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Journal of Educational Psychology

Laura A Outhwaite, Marc Faulder, Anthea Gulliford, Nicola J Pitchford
Improving provision and raising achievement in early math for young children is of national importance. Child-centered apps offer an opportunity to develop strong foundations in learning math as they deliver one-to-one instruction. Reported here is the first pupil-level randomized control trial in the United Kingdom of interactive math apps designed for early years education, with 389 children aged 4-5 years. The original and rigorous research design disentangled the impact of the math apps as a form of quality math instruction from additional exposure to math...
February 2019: Journal of Educational Psychology
Mercedes Spencer, Richard K Wagner, Yaacov Petscher
The present study examined the reading comprehension and receptive vocabulary skills of children with poor reading comprehension despite adequate decoding using a regression-based matching technique. Participants included five cohorts of children who were identified as typical readers ( N = 70,493 - 75,553) or as children with specific reading comprehension difficulties ( N = 480 - 8,717). Across cohorts, children with specific reading comprehension difficulties exhibited oral language difficulties based on a measure of vocabulary; however, the observed weakness in vocabulary was not as severe as their reading comprehension difficulties...
January 2019: Journal of Educational Psychology
Jan N Hughes, Stephen G West, Hanjoe Kim, Shelby S Bauer
This 14 year prospective study investigated the effect of retention in grades 1-5 on high school completion (diploma, GED, or drop out). Participants were 734 (52.7% males) ethnically diverse, academically at-risk students recruited from Texas schools into the study when they were in first grade (mean age = 6.57). Propensity score weighting successfully equated the 256 retained students and the 478 students continuously promoted students on 65 covariates assessed in grade 1. At the end of 14 years, 477 had earned a diploma, 21 had obtained a GED, 110 had dropped out, and 126 were missing school completion status...
October 2018: Journal of Educational Psychology
Lisa Linnenbrink-Garcia, Stephanie V Wormington, Kate E Snyder, Jan Riggsbee, Tony Perez, Adar Ben-Eliyahu, Nancy E Hill
Two studies were conducted with distinct samples to investigate how motivational beliefs cohere and function together (i.e., motivational profiles) and predict academic adjustment. Integrating across motivational theories, participants ( N Study 1 = 160 upper elementary students; N Study 2 = 325 college students) reported on multiple types of motivation (achievement goals, task value, perceived competence) for schooling more generally (Study 1) and in science (Study 2). Three profiles characterized by Moderate-High All, Intrinsic and Confident, and Average All motivation were identified in both studies...
October 2018: Journal of Educational Psychology
Elizabeth A Canning, Judith M Harackiewicz, Stacy J Priniski, Cameron A Hecht, Yoi Tibbetts, Janet S Hyde
One way to encourage performance and persistence in STEM fields is to have students write about the utility value (UV) or personal relevance of course topics to their life. This intervention has been shown to increase engagement and performance in introductory courses. However, questions remain about the longevity of the effects and how best to implement the intervention in terms of dosage and timing. We tested a UV intervention in the first semester of a two-semester introductory biology sequence. For each of three units across the semester, students (N = 577) were randomly assigned to receive either a UV writing assignment, in which they explained why course material was useful to them personally, or a control assignment, in which they summarized course material...
August 2018: Journal of Educational Psychology
Maciel M Hernández, Nancy Eisenberg, Carlos Valiente, Marilyn S Thompson, Tracy L Spinrad, Kevin J Grimm, Sarah K VanSchyndel, Rebecca H Berger, Kassondra M Silva, Armando A Pina, Jody Southworth, Diana E Gal
We examined individual trajectories, across four time points, of children's ( N = 301) expression of negative emotion in classroom settings and whether these trajectories predicted their observed school engagement, teacher-reported academic skills, and passage comprehension assessed with a standardized measure in first grade. In latent growth curve analyses, negative expressivity declined from kindergarten to first grade with significant individual differences in trajectories. Negative expressivity in kindergarten inversely predicted first grade school engagement and teacher-reported academic skills, and the slope of negative expressivity from kindergarten to first grade inversely predicted school engagement (e...
