been part of the factors leading to the extinction of these archaic groups. Why these taxa went extinct has rarely been studied from the perspective of the nervous system. Here, we describe the first virtual endocasts for the archaic order Tillodontia. Three species from the middle Eocene of North America were analyzed: Trogosus hillsii, Trogosus grangeri, and Trogosus castoridens...
September 18, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Gilles De Cannière
Central olfactory pathways (i.e., projection axons of the mitral and tufted cells), and especially olfactory striae, lack common terminology. This is due to their high degree of intra- and interindividual variability, which has been studied in detail over the past century by Beccari, Mutel, Klass, Erhart, and more recently, by Duque Parra et al. These variations led to some confusion about their number and anatomical arrangement. Recent advances in fiber tractography have enabled the precise in vivo visualization of human olfactory striae and the study of their projections...
September 15, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Christian Max Ziegler, Ferdinand Wagner, Karoline Alleborn, Tobias Geith, Boris Michael Holzapfel, Bernhard Heimkes
The apophyseal growth plate of the greater trochanter, unlike most other growth plates of the human body, exhibits a curved morphology that results in a divergent pattern resembling an open crocodile mouth on plain antero-posterior radiographs. To quantify the angular alignment of the growth plate and to draw conclusions about the function of the muscles surrounding it, we analyzed 57 MRI images of 51 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years and of six adults aged 18-52 years. We measured the angulation of the plate relative to the horizontal plane (AY angle) and the trajectories of the muscles attaching to the greater trochanter of the proximal femur...
September 11, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Jinyu Lin, Haisu Tao, Junfeng Wang, Xinci Li, Zhuangxiong Wang, Chihua Fang, Jian Yang
Anatomical variations of the right hepatic vein, especially large variant right hepatic veins (≥5 mm), have important clinical implications in liver transplantation and resection. This study aimed to evaluate anatomical variations of the right hepatic vein using quantitative three-dimensional visualization analysis. Computed tomography images of 650 patients were retrospectively analyzed, and three-dimensional visualization was applied using the derived data to analyze large variant right hepatic veins...
September 9, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Erica Gummery, Miren Singh, Sarah B Channon
Anatomy forms a key component of veterinary curricula, but, in the context of an evolving profession, curricula are adapting and changing accordingly. There is a lack of guidance for educators regarding the levels of anatomical knowledge required for a graduate to be considered safe or competent. A formal review of veterinary anatomy learning outcomes (LOs) is therefore timely to support curriculum development in this rapidly evolving field. This study aimed to create a set of LOs which reflect the recommended core requirements for a new graduate veterinarian...
September 4, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Fenna Walhain, Marlies Declerck, Ruby Chin A Fat, Lynn Bar-On, Anja Van Campenhout, Kaat Desloovere
Muscle ultrasonography is frequently used to improve the understanding of musculoskeletal impairments in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP). So far, most studies on muscle morphology and architecture have included typically developing children and children with SCP with similar ancestry, being mainly Caucasian. Less is known about differences in muscle morphology between children with different ancestral backgrounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare muscle morphology and architecture of the medial gastrocnemius in typically developing children with African, South Asian and Southeast Asian descent from Suriname...
August 30, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Szilvia Kugler, Anna-Mária Tőkés, Nándor Nagy, Attila Fintha, Krisztina Danics, Márton Sághi, Klára Törő, Gergely Rácz, Ágnes Nemeskéri
Myocardial sleeve around human pulmonary veins plays a critical role in the pathomechanism of atrial fibrillation. Besides the well-known arrhythmogenicity of these veins, there is evidence that myocardial extensions into caval veins and coronary sinus may exhibit similar features. However, studies investigating histologic properties of these structures are limited. We aimed to investigate the immunoreactivity of myocardial sleeves for intermediate filament desmin, which was reported to be more abundant in Purkinje fibers than in ventricular working cardiomyocytes...
August 25, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Sena Fujii, Taiga Muranaka, Jun Matsubayashi, Shigehito Yamada, Akio Yoneyama, Tetsuya Takakuwa
The symmetry of the right and left bronchi, proposed in a previous comparative anatomical study as the basic model of the mammalian bronchial tree, was examined to determine if it applied to the embryonic human bronchial tree. Imaging data of 41 human embryo specimens at Carnegie stages (CS) 16-23 (equivalent to 6-8 weeks after fertilization) belonging to the Kyoto collection were obtained using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. Three-dimensional bronchial trees were then reconstructed from these images...
August 21, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
R F Bennion, E E Maxwell, O Lambert, V Fischer
Marine amniotes have played many crucial roles in ocean ecosystems since the Triassic, including predation at the highest trophic levels. One genus often placed into this guild is the large Early Jurassic neoichthyosaurian Temnodontosaurus, the only post-Triassic ichthyosaurian known with teeth which bear a distinct cutting edge or carina. This taxonomically problematic genus is currently composed of seven species which show a wide variety of skull and tooth morphologies. Here we assess the craniodental disparity in Temnodontosaurus using a series of functionally informative traits...