April 2018: Journal of Educational Psychology
Katherine T Rhodes, Lee Branum-Martin, Julie A Washington, Lynn S Fuchs
Using multitrait, multimethod data, and confirmatory factor analysis, the current study examined the effects of arithmetic item formatting and the possibility that across formats, abilities other than arithmetic may contribute to children's answers. Measurement hypotheses were guided by several leading theories of arithmetic cognition. With a sample of 1314 3rd grade students (age M=103.24 months, SD=5.41 months), Abstract Code Theory, Encoding Complex Theory, Triple Code Theory, and the Exact versus Approximate Calculations Hypothesis were evaluated, using 11 measures of arithmetic with symbolic problem formats (e...
October 2017: Journal of Educational Psychology
J Marc Goodrich, Christopher J Lonigan
According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying proficiency model for the early literacy skills of Spanish-speaking language-minority children using confirmatory factor analysis. Eight hundred fifty-eight Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers (mean age = 60...
August 2017: Journal of Educational Psychology
Katerina Schenke, Tutrang Nguyen, Tyler W Watts, Julie H Sarama, Douglas H Clements
We examined whether African American students differentially responded to dimensions of the observed classroom-learning environment compared with non-African American students. Further, we examined whether these dimensions of the classroom mediated treatment effects of a preschool mathematics intervention targeted at students from low-income families. Three observed dimensions of the classroom (teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness; teacher confidence and enthusiasm; and support for mathematical discourse) were evaluated in a sample of 1,238 preschool students in 101 classrooms...
August 2017: Journal of Educational Psychology
David C Geary, Alan Nicholas, Yaoran Li, Jianguo Sun
The contributions of domain-general abilities and domain-specific knowledge to subsequent mathematics achievement were longitudinally assessed ( n = 167) through 8th grade. First grade intelligence and working memory and prior grade reading achievement indexed domain-general effects and domain-specific effects were indexed by prior grade mathematics achievement and mathematical cognition measures of prior grade number knowledge, addition skills, and fraction knowledge. Use of functional data analysis enabled grade-by-grade estimation of overall domain-general and domain-specific effects on subsequent mathematics achievement, the relative importance of individual domain-general and domain-specific variables on this achievement, and linear and non-linear across-grade estimates of these effects...
July 2017: Journal of Educational Psychology
Jennifer Dombek, Elizabeth C Crowe, Mercedes Spencer, Elizabeth L Tighe, Sean Coffinger, Elham Zargar, Taffeta Wood, Yaacov Petscher
With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed Content Area Literacy Instruction (CALI), as an individualized (or personalized) instructional program for kindergarteners through fourth graders to build science and social studies knowledge. We developed CALI to be implemented in general education classrooms, over multiple iterations (n=230 students), using principles of design-based implementation research...
April 2017: Journal of Educational Psychology
Paul Hanselman, Christopher S Rozek, Jeffrey Grigg, Geoffrey D Borman
Brief, targeted self-affirmation writing exercises have recently been offered as a way to reduce racial achievement gaps, but evidence about their effects in educational settings is mixed, leaving ambiguity about the likely benefits of these strategies if implemented broadly. A key limitation in interpreting these mixed results is that they come from studies conducted by different research teams with different procedures in different settings; it is therefore impossible to isolate whether different effects are the result of theorized heterogeneity, unidentified moderators, or idiosyncratic features of the different studies...
April 2017: Journal of Educational Psychology
Young-Suk Grace Kim, Christopher Schatschneider
We investigated direct and indirect effects of component skills on writing (DIEW) using data from 193 children in Grade 1. In this model, working memory was hypothesized to be a foundational cognitive ability for language and cognitive skills as well as transcription skills, which, in turn, contribute to writing. Foundational oral language skills (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) and higher-order cognitive skills (inference and theory of mind) were hypothesized to be component skills of text generation (i...