August 17, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Michal Benes, Tomas Novotny, David Kachlik, Jiri Uhlik, Vojtech Kunc
Although the term articularis cubiti muscle is incorporated in the official anatomical nomenclature, only sparse data about its appearance are available. It is usually described as few fibres originating from the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle and inserting to the capsule of the elbow joint. However, the most recent observations regarding the morphological relations in the posterior elbow region point towards the absence of a well-defined muscle. Therefore, this study was designed to verify the existence of the articularis cubiti muscle in question and to compile more data on the topographical features of the subtricipital area near the posterior aspect of the elbow...
August 11, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Rebecca A G Reid, Catriona Davies, Craig Cunningham
Trabecular bone architecture in the developing skeleton is a widely researched area of bone biomechanics; however, despite its significance in weight-bearing locomotion, the developing talus has received limited examination. This study investigates the talus with the purpose of identifying ontogenetic phases and developmental patterns that contribute to the growing understanding of the developing juvenile skeleton. Colour gradient mapping and radiographic absorptiometry were utilised to investigate 62 human tali from 38 individuals, ranging in age-at-death from 28 weeks intrauterine to 20 years of age...
August 9, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Narumi Fukui, Toru Kanahashi, Jun Matsubayashi, Hirohiko Imai, Akio Yoneyama, Hiroki Otani, Shigehito Yamada, Tetsuya Takakuwa
The left atrium wall has several origins, including the body, appendage, septum, atrial-ventricular canal, posterior wall, and venous component. Here, we describe the morphogenesis of left atrium based on high-resolution imaging (phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging). Twenty-three human embryos and 19 fetuses were selected for this study. Three-dimensional cardiac images were reconstructed, and the pulmonary veins and left atrium, including the left atrial appendage, were evaluated morphologically and quantitatively...
August 9, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Myrte M Huijskes, José M Icardo, Bram F Coolen, Bjarke Jensen
Dextrocardia is a rare congenital malformation in humans in which most of the heart mass is positioned in the right hemithorax rather than on the left. The heart itself may be normal and dextrocardia is sometimes diagnosed during non-related explorations. A few reports have documented atypical positions of the cardiac chambers in farmed teleost fish. Here, we report the casual finding of a left-right mirrored heart in an 85 cm long wild-caught spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) with several organ malformations...
August 2, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Sourav Bhattacharjee, Sanjib Kumar Ghosh
Anatomy has always been at the intersection of the socio-cultural and political landscape, where new ideas constantly replace older wisdom. From ancient Egyptians through the Greeks, and then the Romans, finally culminating into the European Renaissance-all the significant eras of human civilisation have left their insignia and distinct marks on the evolution of anatomical practices. Despite its utility as a tool for anatomy pedagogy and research that has proven its worth over millennia, cadaveric dissection has particularly been subject to political and social vicissitudes...
July 31, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Denis A Ponce, Torsten M Scheyer, Ignacio A Cerda, Julia B Desojo
"Rauisuchia" is a non-monophyletic group of quadrupedal and carnivorous pseudosuchians that inhabited the entire world during the Middle-Upper Triassic period (Anisian/Ladinian-Rhaetian). In South America, "rauisuchians" reached the largest sizes among continental carnivores. Despite their important ecological role, some aspects of their palaeobiology have been poorly examined. Here, we study appendicular bones, dorsal ribs and osteoderms of two genera, the Argentinean Fasolasuchus tenax (PVL 3850, holotype) and the Brazilian Prestosuchus chiniquensis (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV) respectively...
July 31, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Carmen A Urban, Lucas J Legendre, Julia A Clarke
Natal down is a feather stage that differs in both form and function from the definitive feathers of adult birds. It has a simpler structure that has been speculated to be similar to the body coverings of non-avian dinosaurs. However, inference of the evolution of natal down has been limited by our understanding of its structural variation in extant birds. Most descriptive work has focused on neognathous birds, limiting our knowledge of the full diversity of feathers in extant taxa. Here, we describe the natal down of a post-hatch ostrich (Struthio camelus) and compare it to that of a post-hatch quail (Coturnix coturnix)...
July 29, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
Kirsten Ferner, Kristin Mahlow
Recent didelphid marsupials resemble the assumed mammalian ancestor and are suitable to inform on the evolution of the mammalian lung. This study uses X-ray computed tomography (μCT) to three-dimensionally reconstruct the bronchial tree of the marsupial Gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) in order to reveal the timeline of morphogenesis during the postnatal period. The development of the bronchial tree was examined in 37 animals from embryonic day 13, during the postnatal period (neonate to 57 days) and in adults...
July 27, 2023: Journal of Anatomy
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