2017: Journal of Educational Psychology
Jeremy Miciak, Jacob L Williams, W Pat Taylor, Paul T Cirino, Jack M Fletcher, Sharon Vaughn
OBJECTIVE: No previous empirical study has investigated whether the LD identification decisions of proposed methods to operationalize processing strengths and weaknesses (PSW) approaches for LD identification are associated with differential treatment response. We investigated whether the identification decisions of the concordance/discordance model (C/DM; Hale & Fiorello, 2004) and Cross Battery Assessment approach (XBA method; Flanagan, Ortiz, & Alfonso, 2007) were consistent and whether they predicted intervention response beyond that accounted for by pretest performance on measures of reading...
August 2016: Journal of Educational Psychology
David S Yeager, Carissa Romero, Dave Paunesku, Christopher S Hulleman, Barbara Schneider, Cintia Hinojosa, Hae Yeon Lee, Joseph O'Brien, Kate Flint, Alice Roberts, Jill Trott, Daniel Greene, Gregory M Walton, Carol S Dweck
There are many promising psychological interventions on the horizon, but there is no clear methodology for preparing them to be scaled up. Drawing on design thinking, the present research formalizes a methodology for redesigning and tailoring initial interventions. We test the methodology using the case of fixed versus growth mindsets during the transition to high school. Qualitative inquiry and rapid, iterative, randomized "A/B" experiments were conducted with ~3,000 participants to inform intervention revisions for this population...
April 2016: Journal of Educational Psychology
Angela L Duckworth, Rachel E White, Alyssa J Matteucci, Annie Shearer, James J Gross
A growing body of research indicates that self-control is critical to academic success. Surprisingly little is known, however, about the diverse strategies students use to implement self-control or how well these strategies work. To address these issues, we conducted a naturalistic investigation of self-control strategies (Study 1) and two field experiments (Studies 2 and 3). In Study 1, high school students described the strategies they use to manage interpersonal conflicts, get academic work done, eat healthfully, and manage other everyday self-control challenges...
April 2016: Journal of Educational Psychology
Sara A Hart, Jessica A R Logan, Lee Thompson, Yulia Kovas, Gráinne McLoughlin, Stephen A Petrill
Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated five groupings of individuals representing different patterns of math achievement, numerosity and math anxiety, coupled with differing degrees of familial transmission. These results suggest that there may be distinct profiles of math achievement, numerosity and anxiety; particularly for students who struggle in math...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Educational Psychology
Jessica M Namkung, Lynn S Fuchs
The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive predictors of calculations and number line estimation with whole numbers and fractions. At-risk 4th -grade students ( N = 139) were assessed on 7 domain-general abilities (i.e., working memory, processing speed, concept formation, language, attentive behavior, and nonverbal reasoning) and incoming calculation skill at the start of 4th grade. Then, they were assessed on whole-number and fraction calculation and number line estimation measures at the end of 4th grade...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Educational Psychology
Christopher J Lonigan, Beth M Phillips
Although response-to-instruction (RTI) approaches have received increased attention, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts of RTI approaches with preschool populations. This manuscript presents results of two studies examining impacts of Tier II instruction with preschool children. Participating children were identified as substantially delayed in the acquisition of early literacy skills despite exposure to high-quality, evidence-based classroom instruction. Study 1 included 93 children (M age = 58...
January 2016: Journal of Educational Psychology
Elizabeth R Brown, Jessi L Smith, Dustin B Thoman, Jill M Allen, Gregg Muragishi
Motivating students to pursue science careers is a top priority among many science educators. We add to the growing literature by examining the impact of a utility value intervention to enhance student's perceptions that biomedical science affords important utility work values. Using an expectancy-value perspective we identify and test two types of utility value: communal (other-oriented) and agentic (self-oriented). The culture of science is replete with examples emphasizing high levels of agentic value, but communal values are often (stereotyped as) absent from science...
November 1, 2015: Journal of Educational Psychology
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